Regular tetradecagon | |
---|---|

A regular tetradecagon | |

Type | Regular polygon |

Edges and vertices | 14 |

Schläfli symbol | {14}, t{7} |

Coxeter diagram | |

Symmetry group | Dihedral (D_{14}), order 2×14 |

Internal angle (degrees) | 154+2/7° |

Dual polygon | Self |

Properties | Convex, cyclic, equilateral, isogonal, isotoxal |

In geometry, a **tetradecagon** or **tetrakaidecagon** or 14-gon is a fourteen-sided polygon.

A * regular tetradecagon* has Schläfli symbol {14} and can be constructed as a quasiregular truncated heptagon, t{7}, which alternates two types of edges.

The area of a regular tetradecagon of side length *a* is given by

As 14 = 2 × 7, a regular tetradecagon cannot be constructed using a compass and straightedge.^{ [1] } However, it is constructible using neusis with use of the angle trisector,^{ [2] } or with a marked ruler,^{ [3] } as shown in the following two examples.

The animation below gives an approximation of about 0.05° on the center angle:

Construction of an approximated regular tetradecagon

Another possible animation of an approximate construction, also possible with using straightedge and compass.

Based on the unit circle r = 1 [unit of length]

- Constructed side length of the tetradecagon in GeoGebra (display max 15 decimal places)
- Side length of the tetradecagon
- Absolute error of the constructed side length

- Up to the max. displayed 15 decimal places is the absolute error

- Constructed central angle of the tetradecagon in GeoGebra (display significant 13 decimal places)
- Central angle of the tetradecagon
- Absolute error of the constructed central angle

- Up to the indicated significant 13 decimal places is the absolute error

Example to illustrate the error

- At a circumscribed circle radius
**r = 1 billion km**(the light needed for this distance about 55 minutes), the absolute error of the 1st side would be**< 1 mm**.

For details, see: Wikibooks: Tetradecagon, construction description (German)

The *regular tetradecagon* has Dih_{14} symmetry, order 28. There are 3 subgroup dihedral symmetries: Dih_{7}, Dih_{2}, and Dih_{1}, and 4 cyclic group symmetries: Z_{14}, Z_{7}, Z_{2}, and Z_{1}.

These 8 symmetries can be seen in 10 distinct symmetries on the tetradecagon, a larger number because the lines of reflections can either pass through vertices or edges. John Conway labels these by a letter and group order.^{ [4] } Full symmetry of the regular form is **r28** and no symmetry is labeled **a1**. The dihedral symmetries are divided depending on whether they pass through vertices (**d** for diagonal) or edges (**p** for perpendiculars), and **i** when reflection lines path through both edges and vertices. Cyclic symmetries in the middle column are labeled as **g** for their central gyration orders.

Each subgroup symmetry allows one or more degrees of freedom for irregular forms. Only the **g14** subgroup has no degrees of freedom but can seen as directed edges.

The highest symmetry irregular tetradecagons are **d14**, an isogonal tetradecagon constructed by seven mirrors which can alternate long and short edges, and **p14**, an isotoxal tetradecagon, constructed with equal edge lengths, but vertices alternating two different internal angles. These two forms are duals of each other and have half the symmetry order of the regular tetradecagon.

14-cube projection | 84 rhomb dissection |

Coxeter states that every zonogon (a 2*m*-gon whose opposite sides are parallel and of equal length) can be dissected into *m*(*m*-1)/2 parallelograms.^{ [5] } In particular this is true for regular polygons with evenly many sides, in which case the parallelograms are all rhombi. For the *regular tetradecagon*, *m*=7, and it can be divided into 21: 3 sets of 7 rhombs. This decomposition is based on a Petrie polygon projection of a 7-cube, with 21 of 672 faces. The list OEIS: A006245 defines the number of solutions as 24698, including up to 14-fold rotations and chiral forms in reflection.

The regular tetradecagon is used as the shape of some commemorative gold and silver Malaysian coins, the number of sides representing the 14 states of the Malaysian Federation.^{ [6] }

A **tetradecagram** is a 14-sided star polygon, represented by symbol {14/n}. There are two regular star polygons: {14/3} and {14/5}, using the same vertices, but connecting every third or fifth points. There are also three compounds: {14/2} is reduced to 2{7} as two heptagons, while {14/4} and {14/6} are reduced to 2{7/2} and 2{7/3} as two different heptagrams, and finally {14/7} is reduced to seven digons.

A notable application of a fourteen-pointed star is in the flag of Malaysia, which incorporates a yellow {14/6} tetradecagram in the top-right corner, representing the unity of the thirteen states with the federal government.

Deeper truncations of the regular heptagon and heptagrams can produce isogonal (vertex-transitive) intermediate tetradecagram forms with equally spaced vertices and two edge lengths. Other truncations can form double covering polygons 2{p/q}, namely: t{7/6}={14/6}=2{7/3}, t{7/4}={14/4}=2{7/2}, and t{7/2}={14/2}=2{7}.^{ [7] }

Isogonal truncations of heptagon and heptagrams | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|

Quasiregular | Isogonal | Quasiregular Double covering | ||

t{7}={14} | {7/6}={14/6} =2{7/3} | |||

t{7/3}={14/3} | t{7/4}={14/4} =2{7/2} | |||

t{7/5}={14/5} | t{7/2}={14/2} =2{7} |

An isotoxal polygon can be labeled as {p_{α}} with outer most internal angle α, and a star polygon {(*p*/*q*)_{α}}, with *q* is a winding number, and gcd(*p*,*q*)=1, *q*<*p*. Isotoxal tetradecagons have *p*=7, and since 7 is prime all solutions, q=1..6, are polygons.

{7 _{α}} | {(7/2) _{α}} | {(7/3) _{α}} | {(7/4) _{α}} | {(7/5) _{α}} | {(7/6) _{α}} |

Regular skew tetradecagons exist as Petrie polygon for many higher-dimensional polytopes, shown in these skew orthogonal projections, including:

Petrie polygons | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|

B_{7} | 2I_{2}(7) (4D) | |||

7-orthoplex | 7-cube | 7-7 duopyramid | 7-7 duoprism | |

A_{13} | D_{8} | E_{8} | ||

13-simplex | 5 _{11} | 1 _{51} | 4 _{21} | 2 _{41} |

In geometry, an **octagon** is an eight-sided polygon or 8-gon.

In geometry, a **decagon** is a ten-sided polygon or 10-gon. The total sum of the interior angles of a simple decagon is 1440°.

In geometry, a **heptagon** is a seven-sided polygon or 7-gon.

In geometry an **enneadecagon** or **enneakaidecagon** or 19-gon is a nineteen-sided polygon.

In geometry, a **tridecagon** or **triskaidecagon** or 13-gon is a thirteen-sided polygon.

In geometry, a **pentacontagon** or **pentecontagon** or 50-gon is a fifty-sided polygon. The sum of any pentacontagon's interior angles is 8640 degrees.

In geometry, a **pentadecagon** or **pentakaidecagon** or 15-gon is a fifteen-sided polygon.

In mathematics, a **hexadecagon** is a sixteen-sided polygon.

In geometry, a **hexacontagon** or **hexecontagon** or 60-gon is a sixty-sided polygon. The sum of any hexacontagon's interior angles is 10440 degrees.

In geometry, an **icositetragon** or 24-gon is a twenty-four-sided polygon. The sum of any icositetragon's interior angles is 3960 degrees.

In geometry, a **heptacontagon** or 70-gon is a seventy-sided polygon. The sum of any heptacontagon's interior angles is 12240 degrees.

In geometry, an **enneacontagon** or **enenecontagon** or 90-gon is a ninety-sided polygon. The sum of any enneacontagon's interior angles is 15840 degrees.

In geometry, a **tetracontadigon** or **42-gon** is a forty-two-sided polygon. The sum of any tetracontadigon's interior angles is 7200 degrees.

In geometry, a **hexacontatetragon** or 64-gon is a sixty-four-sided polygon. The sum of any hexacontatetragon's interior angles is 11160 degrees.

In geometry, a **360-gon** is a polygon with 360 sides. The sum of any 360-gon's interior angles is 64440 degrees.

In geometry, an **icosidigon** or 22-gon is a twenty-two-sided polygon. The sum of any icosidigon's interior angles is 3600 degrees.

In geometry, an **icositrigon** or 23-gon is a 23-sided polygon. The icositrigon has the distinction of being the smallest regular polygon that is not neusis constructible.

In geometry, an **icosihexagon** or 26-gon is a twenty-six-sided polygon. The sum of any icosihexagon's interior angles are 4320°.

In geometry, an **icosioctagon** or 28-gon is a twenty eight sided polygon. The sum of any icosioctagon's interior angles is 4680 degrees.

In geometry, a **triacontatetragon** or **triacontakaitetragon** is a thirty-four-sided polygon or 34-gon. The sum of any triacontatetragon's interior angles is 5760 degrees.

- ↑ Wantzel, Pierre (1837). "Recherches sur les moyens de Reconnaître si un Problème de géométrie peau se résoudre avec la règle et le compas" (PDF).
*Journal de Mathématiques*: 366–372. - 1 2 Gleason, Andrew Mattei (March 1988). "Angle trisection, the heptagon, p. 186 (Fig.1) –187" (PDF).
*The American Mathematical Monthly*.**95**(3): 185–194. doi:10.2307/2323624. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-02. - 1 2 Weisstein, Eric W. "Heptagon." From MathWorld, A Wolfram Web Resource.
- ↑ John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strauss, (2008) The Symmetries of Things, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 (Chapter 20, Generalized Schaefli symbols, Types of symmetry of a polygon pp. 275-278)
- ↑ Coxeter, Mathematical recreations and Essays, Thirteenth edition, p.141
- ↑
*The Numismatist*, Volume 96, Issues 7-12, Page 1409, American Numismatic Association, 1983. - ↑ The Lighter Side of Mathematics: Proceedings of the Eugène Strens Memorial Conference on Recreational Mathematics and its History, (1994),
*Metamorphoses of polygons*, Branko Grünbaum

This page is based on this Wikipedia article

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.