List of the most intense tropical cyclones

Last updated
Satellite image of Typhoon Tip, which had the lowest atmospheric pressure measured in a tropical cyclone, at 870 mbar (26 inHg) Tip 1979-10-12.jpg
Satellite image of Typhoon Tip, which had the lowest atmospheric pressure measured in a tropical cyclone, at 870 mbar (26 inHg)

Tropical cyclone intensity is a complex topic. Winds are often used to measure intensity as they commonly cause notable impacts over large areas, and most popular tropical cyclone scales are organized around sustained wind speeds. However, variations in the averaging period of winds in different basins make inter-comparison difficult. In addition, other impacts like rainfall, storm surge, area of wind damages, and tornadoes can vary significantly in storms with similar wind speeds. Pressure is often used to compare tropical cyclones because the measurements are easier to measure and are consistent. Tropical cyclones can attain some of the lowest pressures over large areas on Earth. However, although there is a strong connection between lowered pressures and higher wind speeds, storms with the lowest pressures may not have the highest wind speeds, as each storm's relationship between wind and pressure is slightly different. [1]

Tropical cyclones are unofficially ranked on one of five tropical cyclone intensity scales, according to their maximum sustained winds and which tropical cyclone basin(s) they are located in. Only a few scales of classifications are used officially by the meteorological agencies monitoring the tropical cyclones, but some alternative scales also exist, such as accumulated cyclone energy, the Power Dissipation Index, the Integrated Kinetic Energy Index, and the Hurricane Severity Index.

Contents

In the most recent and reliable records, most tropical cyclones which attained a pressure of 900  hPa (mbar) (26.56  inHg) or less occurred in the Western North Pacific Ocean. The strongest tropical cyclone recorded worldwide, as measured by minimum central pressure, was Typhoon Tip, which reached a pressure of 870 hPa (25.69 inHg) on October 12, 1979. [2] The following list is subdivided by basins. Data listed are provided by the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre, unless otherwise noted. On October 23, 2015, Hurricane Patricia attained the strongest 1-minute sustained winds on record at 215 mph (345 km/h). [3]

Pascal (unit) SI unit of pressure

The pascal is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as one newton per square metre. It is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal.

Bar (unit) non-SI unit of pressure

The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI). It is defined as exactly equal to 100,000 Pa, which is slightly less than the current average atmospheric pressure on Earth at sea level.

Inch of mercury is a unit of measurement for pressure. It is still used for barometric pressure in weather reports, refrigeration and aviation in the United States.

North Atlantic Ocean

Hurricane Allen Aug 7 1980 1730Z.jpg
Hurricane Allen at peak intensity, highest winds in the Atlantic basin
Wilma 2005-10-19 0712Z.jpg
Hurricane Wilma near record strength, lowest pressure in the Atlantic basin

The most intense storm in the North Atlantic by lowest pressure was Hurricane Wilma. The strongest storm by 1-minute sustained winds was Hurricane Allen.

Hurricane Wilma Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in 2005

Hurricane Wilma was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic basin, and the second-most intense tropical cyclone recorded in the Western Hemisphere, after Hurricane Patricia in 2015. Part of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, which included three of the ten most intense Atlantic hurricanes ever, Wilma was the twenty-second storm, thirteenth hurricane, sixth major hurricane, fourth Category 5 hurricane, and the second-most destructive hurricane of the 2005 season. A tropical depression formed in the Caribbean Sea near Jamaica on October 15, headed westward, and intensified into a tropical storm two days later, which abruptly turned southward and was named Wilma. Wilma continued to strengthen, and eventually became a hurricane on October 18. Shortly thereafter, explosive intensification occurred, and in only 24 hours, Wilma became a Category 5 hurricane with wind speeds of 185 mph (298 km/h).

Hurricane Allen Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in 1980

Hurricane Allen was a rare and extremely powerful Cape Verde hurricane that struck the Caribbean, eastern and northern Mexico, and southern Texas in August 1980. The first named storm and first tropical cyclone of the 1980 Atlantic hurricane season, it was one of the strongest hurricanes in recorded history. It was one of the few hurricanes to reach Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale on three separate occasions, and spent more time as a Category 5 than all but two other Atlantic hurricanes. Allen is the only hurricane in the recorded history of the Atlantic basin to achieve sustained winds of 190 mph (305 km/h), thus making it the strongest Atlantic hurricane by wind speed. These were also the highest sustained winds in the Western Hemisphere until Hurricane Patricia in 2015.

Storms which reached a minimum central pressure of 920 hectopascals (27.17 inHg) or less are listed. Storm information has been compiled back to 1851, though measurements were rarer until aircraft reconnaissance started in the 1940s, and inexact estimates were still predominant until dropsondes were implemented in the 1970s. [4]

Hurricane hunters

Hurricane hunters are aircrews that fly into tropical cyclones to gather weather data. In the United States, the organizations that fly these missions are the United States Air Force Reserve's 53d Weather Reconnaissance Squadron and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Hunters. Such missions have also been flown by Navy units and other Air Force and NOAA units.

Dropsonde

A dropsonde is an expendable weather reconnaissance device created by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), designed to be dropped from an aircraft at altitude over water to measure storm conditions as the device falls to the surface. The sonde contains a GPS receiver, along with pressure, temperature, and humidity (PTH) sensors to capture atmospheric profiles and thermodynamic data. It typically relays these data to a computer in the aircraft by radio transmission.

CycloneSeason Peak classification Peak 1-min
sustained winds
Pressure
"Cuba" 1924
Category 5 hurricane
270 km/h (165 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
"Cuba" 1932
Category 5 hurricane
280 km/h (175 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
"Labor Day" 1935
Category 5 hurricane
295 km/h (185 mph)892 hPa (26.34 inHg)
Janet 1955
Category 5 hurricane
280 km/h (175 mph)914 hPa (26.99 inHg)
Hattie 1961
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Camille 1969
Category 5 hurricane
280 km/h (175 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Allen 1980
Category 5 hurricane
305 km/h (190 mph)899 hPa (26.55 inHg)
Gloria 1985
Category 4 hurricane
230 km/h (145 mph)919 hPa (27.14 inHg)
Gilbert 1988
Category 5 hurricane
295 km/h (185 mph)888 hPa (26.22 inHg)
Hugo 1989
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
Opal 1995
Category 4 hurricane
240 km/h (150 mph)916 hPa (27.05 inHg)
Mitch 1998
Category 5 hurricane
285 km/h (180 mph)905 hPa (26.72 inHg)
Isabel 2003
Category 5 hurricane
270 km/h (165 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Ivan 2004
Category 5 hurricane
270 km/h (165 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Katrina 2005
Category 5 hurricane
280 km/h (175 mph)902 hPa (26.64 inHg)
Rita 2005
Category 5 hurricane
285 km/h (180 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Wilma 2005
Category 5 hurricane
295 km/h (185 mph)882 hPa (26.05 inHg)
Dean 2007
Category 5 hurricane
280 km/h (175 mph)905 hPa (26.72 inHg)
Irma 2017
Category 5 hurricane
285 km/h (180 mph)914 hPa (26.99 inHg)
Maria 2017
Category 5 hurricane
280 km/h (175 mph)908 hPa (26.81 inHg)
Michael 2018
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)919 hPa (27.14 inHg)
Source: Atlantic Hurricane Best Track File 1851–2018 (NHC) [5]

See List of Category 5 Atlantic Hurricanes for additional information on strong storms in the Atlantic basin.

See Notable non-tropical pressures over the North Atlantic for intense extratropical low pressure values over the North Atlantic.

Eastern Pacific Ocean

Hurricane Patricia shortly after peak intensity, highest global sustained winds and lowest pressure in the Western Hemisphere Patricia 2015-10-23 1730Z (Worldview).jpg
Hurricane Patricia shortly after peak intensity, highest global sustained winds and lowest pressure in the Western Hemisphere

The most intense storm in the Eastern Pacific Ocean by both sustained winds and central pressure was Hurricane Patricia. Its sustained winds of 345 km/h (215 mph) are also the highest on record globally.

Storms with a minimum central pressure of 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) or less are listed. Storm information was less reliably documented and recorded before 1949, and most storms since are only estimated because landfalls (and related reconnaissance) are less common in this basin. [6]

CycloneSeason Peak classification Peak 1-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Ava 1973
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Annette 1976
Category 4 hurricane
220 km/h (140 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)
Trudy 1990
Category 4 hurricane
250 km/h (155 mph)924 hPa (27.29 inHg)
Gilma 1994
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Olivia 1994
Category 4 hurricane
240 km/h (150 mph)923 hPa (27.26 inHg)
Guillermo 1997
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)919 hPa (27.14 inHg)
Linda 1997
Category 5 hurricane
295 km/h (185 mph)902 hPa (26.64 inHg)
Juliette 2001
Category 4 hurricane
230 km/h (145 mph)923 hPa (27.26 inHg)
Elida 2002
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)921 hPa (27.20 inHg)
Hernan 2002
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)921 hPa (27.20 inHg)
Kenna 2002
Category 5 hurricane
270 km/h (165 mph)913 hPa (26.96 inHg)
Ioke 2006
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Rick 2009
Category 5 hurricane
285 km/h (180 mph)906 hPa (26.75 inHg)
Celia 2010
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)921 hPa (27.20 inHg)
Marie 2014
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
Odile 2014
Category 4 hurricane
220 km/h (140 mph)918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
Patricia 2015
Category 5 hurricane
345 km/h (215 mph)872 hPa (25.75 inHg)
Lane 2018
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)922 hPa (27.23 inHg)
Walaka 2018
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Willa 2018
Category 5 hurricane
260 km/h (160 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)
Source: East Pacific Hurricane Best Track File 1949–2018 (NHC) [7]

See Category 5 Pacific Hurricanes for a full list of category 5 hurricanes in this basin.

Western North Pacific Ocean

Megi 2010-10-18 0235Z.jpg
Typhoon Megi at peak intensity
Haiyan Nov 7 2013 1345Z (Borderless).png
Typhoon Haiyan at peak intensity
Meranti 2016-09-13 0510Z.jpg
Typhoon Meranti at peak intensity

The most intense storm by lowest pressure and peak 10-minute sustained winds was Typhoon Tip, which was also the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded.

Storms with a minimum pressure of 900 hPa (26.58 inHg) or less are listed. Storm information was less reliably documented and recorded before 1950. [6]

CycloneYear Peak classification Peak 10-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Unnamed 1927
Unknown
Not Specified887 hPa (26.19 inHg) [8]
Clara 1950
Typhoon
Not Specified899 hPa (26.55 inHg)
Marge 1951
Typhoon
Not Specified886 hPa (26.16 inHg)
Nina 1953
Typhoon
Not Specified885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Tess 1953
Typhoon
Not Specified900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Ida 1954
Typhoon
Not Specified890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Pamela 1954
Typhoon
Not Specified900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Virginia 1957
Typhoon
Not Specified900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Lola 1957
Typhoon
Not Specified900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Ida 1958
Typhoon
Not Specified877 hPa (25.90 inHg)
Vera 1959
Typhoon
Not Specified895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Joan 1959
Typhoon
Not Specified885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Nancy 1961
Typhoon
Not Specified882 hPa (26.05 inHg)
Violet 1961
Typhoon
Not Specified895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Opal 1962
Typhoon
Not Specified900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Emma 1962
Typhoon
Not Specified890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Karen 1962
Typhoon
Not Specified894 hPa (26.40 inHg)
Sally 1964
Typhoon
Not Specified895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Wilda 1964
Typhoon
Not Specified895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Opal 1964
Typhoon
Not Specified895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Bess 1965
Typhoon
Not Specified900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Kit 1966
Typhoon
Not Specified880 hPa (25.99 inHg)
Carla 1967
Typhoon
Not Specified900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Agnes 1968
Typhoon
Not Specified900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Elsie 1969
Typhoon
Not Specified895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Viola 1969
Typhoon
Not Specified900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Hope 1970
Typhoon
Not Specified900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Amy 1971
Typhoon
Not Specified890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Nadine 1971
Typhoon
Not Specified900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Irma 1971
Typhoon
Not Specified885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Patsy 1973
Typhoon
Not Specified895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Nora 1973
Typhoon
Not Specified877 hPa (25.90 inHg)
Nina 1975
Typhoon
Not Specified900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Elsie 1975
Typhoon
Not Specified900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
June 1975
Typhoon
Not Specified875 hPa (25.84 inHg)
Louise 1976
Typhoon
Not Specified895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Rita 1978
Typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph)880 hPa (25.99 inHg)
Hope 1979
Typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Tip 1979
Typhoon
260 km/h (160 mph)870 hPa (25.69 inHg)
Wynne 1980
Typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph)890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Elsie 1981
Typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Bess 1982
Typhoon
230 km/h (145 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Mac 1982
Typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Abby 1983
Typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Forrest 1983
Typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph)885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Marge 1983
Typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Vanessa 1984
Typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph)880 hPa (25.99 inHg)
Dot 1985
Typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Peggy 1986
Typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Betty 1987
Typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph)890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Holly 1987
Typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Flo 1990
Typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph)890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Ruth 1991
Typhoon
215 km/h (130 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Yuri 1991
Typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Gay 1992
Typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Zeb 1998
Typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Megi 2010
Typhoon
230 km/h (145 mph)885 hPa (26.13 inHg)
Sanba 2012
Typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Haiyan 2013
Typhoon
230 km/h (145 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)
Vongfong 2014
Typhoon
215 km/h (130 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Soudelor 2015
Typhoon
215 km/h (130 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Nepartak 2016
Typhoon
205 km/h (125 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Meranti 2016
Typhoon
220 km/h (140 mph)890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Haima 2016
Typhoon
215 km/h (130 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Kong-rey 2018
Typhoon
215 km/h (130 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Yutu 2018
Typhoon
215 km/h (130 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Source: Western North Pacific Typhoon Best Track File 1951–2019 (JMA) [9]

North Indian Ocean

Satellite image of the cyclone as it made landfall in Odisha Cyclone 05B.jpg
Satellite image of the cyclone as it made landfall in Odisha

The strongest tropical cyclone recorded in the North Indian Ocean is the 1999 Odisha cyclone, with 3-minute sustained winds of 260 km/h (160 mph) and a minimum pressure of 912 hPa (26.93 inHg).

Storms with an intensity of 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) or less are listed. Storm information was less reliably documented and recorded before 1971. [6]

CycloneSeason Peak classification Peak 3-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Two 1963
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
195 km/h (120 mph)947 hPa (27.96 inHg)
Three 1963
Super cyclonic storm
240 km/h (150 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
1977 Andhra Pradesh 1977
Super cyclonic storm
250 km/h (155 mph)919 hPa (27.14 inHg)
Gay 1989
Super cyclonic storm
230 km/h (145 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)
1990 Andhra Pradesh 1990
Super cyclonic storm
230 km/h (145 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
1991 Bangladesh 1991
Super cyclonic storm
240 km/h (150 mph)918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
1994 BOB 02 1994
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
215 km/h (130 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)
1999 Pakistan 1999
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
195 km/h (120 mph)946 hPa (27.94 inHg)
1999 Odisha 1999
Super cyclonic storm
260 km/h (160 mph)912 hPa (26.93 inHg)
2001 India 2001
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
215 km/h (130 mph)932 hPa (27.52 inHg)
Gonu 2007
Super cyclonic storm
240 km/h (150 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Sidr 2007
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
215 km/h (130 mph)944 hPa (27.88 inHg)
Giri 2010
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
195 km/h (120 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)
Phailin 2013
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
215 km/h (130 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)
Hudhud 2014
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
185 km/h (115 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)
Nilofar 2014
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
205 km/h (125 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)
Chapala 2015
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
215 km/h (130 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)
Fani 2019
Extremely severe cyclonic storm
215 km/h (130 mph)937 hPa (27.67 inHg)
Source: Tropical Cyclone Best Track Information for the North Indian Ocean 1990–2018 (IMD) [10]

South-West Indian Ocean

Gafilo 2004-03-06 0655Z.jpg
Cyclone Gafilo shortly before peak intensity
Fantala 2016-04-18 1025Z.jpg
Cyclone Fantala shortly after peak intensity

The most intense tropical cyclone in the South-West Indian Ocean is Cyclone Gafilo. By 10-minute sustained wind speed, the strongest tropical cyclone in the South-West Indian Ocean is Cyclone Fantala.

Storms with an intensity of 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) or less are listed. Storm information was less reliably documented and recorded before 1985. [6]

CycloneSeason Peak classification Peak 10-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Chris-Damia 1981–82
Intense tropical cyclone
210 km/h (130 mph)898 hPa (26.52 inHg) [11]
Geralda 1993–94
Intense tropical cyclone
200 km/h (125 mph)905 hPa (26.72 inHg) [12]
Litanne 1993–94
Intense tropical cyclone
190 km/h (120 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg) [12]
Marlene 1994–95
Intense tropical cyclone
180 km/h (110 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg) [13]
Bonita 1995–96
Intense tropical cyclone
180 km/h (110 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg) [14]
Danielle 1996–97
Intense tropical cyclone
190 km/h (120 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg) [15]
Hudah 1999–2000
Very Intense tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph)905 hPa (26.72 inHg) [16]
Dina 2001–02
Intense tropical cyclone
215 km/h (135 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg) [17]
Guillaume 2001–02
Intense tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg) [17]
Hary 2001–02
Very Intense tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph)905 hPa (26.72 inHg) [17]
Kalunde 2002–03
Intense tropical cyclone
215 km/h (135 mph)905 hPa (26.72 inHg)
Gafilo 2003–04
Very Intense tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg) [18]
Adeline-Juliet 2004–05
Very Intense tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph)905 hPa (26.72 inHg) [19]
Bento 2004–05
Intense tropical cyclone
215 km/h (135 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg) [20]
Carina 2005–06
Intense tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg) [21]
Hondo 2007–08
Intense tropical cyclone
215 km/h (135 mph)906 hPa (26.75 inHg) [22]
Edzani 2009–10
Very Intense tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg) [23]
Bruce 2013–14
Very Intense tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Colin 2013–14
Intense tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Hellen 2013–14
Very Intense tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Bansi 2014–15
Very Intense tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Eunice 2014–15
Very Intense tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Fantala 2015–16
Very Intense tropical cyclone
250 km/h (155 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)

Australian region

Inigo 2003-04-04 0255Z.jpg
Cyclone Inigo near peak intensity
Monica 2006-04-23 0055Z.jpg
Cyclone Monica at peak intensity

The most intense tropical cyclones in the Australian Region are Cyclone Gwenda and Cyclone Inigo. By 10-minute sustained wind speed, the strongest are Cyclone Orson and Cyclone Monica.

Storms with an intensity of 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) or less are listed. Storm information was less reliably documented and recorded before 1985. [6]

CycloneSeason Peak classification Peak 10-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Mahina 1899
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
Unknown880 hPa (25.99 inHg) [nb 1] [24] [25]
Joan 1975–76
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (130 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Amy 1979–80
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (130 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Kathy 1983–84
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
220 km/h (140 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Orson 1988–89
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
240 km/h (150 mph)905 hPa (26.72 inHg)
Graham 1991–92
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (120 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Rewa 1993–94
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Theodore 1993–94
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (120 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Chloe 1994–95
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
220 km/h (140 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Pancho-Helinda 1996–97
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (135 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Thelma 1998–99
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
220 km/h (140 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Vance 1998–99
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (135 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Frederic-Evrina 1998–99
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone
195 km/h (120 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Gwenda 1998–99
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
220 km/h (140 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
John 1999–2000
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (130 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Paul 1999–2000
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (130 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Chris 2001–02
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (130 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Inigo 2002–03
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Fay 2003–04
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
185 km/h (115 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Floyd 2005–06
Category 4 severe tropical cyclone
195 km/h (120 mph)916 hPa (27.05 inHg)
Glenda 2005–06
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Monica 2005–06
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
250 km/h (155 mph)916 hPa (27.05 inHg)
George 2006–07
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph)902 hPa (26.64 inHg)
Marcus 2017–18
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph)912 hPa (26.93 inHg)
Source: Database of past tropical cyclone tracks (BOM) [26]

South Pacific Ocean

Winston 2016-02-20 0130Z (cropped).jpg
Cyclone Winston at peak intensity
Cyclone Zoe 27 dec 2002 2255Z.jpg
Cyclone Zoe at peak intensity

A total of 16 cyclones are listed down below reaching/surpassing that intensity, which most of them occurred during El Niño seasons. Tropical cyclones that have been recorded since the start of the 1969–70 Tropical Cyclone year and have reached their peak intensity to the west of 160E are included in the list. The most intense tropical cyclone in the south Pacific, Cyclone Winston of 2016, is also the most intense storm in the Southern Hemisphere.

Storms with an intensity of 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) or less are listed. Storm information was less reliably documented and recorded before 1985. [6]

CycloneSeason Peak classification Peak 10-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Oscar 1982–83
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Hina 1984–85
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
220 km/h (135 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)
Fran 1991–92
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Ron 1997–98
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Susan 1997–98
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Beni 2002–03
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Dovi 2002–03
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
205 km/h (125 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Erica 2002–03
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (130 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Zoe 2002–03
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
240 km/h (150 mph)890 hPa (26.28 inHg)
Heta 2003–04
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (130 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Meena 2004–05
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (130 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Olaf 2004–05
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (130 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Percy 2004–05
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
230 km/h (145 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)
Ului 2009–10
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
215 km/h (130 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)
Pam 2014–15
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
250 km/h (155 mph)896 hPa (26.46 inHg)
Winston 2015–16
Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
280 km/h (175 mph)884 hPa (26.10 inHg)
Sources: [27]

South Atlantic Ocean

Hurricane Catarina near peak intensity Cyclone Catarina 2004.jpg
Hurricane Catarina near peak intensity

Until recently, it was not known that tropical cyclones could exist in the southern Atlantic. However, Hurricane Catarina in 2004, to date the only hurricane in the south Atlantic, brought additional review. A subsequent study found that there was an average of 1-2 subtropical or tropical cyclones per year in the Southern Atlantic in recent decades. [28] No official database of South Atlantic cyclones exists, but a partial list of notable tropical and subtropical systems is listed.

CycloneSeason Peak classification Peak 1-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Catarina 2004
Category 2 hurricane
155 km/h (100 mph)972 hPa (28.70 inHg)
Anita 2010
Tropical storm
85 km/h (50 mph)995 hPa (29.38 inHg)
Arani 2011
Subtropical storm
85 km/h (50 mph)989 hPa (29.21 inHg)
Bapo 2015
Subtropical storm
65 km/h (40 mph)992 hPa (29.29 inHg)
Cari 2015
Subtropical storm
65 km/h (40 mph)998 hPa (29.47 inHg)
Deni 2016
Subtropical storm
75 km/h (45 mph)998 hPa (29.47 inHg)
Eçaí 2016
Subtropical storm
100 km/h (65 mph)992 hPa (29.29 inHg)
Guará 2017
Subtropical storm
75 km/h (45 mph)996 hPa (29.40 inHg)
Iba 2019
Tropical storm
85 km/h (55 mph)1006 hPa (29.70 inHg)

See also

Notes

  1. Officially listed by the BoM as 914 mbar, pending review.

Related Research Articles

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

Atlantic hurricane tropical cyclone that forms in the North Atlantic Ocean

An Atlantic hurricane or tropical storm is a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean, usually between the months of June and November. A hurricane differs from a cyclone or typhoon only on the basis of location. A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a cyclone occurs in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean.

South-West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone type of tropical cyclone located in South West Indian Ocean and measured by Météo-France La Reunion scale

In the south-west Indian Ocean, tropical cyclones form south of the equator and west of 90° E to the coast of Africa.

1995–96 Australian region cyclone season cyclone season in the Australian region

The 1995–96 Australian region cyclone season was an active Australian cyclone season, with Western Australia experiencing a record number of landfalling intense storms in the Pilbara region. The season produced a total of 19 tropical cyclones, of which 14 developed into named storms and 9 reached severe tropical cyclone status. The strongest of the season was Severe Tropical Cyclone Olivia, which also produced the highest recorded wind gust on record of 408 km/h (253 mph). Though several systems impacted land, the general sparsity of population centres in Australia limits the scale of damage. One person was confirmed to have been killed and cumulative losses were estimated at A$77 million (US$58.5 million).

2009–10 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 2009–10 South-West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone year was a near average event in tropical cyclone formation. the season officially started on July 1, 2009, and ended on June 30, 2010, after incorporating the tropical cyclone season which ran from November 1 to April 30 for all areas except for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2010. In this basin which officially runs from 30 to 90E and is to the south of the equator, the main warning center is the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center on La Reunion Island; however they delegate the naming of Cyclones to the Meteorological services of Mauritius and Madagascar.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to tropical cyclones:

1980–81 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season cyclone season in the South-West Indian ocean

The 1980–81 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was an average cyclone season.

Tropical cyclones of 2010 were spread across seven oceanic basins in their respective seasons; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Typhoon Megi, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 885 mbar before striking the east coast of Luzon in the Philippines. Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers (RSMC) and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWC) designated names to 70 systems worldwide, of which 46 occurred in the northern hemisphere while 21 developed in the southern hemisphere. The most active basin in 2010 was the North Atlantic, which documented 19 named systems, while the North Indian Ocean, despite only amounting to five named systems, was its basin's most active since 1998. Conversely, both the West Pacific typhoon and East Pacific hurricane seasons experienced the least number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 14 and 8, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece. That hemisphere's strongest tropical cyclone was Cyclone Edzani, which bottomed out with a barometric pressure of 910 mbar in the South-West Indian Ocean.

2013–14 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2013–14 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was an above average event in tropical cyclone formation. The season officially began on July 1, 2013, though the first tropical system designated by Météo-France was a short-lived tropical disturbance that developed on July 8. However, the first named storm was Cyclone Amara in December. Bruce was the first very intense tropical cyclone since Edzani in 2010, which originated from the Australian region. The strongest system of the cyclone season was Hellen, also one of the most intense tropical cyclones over the Mozambique Channel. The season officially ended on June 30, 2014

2015–16 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2015–16 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a slightly below average event in tropical cyclone formation. The annual cyclone season began on November 15, 2015, with the first storm, Annabelle, forming four days following. The final and strongest storm, Fantala, dissipated on April 23, 2016, a week before the season ended on April 30 for most of the region. In Mauritius and the Seychelles, the cyclone season ended half a month later, on May 15. The season's activity was influenced by an ongoing El Niño, and a positive Indian Ocean Dipole.

2016–17 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2016–17 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a below-average season, with five tropical storms, three of which intensified into tropical cyclones. It officially began on November 15, 2016, and ended on April 30, 2017, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it ended on May 15, 2017. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical and subtropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical and subtropical cyclones in this basin were monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion, though the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued unofficial advisories.

2017–18 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2017–18 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a below-average season that produced only 8 tropical storms, of which 6 became tropical cyclones. It was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone and subtropical cyclone formation. It officially began on November 15, 2017, and officially ended on May 15, 2018, in Mauritius and the Seychelles. For the rest of the basin, the season ended on April 30, 2018. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical and subtropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical and subtropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in La Réunion.

Cyclone Ernie Category 5 Australian region cyclone in 2017

Severe Tropical Cyclone Ernie was one of the quickest strengthening tropical cyclones on record. Ernie was the first Category 5 severe tropical cyclone in the Australian region since Cyclone Marcia in 2015, and also the strongest tropical cyclone in the Australian region since Cyclone George in 2007. Ernie developed from a tropical low into a cyclone south of Indonesia in the northeast Indian Ocean on 6 April 2017, and proceeded to intensify extremely rapidly to a Category 5 severe tropical cyclone. A few days later, on 10 April, the system was downgraded below cyclone intensity following a period of rapid weakening, located southwest of its original position. Ernie had no known impacts on any land areas.

2018–19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season Period of the cyclone season in the southwest Indian Ocean between 2018 and 2019

The 2018–19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season is the costliest and most active season ever recorded since records began in 1967. Additionally, it is also the second-deadliest cyclone season recorded in the South-West Indian Ocean, behind only the 1891–92 season, in which the 1892 Mauritius cyclone devastated the island of Mauritius. Currently, this cyclone season is an ongoing event of the annual cycle of tropical cyclone and subtropical cyclone formation in the South-West Indian Ocean basin. It officially began on November 15, 2018, and ended on April 30, 2019, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it will end on May 15, 2019. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical and subtropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical and subtropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion.

Tropical cyclones in 2015

Tropical cyclones in 2015 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Hurricane Patricia, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 872 mbar before striking the east coast of Colima in Mexico. 133 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 92 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC).

Tropical cyclones in 2014

Tropical cyclones in 2014 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Typhoon Vongfong, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 900 mbar before striking the east coast of Japan. 119 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 82 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC). The most active basin in 2014 was the Western Pacific, which documented 23 named systems, while the Eastern Pacific, despite only amounting to 22 named systems, was its basin's most active since 1992. Conversely, both the North Atlantic hurricane and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons experienced the least number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 9 and 3, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece.

Tropical cyclones in 2004 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest of these tropical cyclones was Cyclone Gafilo, which strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 895 mbar becomes the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the South-West Indian Ocean before striking the east coast of Madagascar. 130 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 81 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC). The most active basin in 2004 was the Western Pacific, which documented 29 named systems, while the North Atlantic, despite only amounting to 15 named systems, was its basin's hyperactive season since 1995. Conversely, both the Eastern Pacific hurricane and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons experienced the least number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity in recorded history, numbering 12 and 4, respectively. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece.

Tropical cyclones in 2012

Tropical cyclones in 2012 were spread out across seven different areas called basins; the strongest tropical cyclone was Typhoon Sanba strengthened to a minimum barometric pressure of 900 mbar before striking South Korea. 132 tropical cyclones had formed this year to date. 88 tropical cyclones had been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC). The most active basin in the year was the Western Pacific, which documented 25 named systems, while the North Atlantic Pacific, despite only amounting to 19 named systems, was its basin's hyperactive since 2010 becoming the third-most active season on record. Conversely, the Eastern Pacific hurricane season experienced the average number of cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity, numbering 17 respectively. The least tropical cyclone season was North Indian Ocean had a late start, with the first system forming in October. Activity across the southern hemisphere's three basins—South-West Indian, Australian, and South Pacific—was spread evenly, with each region recording seven named storms apiece.

Cyclone Kenneth tropical cyclone

Intense Tropical Cyclone Kenneth was the strongest tropical cyclone to make landfall in Mozambique since modern records began. The cyclone also caused significant damage in the Comoro Islands and Tanzania. The fourteenth tropical storm, record-breaking tenth tropical cyclone, and tenth intense tropical cyclone of the 2018–19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season, Kenneth formed from a vortex that the Météo-France office on La Réunion (MFR) first mentioned on 17 April. The MFR monitored the system over the next several days, before designating it as Tropical Disturbance 14 on 21 April. The disturbance was located in a favorable environment to the north of Madagascar, which allowed it to strengthen into a tropical depression and later a tropical storm, both on the next day. The storm then began a period of rapid intensification, ultimately peaking as an intense tropical cyclone with 10-minute sustained winds of 215 km/h (130 mph) and a minimum central pressure of 934 hPa. At that time, Kenneth began to undergo an eyewall replacement cycle and weakened slightly, before making landfall later that day as an intense tropical cyclone. As a result of land interaction, Kenneth became disorganised as it made landfall and rapidly degenerated thereafter. The storm then shifted southward, with the MFR cancelling all major warnings for inland cities. Kenneth was reclassified as an overland depression after landfall, with the MFR issuing its warning at midnight UTC on 26 April. Thunderstorm activity developed off the coast of Mozambique on 27 April as the system began drifting northward. Kenneth re-emerged off the coast of northern Mozambique on 28 April, before dissipating on the next day.

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Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers
Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers