Timeline of Croatian history

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This is a timeline of Croatian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Croatia and its predecessor states. Featured articles are in bold. To read about the background to these events, see History of Croatia. See also the list of rulers of Croatia and years in Croatia.


7th century

660 Porga became knez of the Principality of Littoral Croatia.
Littoral Croatia was Christianized. [1]

8th century

799 Siege of Trsat : Invading Frankish forces were repelled from Trsat, resulting in the death of their commander Eric of Friuli. [2]

9th century

803 Borna became knez of Littoral Croatia following the death of his father Višeslav.
810 Ljudevit became knez of the Slavs in Lower Pannonia.
823 Ljudevit died. [3]
838 Knez Ratimir was deposed from the throne of Lower Pannonia in favor of the pro-French Ratbod.
839 Knez Mislav of Littoral Croatia signed a peace treaty with the Republic of Venice [4] during the early phase of the Croatian-Venetian wars.
840 Venetian Doge Pietro Tradonico led a failed assault on the nearby Croat land of Pagania.
The Byzantine Emperor Basil I helped break an Arab siege of Dubrovnik. [5] [6]
846 Pagania breached Venice and raided the Venetian town of Caorle. [4]
8797 June Pope John VIII styled knez Branimir of Littoral Croatia Duke of Croats, effectively recognizing Littoral Croatia as an independent state. [7]
88718 September Venetian Doge Pietro I Candiano was killed in an attempted invasion of Pagania. [8]

10th century

925 Knez Tomislav of Littoral Croatia was crowned King of a united Croatia, establishing the Trpimirović dynasty [9] [10]
926 Croatian–Bulgarian battle of 926 : Tomislav defeated the invading forces of the Bulgarian Empire. [9]
928 Pope Leo VI transferred the bishopric at Nin to Skradin. [11]
948 Venice tried and failed to capture Dubrovnik. [12]
949King Miroslav was killed by Ban Pribina during a civil war started by his younger brother Michael Krešimir II, who succeeded him.
986 Byzantine Emperor Basil II recognized Croatia as an independent kingdom and declared King Stephen Držislav the Patriarch of Dalmatia and Croatia.
996 Venetian Doge Pietro II Orseolo stopped paying tax to the Croatian King after a century of peace, renewing old hostilities and starting a new phase of the Croatian-Venetian wars.
998 Siege of Zadar : Emperor Samuil of Western Bulgarian Tsardom launched a military campaign against Kingdom of Croatia and besieged the city of Zadar.

11th century

1000 Battle of Lastovo : Doge Pietro II Orseolo of the Republic of Venice attacked the Town of Lastovo in the Kingdom of Croatia and destroyed it.
1020King Krešimir III was accused in the death of his brother Gojslav. Pope Benedict VIII withdrew his title pending an investigation. [13]
Krešimir was restored. [13]
1058 Peter Krešimir IV "The Great" succeeded his father Stephen I upon his death.
10768 October Demetrius Zvonimir was crowned King in Solin by a representative of Pope Gregory VII. [9]
1091King Stephen II died peacefully without an heir, bringing the Trpimirović dynasty to a close. [14]
1097 Battle of Gvozd Mountain : King Petar Svačić died in a loss to King Coloman of Hungary. [15]

12th century

1102The Croatian nobility agreed to the Pacta conventa under which Croatia was joined in a personal union with Hungary, with the King appointing the Ban of Croatia and the Croatian nobility holding power in a Sabor, or Parliament. [16] [17]
1185 Serbian forces launched a failed siege against Dubrovnik. [18]

13th century

120426 August Emeric abdicated the throne to his young son Ladislaus III of Hungary.
12057 May Ladislaus died. He was succeeded by Emeric's younger brother Andrew II of Hungary.
123521 September Andrew died. He was succeeded by his son Béla IV of Hungary.
124216 November Béla issued the Golden Bull of 1242, giving the residents of Gradec some individual and democratic rights and releasing them from allegiance to local lords. [19] [20]
12703 May Béla died. He was succeeded by his son, Stephen V of Hungary.
12726 August Stephen died. He was succeeded by his son Ladislaus IV of Hungary.
1293 Paul I Šubić of Bribir became Ban of Croatia.
1299 Paul conquered Bosnia, taking the title of Dominus of Bosnia , and appointing his brother Mladen I Šubić of Bribir Ban of Bosnia. [21]

14th century

130114 January Andrew died without a son. Charles Martel's son Charles I of Hungary was crowned King of Hungary.
27 AugustThe Hungarian nobility crowned Wenceslaus III of Bohemia King of Hungary and Croatia.
1305After quashing resistance in Bosnia, Paul I Šubić took the title Lord of All Bosnia and the exclusive power of coining money. [21] [22]
6 December Wenceslaus III of Bohemia abdicated the throne to Otto III, Duke of Bavaria.
1307June Otto was imprisoned by the Transylvanian Voivode Ladislaus Kán.
10 OctoberThe Hungarian nobility elected Charles King.
1308 Otto abdicated his claim to the Hungarian throne.
13121 May Paul I Šubić died. His son Mladen II Šubić of Bribir succeeded him as Ban .
1322 Battle of Bliska : Mladen lost to a coalition of Croatian noblemen at Trogir.
8 October Charles dismissed Mladen as Ban .
134216 July Charles died. He was succeeded by his son Louis I of Hungary.
134512 August Siege of Zadar was laid by the Republic of Venice.
135818 FebruaryThe Treaty of Zadar was signed. Venice ceded Dalmatia to Croatia.
137017 November Louis became King of Poland on the death of Casimir III the Great.
138211 September Louis died. He was succeeded in Hungary by his ten-year-old daughter Mary, Queen of Hungary with his wife Elizabeth of Bosnia acting as regent.
1385 Mary was overthrown by Charles III of Naples.
13867 February Charles was assassinated on Elizabeth's orders.
138731 March Mary was again crowned Queen of Hungary. Her husband Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor was crowned King.
1390 Charles's son Ladislaus of Naples expressed a claim to the throne of Hungary.
1392 Sigismund appointed Nicholas II Garay Ban of Croatia.
139517 May Mary died under suspicious circumstances. Sigismund became the sole ruler of Croatia and Hungary.
1397 Nicholas left office.
27 February Bloody Sabor of Križevci : Croatian Ban Stjepan II Lacković was killed in Križevci for supporting Ladislaus against King Sigismund. [23] [24]

15th century

14035 August Hungarian nobles opposed to Sigismund crowned Ladislaus King.
1406 Hermann II, Count of Celje became Ban of Croatia.
1408 Hermann left office.
1409 Ladislaus sold his rights on Dalmatia to Venice. [25]
14379 December Sigismund died.
14381 January Sigismund's son-in-law Albert II of Germany was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia according to his will.
143927 October Albert died without a male heir; his wife was pregnant with his son Ladislaus the Posthumous.
144022 February Ladislaus was born.
15 May Władysław III of Poland accepted the Hungarian crown from the nobility.
Ladislaus's mother crowned him King.
144410 November Battle of Varna : Władysław died in a battlefield loss to the Ottoman Empire. The Hungarian nobility elected Ladislaus, then imprisoned in Schloss Ort by his second cousin Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, with John Hunyadi acting as regent.
1452 Ladislaus was freed by Ulrich II, Count of Celje, who became his guardian and effectively his regent.
14569 November Ulrich was killed by Hunyadi's son Ladislaus.
145716 March Ladislaus had Ladislaus Hunyadi beheaded and fled Hungary.
23 November Ladislaus died, probably of leukemia.
145820 JanuaryThe Hungarian nobility elected Ladislaus Hunyadi's brother Matthias Corvinus King.
1472 Nicholas of Ilok became Ban of Croatia.
Nicholas left office.
1483 Matija Gereb was made Ban .
1489 Gereb left office.
14906 April Matthias died without legitimate heirs.
18 SeptemberThe Hungarian nobility elected Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary as King.
14939 September Battle of Krbava field : Croatia suffered a defeat at the hands of the Ottoman Empire. [26] [27]
1499 Matthias's illegitimate son John Corvinus became Ban of Croatia.

16th century

150412 October Corvinus died.
1513 Petar Berislavić was appointed Ban of Croatia.
151613 March Vladislaus died. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old son Louis II of Hungary, with a royal council appointed by the Hungarian diet acting as regent.
152020 May Berislavić was killed.
1521 Ivan Karlović became Ban .
1524 Karlović left office.
152629 August Battle of Mohács : Louis died childless in a crushing defeat at the hands of the Ottoman Empire near Mohács. [28]
10 November John Zápolya was crowned King of Hungary.
December Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor crowned himself King of Hungary.
1527 Karlović again became Ban .
1 January 1527 election in Cetin: The Croatian nobility unanimously elected Ferdinand King and confirmed the succession to his heirs, ending the personal union with Hungary. [28]
27 September Battle of Tarcal : Forces allied to Ferdinand dealt a bloody defeat to supporters of Zápolya.
152820 March Battle of Szina : Zápolya was defeated and forced to flee to Poland.
1531 Karlović died.
1537 Petar Keglević became Ban .
153824 FebruaryThe Treaty of Grosswardein was signed, dividing Hungary between Ferdinand and Zápolya and making Ferdinand heir to the entire kingdom on the death of the then-childless Zápolya.[ citation needed ]
154018 July Zápolya had a son, John II Sigismund Zápolya.
22 July Zápolya died. The Hungarian nobility recognized his son John II as King.
1542 Keglević was removed from office.
Nikola Šubić Zrinski was appointed Ban .
1553In response to repeated Ottoman incursions, Ferdinand established the directly administered Croatian Military Frontier.
1556 Zrinski was removed from office.
1557 Péter Erdődy was appointed Ban .
156425 July Ferdinand died. He was succeeded by his son Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor.
15668 September Siege of Szigetvár : The forces of the Ottoman Empire suffered losses taking the fortress at Szigetvár that forced them to abandon their advance on Vienna. [29]
1567 Erdődy died.
1570 Hungarian King John II abdicated the throne to Maximilian.
157328 January Croatian–Slovenian peasant revolt : A peasant revolt led by Matija Gubec began which sought to overthrow the power of the nobility.
9 FebruaryCroatian–Slovenian peasant revolt: Gubec was captured.
157612 October Maximilian died. He was succeeded by his son Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor.
1578 Krsto Ungnad was appointed Ban .
1583 Ungnad left office. He was succeeded as Ban by Tamás Erdődy.
158426 October Battle of Slunj : Invading Ottoman forces were defeated by the defending Croatian army.
1592 Siege of Bihać : Once capital of Croatia conquered by the Ottomans; never reconquered back, lost for Croatia forever.
159322 June Battle of Sisak : Croatia dealt the Ottoman Empire a crushing defeat at Sisak. [30]
1595 Erdődy left office.

17th century

1608 Erdődy again became Ban .
19 November Rudolf was deposed from the throne of Croatia by his brother Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor.
1615 Erdődy left office.
16181 July Matthias was succeeded by his cousin Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor.
162215 November Juraj V Zrinski was appointed Ban .
162628 December Zrinski was poisoned.
163715 February Ferdinand II died. He was succeeded by his son Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor.
1647 Nikola Zrinski was appointed Ban of Croatia.
16572 April Ferdinand III died. He was succeeded by his son Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.
1663September Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664) : An Ottoman army invaded Hungary.
16645 June Siege of Novi Zrin (1664) : Ottoman forces started to besiege the fortress in Međimurje County.
1 August Battle of Saint Gotthard (1664)  : Ottoman forces were dealt a decisive defeat by the League of the Rhine at Szentgotthárd.
10 AugustAustro-Turkish War (1663–1664): The Peace of Vasvár was signed, ending hostilities for twenty years and ceding some Croatian land to the Ottoman Empire.
18 November Nikola Zrinski died.
166524 January Petar Zrinski was appointed Ban .
167130 April Zrinski was executed for high treason in connection with the Magnate conspiracy.
Miklós Erdődy was appointed Ban of Croatia.
1693 Erdődy died.

18th century

170424 January János Pálffy was appointed Ban .
17055 May Leopold died. He was succeeded as king by his son Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.
171117 April Joseph died of smallpox. He was succeeded by his younger brother Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor.
17139 April Charles issued the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, which made it possible for women to inherit the Habsburg throne.
173217 February Pálffy left office.
174020 October Charles died. He was succeeded by his daughter, Queen Maria Theresa.
174316 March Károly József Batthyány became Ban .
1756The capital was moved from Zagreb to Varaždin.
6 July Batthyány left office.
1758Arithmetika Horvatzka, Croatia's first arithmetic textbook is published in Zagreb by Mihalj Šilobod Bolšić (1724–1787).
1776A fire destroyed two-thirds of Varaždin. [31] [32] The Croatian capital moved back to Zagreb.
178029 November Maria Theresa died. Her son Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor became King of Croatia.
179020 February Joseph died. He was succeeded by his younger brother Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor.
17921 March Leopold died. He was succeeded by his son Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor.

19th century

180411 August Francis established the Austrian Empire on the territories of the Habsburg monarchy.
1806 Ignaz Gyulai was appointed Ban of Croatia.
183111 November Gyulai died.
183210 February Franjo Vlašić was appointed Ban .
18352 March Francis died of fever. He was succeeded as king by his son Ferdinand I of Austria.
184016 May Vlašić died. He was succeeded as acting Ban by Juraj Haulik.
184529 JulyThirteen protesters, the July victims, were killed in Zagreb while protesting a flawed local election.
184815 March Hungarian Revolution of 1848 : Revolutionaries read the 12 points of the Hungarian Revolutionaries of 1848 before a crowd in Buda. The crowd marched on the Imperial Governing Council and forced Ferdinand's representatives to sign them.
23 March Josip Jelačić was appointed Ban .
11 April Ferdinand signed the April Laws, devolving some powers to the Kingdom of Hungary.
19 AprilThe Sabor proclaimed the union of the Croatian provinces, their secession from the Kingdom of Hungary within the Austrian Empire, and the abolition of serfdom. It further declared the equality of peoples in Croatia. [33]
29 September Battle of Pákozd : A revolutionary army seeking Hungarian independence from Austria forced a Croatian retreat.
2 DecemberHungarian Revolution of 1848: Ferdinand abdicated in favor of his nephew Franz Joseph I of Austria.
185920 May Jelačić died.
28 July Johann Baptist Coronini-Cronberg was appointed Ban .
186019 June Josip Šokčević was appointed Ban .
186614 June Austro-Prussian War : Prussia declared war on Austria.
3 July Battle of Königgrätz : Austria suffered a devastating defeat at Prussian hands at Königgrätz.
23 AugustAustro-Prussian War: The Peace of Prague (1866) was signed, ending the war.
186730 MarchThe Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was ratified, establishing the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary which devolved almost all power to the Austrian and Hungarian kingdoms respectively.[ citation needed ]
27 June Levin Rauch was appointed acting Ban .
20 OctoberA new electoral law reduced the size of the Sabor to sixty-six seats.
1868The Croatian–Hungarian Settlement was signed by the Hungarian Parliament and the Croatian Sabor. The Kingdom of Slavonia was incorporated into Croatia; the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was established as an autonomous state within Hungary. [34]
187126 January Koloman Bedeković succeeded Rauch as Ban .
8 October Rakovica Revolt : Politician Eugen Kvaternik declared the establishment of an independent Croatian government, seated at Rakovica and incorporating the Croatian Military Frontier.[ citation needed ]
11 OctoberRakovica Revolt: Kvaternik was executed.
187320 September Ivan Mažuranić became Ban .
188021 February Ladislav Pejačević succeeded Mažuranić as Ban .
1881The Croatian Military Frontier was incorporated into Croatia-Slavonia.
188319 April Croatian parliamentary by-election, 1883 : The first day of elections to the Sabor from the former territories of the Croatian Military Frontier was held.[ citation needed ]
21 AprilCroatian parliamentary by-election, 1883: The last day of elections was held. The government list won a majority of available seats.
4 September Hermann von Ramberg succeeded Pejačević as Ban .
1 December Ramberg was dismissed.
4 December Károly Khuen-Héderváry became Ban .
188416 September Croatian parliamentary election, 1884 : The first day of balloting was held.
19 SeptemberCroatian parliamentary election, 1884: The last day of balloting was held. The People's Party won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
189516 October 1895 visit of Emperor Franz Joseph to Zagreb : Student protesters burned the Hungarian flag in Ban Jelačić Square.
189719 May Croatian parliamentary election, 1897 : The first day of elections was held.
22 MayCroatian parliamentary election, 1897: The last day of balloting was held. The People's Party won a majority of seats in the Sabor.

20th century

190327 June Ban Khuen-Héderváry resigned to become the Hungarian Prime Minister.
Teodor Pejačević was appointed Ban .
190726 June Aleksandar Rakodczay became Ban .
19088 January Pavao Rauch was appointed Ban .
27 February Croatian parliamentary election, 1908 : The first day of balloting was held.
28 FebruaryCroatian parliamentary election, 1908: The second day of balloting was held. The Croat-Serb Coalition won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
12 March Rauch dissolved the Sabor.
19105 February Rauch was dismissed and replaced as Ban by Nikola Tomašić.
28 October Croatian parliamentary election, 1910 : The Croat-Serb Coalition won a plurality of seats in the Sabor.
191219 January Slavko Cuvaj was appointed Ban .
191321 July Ivan Škrlec was appointed Ban .
16 December Croatian parliamentary election, 1913 : The first day of balloting was held.
17 DecemberCroatian parliamentary election, 1913: The second day of balloting was held. The Croat-Serb Coalition won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
191428 June Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria : Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip of the Bosnian separatist group Young Bosnia.[ citation needed ]
23 July July Crisis : Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia, demanding, among other things, the right to participate in the investigation into the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, which Serbia refused.[ citation needed ]
28 July World War I : Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
30 JulyWorld War I: Russia mobilized its army to defend Serbia.
1915 Škrlec reconvened the Sabor.
26 AprilWorld War I: The secret Treaty of London (1915) was signed, under which Russia, France and the United Kingdom recognized Italian territorial claims (including some in Croatia) in return for Italy's joining the war on the side of the Triple Entente.[ citation needed ]
191621 November Franz Joseph I of Austria died. He was succeeded as king by his grandnephew Charles I of Austria.
191729 June Skerlecz resigned. Antun Mihalović became Ban .
191829 OctoberThe Sabor dissolved Croatia's union with Austria-Hungary and incorporated the Kingdom of Dalmatia into the new State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
1 DecemberThe State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs joined with Serbia to form the new Kingdom of Yugoslavia under King Peter I of Serbia.
191920 January Mihalović left office.
192012 November Yugoslavia signed the Treaty of Rapallo (1920), acceding to Italian claims on some of its territory.
28 November Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes Constitutional Assembly election, 1920 : The Democratic Party, People's Radical Party and Communist Party were the three most successful parties by number of seats received in the Assembly.
29 DecemberThe government issued a decree banning Communist propaganda and ordering the dissolution of all Communist organizations until approval of the Constitution.
192128 JuneThe Vidovdan Constitution, which abolished the traditional divisions of the region in favor of thirty-three oblasts ruled by royal appointees, was approved.
16 August Peter died. He was succeeded as king by his son Alexander I of Yugoslavia.
192318 March Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes parliamentary election, 1923 : The People's Radical Party won a plurality of seats in Parliament.
19258 February Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes parliamentary election, 1925 : The People's Radical Party won a plurality of seats in Parliament.
192711 September Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes parliamentary election, 1927 : The People's Radical Party won a plurality of seats in Parliament.
192820 June Puniša Račić of the People's Radical Party shot five members of the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) during a session of Parliament. Two were killed instantly, and Party leader Stjepan Radić was fatally wounded.
8 August Radić died.
19296 January 6 January Dictatorship : Alexander issued a decree dissolving Parliament and abolishing the Constitution.
3 October Alexander replaced the thirty-three oblasts with nine banovinas.
19313 September6 January Dictatorship: Alexander issued the 1931 Yugoslav Constitution, ending the dictatorship.
19349 October Alexander was assassinated by a Bulgarian mercenary, Vlado Chernozemski, with the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization; Chernozemski had been contracted by the Ustaše, which was formed in 1929. Alexander was succeeded by his eleven-year-old son, Peter, with his cousin, Prince Paul, leading a regency council of three.[ citation needed ]
19355 May Yugoslavian parliamentary election, 1935 : The Yugoslav National Party won a majority of seats in Parliament.
193811 December Yugoslavian parliamentary election, 1938 : The Yugoslav Radical Union won a majority of seats in Parliament.
193923 AugustThe Cvetković–Maček Agreement was approved, establishing the autonomous Banovina of Croatia with an elected Sabor and a crown-appointed Ban .
26 August Ivan Šubašić was appointed Ban of Croatia.
194125 March World War II : Prince Paul signed the Tripartite Pact, pledging support to the Axis Powers.
27 March Yugoslav military coup of March 27, 1941 : A military coup overthrew the Regency and declared Peter II to be of age.[ citation needed ]
6 April World War II in Yugoslavia begins
6 April Invasion of Yugoslavia : Germany opened an invasion of Yugoslavia with an air attack on Belgrade .
10 April Independent State of Croatia declared by Ante Pavelić of the Ustaše .
13 MayCroatia signed a treaty establishing its borders with Germany.
18 May Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta was crowned King Tomislav II of Croatia by the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy.
19 MayCroatia ceded land, including most of Dalmatia, to Italy by signing the treaty of Rapallo.
7 JuneCroatia's borders with Serbia were established.
22 June Operation Barbarossa : Germany launched an invasion of the Soviet Union.
4 JulyA call by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia to resist the Ustaše government marked the birth of the Yugoslav Partisans.
August Glina massacre : The Ustaše killed several hundred Serb civilians in a church in Glina.
27 OctoberCroatia's borders with Montenegro were established.
19425 October Operation Alfa : Italian and Chetnik forces attacked the Partisan-held town of Prozor.
10 OctoberOperation Alfa: The battle ended in a Partisan defeat.
26 NovemberThe Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) was established as the political organization of the Yugoslav Partisans.
194315 May Battle of the Sutjeska : Axis troops surrounded the main Partisan force on the east bank of the Sutjeska river in Bosnia.
14 JuneThe National Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Croatia (ZAVNOH), composed of Croatian members of the AVNOJ, held its first session and declared Vladimir Nazor President.
16 JuneBattle of the Sutjeska: The Partisans escaped across the Sutjeska.
25 July Italian King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy dismissed his Prime Minister Benito Mussolini.
31 July Tomislav abdicated on the orders of the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy.
8 SeptemberWorld War II: An armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces was published, voiding Croatia's territorial concessions of 1941 and the Treaty of Rapallo (1920).
15 November Operation Delphin : Croatian forces undertook a campaign to capture several islands in the Adriatic Sea off the cost of central Dalmatia.
21 NovemberThe second session of the AVNOJ established the National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia, the government-in-waiting of a federal, democratic Yugoslavia under Prime Minister Josip Broz Tito.
1 DecemberOperation Delphin: The operation concluded successfully.
19449 MayThe Federal State of Croatia was established at the third session of the ZAVNOH.
13 MayThe Department for the Protection of the People (OZNA) was established under Aleksandar Ranković.
25 May Raid on Drvar : German paratroopers attacked Partisan headquarters near Drvar. Tito escaped.
16 June Tito and Šubašić signed the Treaty of Vis, which provided for a coalition of royalists and Communists in the government of the future Yugoslavia.
194530 March Battle on Lijevče field : Croatian and Chetnik forces met at Lijevče.
8 AprilBattle on Lijevče field: The Chetniks surrendered.
6 May Pavelić fled the country.
8 May World War II in Yugoslavia formally ends with the German Instrument of Surrender, but fighting continues.
14 May Battle of Poljana: Retreating Axis troops were forced to surrender to the Partisans.
15 May Bleiburg repatriations: After the retreating Axis column is stopped at Bleiburg, Austria, and forced by the British Army to surrender instead to the Yugoslav Partisans, [35] the Yugoslav Partisans commit thousands of reprisals against the remnants of the Ustaše and the civilians who fled Croatia alongside them, as well as some Slovene, Serb, and Montenegrin collaborators.
10 June Tito agreed to the separation of Allied and Partisan forces at the Morgan Line.
21 August ZAVNOH declared itself the People's Parliament of Croatia.
25 AugustThe People's Parliament elected Nazor President of Croatia.
OctoberThe royalists in the Yugoslavian government resigned.
11 NovemberThe Communist Party won an overwhelming majority of votes to the Constituent Assembly of Yugoslavia.
29 NovemberThe Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was declared and King Peter deposed.
194631 JanuaryThe 1946 Yugoslav Constitution came into force.
194710 FebruaryThe Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 were signed, solidifying Yugoslavia's border with Italy and establishing the Free Territory of Trieste, half of which was to be under Yugoslavian military occupation.[ citation needed ]
SeptemberThe Cominform was established.
1948May Tito–Stalin split : Croatian Communist Party member Andrija Hebrang was arrested after supporting the Soviet Union in a dispute with Yugoslavia.[ citation needed ]
28 JuneTito–Stalin split: Yugoslavia was expelled from the Cominform.
194919 June Nazor died.
195026 June Tito announced the introduction of workers' self-management in Yugoslavia.
195313 JanuaryThe 1953 Yugoslav Constitution came into force.
December Vladimir Bakarić became President of Croatia.
19637 AprilThe 1963 Yugoslav Constitution came into force.
196713 March Croatian Spring : The Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language was published, demanding equal status for the Croatian language.
197123 NovemberCroatian Spring: A student protest began in Zagreb.
DecemberCroatian Spring: Tito forced Chair of the Croatian Communist Party Savka Dabčević-Kučar to resign.
197421 FebruaryThe 1974 Yugoslav Constitution came into force, establishing a nine-member Presidency of Yugoslavia of which Tito was president for Life.
April Ivo Perišin became President of Croatia.
8 May Perišin was succeeded by a rotating Croatian Presidency under the 1974 Yugoslav Constitution.
197510 NovemberThe Treaty of Osimo was signed, under which Italy and Yugoslavia were allowed to annex their respective occupation zones in Trieste.
19804 May Tito died. He was succeeded as President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia by the Macedonian Lazar Koliševski.
15 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Bosnian Cvijetin Mijatović.
198115 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Slovenian Sergej Kraigher.
198215 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Serbian Petar Stambolić.
198315 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Croatian Mika Špiljak.
198415 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Montenegrin Veselin Đuranović.
198515 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Vojvodin Radovan Vlajković.
198610 May Ante Marković assumed the Presidency of Croatia.
15 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Kosovar Sinan Hasani.
198715 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Macedonian Lazar Mojsov.
198815 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Bosnian Raif Dizdarević.
198915 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Slovenian Janez Drnovšek.
199023 JanuaryA Communist Party Congress ended the party's legal monopoly in Croatia.
22 April Croatian parliamentary election, 1990 : The first round of elections was held.
6 MayCroatian parliamentary election, 1990: The second round of elections was held. The Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) won a majority of seats in all houses of Parliament.
15 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Serbian Borisav Jović.
30 MayThe Serb Democratic Party (SDS) quit the Croatian Parliament.
25 JulyA Serbian Assembly led by the SDS declared the establishment of the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Kninska Krajina.
17 August Log Revolution : Secessionist Serbs barricaded roads connecting Kninska Krajina to the rest of Croatia.
October Kninska Krajina was superseded by the larger Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Krajina.
22 DecemberThe current Constitution of Croatia was ratified. Franjo Tuđman of the HDZ was made President of Croatia.
19912 March Pakrac clash : Croatian police arrested 180 Serb rebels who had occupied the town of Pakrac.
25 MarchPresidents of Croatia and Serbia partake in the Milošević–Tuđman Karađorđevo meeting
31 March Plitvice Lakes incident : Croatian police entered the Plitvice Lakes National Park to expel the secessionist forces of Krajina. Two combatants were killed.
1 AprilPlitvice Lakes incident: The Yugoslavian army intervened to end the crisis.
1 MayTwo Croatian police officers were taken prisoner by Serb secessionists in Borovo Selo.
2 MayThe Croatian Parliament voted to hold a referendum on independence from Yugoslavia.
Borovo Selo killings : An attempt to free the captives resulted in a firefight between Serb rebels and police. Twelve Croatian policemen killed, with an unknown number of rebel casualties.
15 May Serbia blocked the accession of Croatian Stjepan Mesić to the Yugoslavian Presidency.
19 May Croatian independence referendum, 1991 : Croatian independence from Yugoslavia was approved in referendum, with 93% support.
25 JuneThe Croatian Parliament declared Croatia independent from Yugoslavia.
Serb secessionists declared the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia.
July Battle of Osijek : JNA forces began shelling the town of Osijek.
15 July Operation Coast-91 : JNA and SAO Krajina forces attacked the town of Biograd but were rebuffed.
August Operation Opera Orientalis : Yugoslavian intelligence bombed Jewish cemeteries in an attempt to turn international opinion against Croatian independence.
1 August Dalj massacre : Serb rebels killed twenty-eight police officers and eleven Croat civilians in Dalj.
12 August Serb secessionists declared the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Western Slavonia.
25 August Battle of Vukovar : The Yugoslavian army and Serb militias laid siege to the town of Vukovar.
9 September Battle of the Barracks : The Yugoslavian barracks in Sisak surrendered to Croatian forces.
16 September Battle of Šibenik (1991) : The Yugoslavian army attacked Croatian forces in Šibenik.
22 SeptemberBattle of Šibenik (1991): Yugoslavian forces were made to retreat.
1 October Siege of Dubrovnik : Yugoslavian forces surrounded Dubrovnik.
6 OctoberOperation Coast-91: A truce was agreed.
7 October Bombing of Banski dvori : The Yugoslavian army bombed the government residence, the Banski dvori in Zagreb.
13 October Široka Kula massacre : Serb forces killed thirty-four civilians.
16 October Gospić massacre : A three-day massacre began during which Serb forces killed between twenty-three and one hundred civilians.
18 October Lovas massacre : Serbs forced a group of Croat civilians to walk across a minefield, killing twenty-one.
21 October Baćin massacre : Serb rebel forces killed some fifty-six civilians.
31 October Operation Otkos 10 : Croatian forces moved to block a Yugoslavian advance on Zagreb.
4 NovemberOperation Otkos 10: The operation concluded successfully.
10 November Erdut massacre : Serb rebels executed the first ten of the thirty-seven Hungarian and Croat civilians they would eventually massacre in Erdut.
12 November Saborsko massacre : Serb rebel forces killed twenty-nine civilians in Saborsko.
14 November Battle of the Dalmatian channels : A Yugoslavian ship was sunk by the Croatian navy near Split.
16 NovemberBattle of the Dalmatian channels: The Yugoslavian blockade of Split was broken.
18 NovemberBattle of Vukovar: The last Croatian forces surrendered.
Škabrnja massacre : Serb forces took the town of Škabrnja and began a massacre which would eventually claim eighty-six lives.
Bosnian War : The Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZBiH) established Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia at municipalities with majority of Croatian people on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
20 November Vukovar massacre : Some 264 civilians, mostly Croats, were murdered by Serb militias near Vukovar.
12 December Operation Orkan 91 The Croatian Army began an advance into Krajina.
Operation Whirlwind : The Croatian army attempted to cross the Kupa river against Krajina forces.
13 December Voćin massacre : A Serb paramilitary group, the White Eagles, killed several dozen people before retreating from Voćin.
Operation Whirlwind: The Croatian advance was stopped.
16 December Joševica massacre : Serb forces killed twenty-one civilians in Joševica.
19 December Krajina declared independence from Croatia, proclaiming itself the Republic of Serbian Krajina.
21 December Bruška massacre : Serb forces killed ten civilians in Bruška.
19922 JanuaryOperation Orkan 91: A ceasefire was negotiated.
Battle of Osijek: A ceasefire was negotiated.
26 February Krajina invested SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia and Western Slavonia.
6 MayBosnian War: The Graz agreement was drafted, delineating the demarcation between Herzeg-Bosnia and the Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
26 MaySiege of Dubrovnik: Croatian forces broke the siege.
June Operation Vrbas '92 : Military offensive of the Army of Republika Srpska against the HVO and ARBiH in Jajce.
14 June Operation Corridor : The Army of Republika Srpska launched an offensive against the joint forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Herzeg-Bosnia.
21 June Miljevci plateau incident : Croatian forces captured some thirty square miles in a surprise attack on Krajina forces.
26 JuneOperation Corridor: The operation ended with the successful linking of the two parts of Republika Srpska.
2 August Croatian parliamentary election, 1992 : The HDZ won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
Croatian presidential election, 1992 : Tuđman was reelected with 57% of the vote.
12 August Hrvoje Šarinić of the HDZ was elected Prime Minister.
18 October Croat–Bosniak War : First armed clashes between the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) and the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH).
27 OctoberOperation Vrbas '92: The operation concluded with the conquest of Jajce.
199322 January Operation Maslenica : The Croatian army launched an offensive to reconquer Krajina territory in northern Dalmatia.
1 FebruaryOperation Maslenica: The Croatian government halted the offensive.
September Operation Neretva '93 : ARBiH forces attack the HVO in Herzegovina and central Bosnia.
9 September Operation Medak Pocket : Croatian forces launched a southeastward offensive against Krajina towards the village of Medak.
17 SeptemberOperation Medak Pocket: Croatia negotiated a ceasefire under international pressure.
199423 FebruaryCroat–Bosniak War: The war was effectively ended with a ceasefire.
18 MarchCroat–Bosniak War: The Washington Agreement was signed, establishing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina within Bosnia and Herzegovina.
29 November Operation Winter '94 : Croatian forces launched an offensive into western Bosnia and Herzegovina.
24 DecemberOperation Winter '94: The offensive ended to Croatian territorial advantage.
19951 May Operation Flash : The Croatian Army launched an offensive which would reconquer the territory of the former Western Slavonia in Krajina.
2 May Zagreb rocket attacks : A two-day series of rocket attacks by Serb forces on Zagreb began which would kill seven civilians.
3 MayOperation Flash: The offensive came to a successful conclusion.
25 July Operation Summer '95 : Croatian forces launched a northward offensive from Bosnia and Herzegovina against Krajina forces.
30 JulyOperation Summer '95: The operation ended to Croatian territorial advantage.
4 August Operation Storm : One hundred and fifty thousand Croatian soldiers launched an offensive across a three hundred-mile front into Krajina.
9 AugustOperation Storm: The operation concluded with the surrender of Krajina forces at Vojnić.
8 September Operation Mistral 2 : Croatian and Bosnia and Herzegovina forces attacked Republika Srpska forces in western Bosnia and Herzegovina.
15 SeptemberOperation Mistral: The battle ended in a Republika Srpska defeat.
29 October Croatian parliamentary election, 1995 : The HDZ won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
7 November Zlatko Mateša of the HDZ was elected Prime Minister.
12 NovemberThe Erdut Agreement was signed by representatives of Croatia and Krajina, establishing a Joint Council of Municipalities in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia (1995-1998), which would guarantee Serb rights under the protection of the United Nations Transitional Authority for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) and later under Croatian sovereignty.[ citation needed ]
14 DecemberBosnian War: The Dayton Agreement was signed, establishing Bosnia and Herzegovina as an indivisible federation, with an alternating presidency, of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska.
199615 JanuaryThe UNTAES mission began.
5 September 1996 Ston–Slano earthquake : A strong Mw6.0 earthquake struck north of Dubrovnik. The worst of the damage occurred in the old town of Ston. There were no fatalities, but there was extensive damage to houses and cultural heritage.
199715 June Croatian presidential election, 1997 : Tuđman was reelected with 61% of the vote.
199815 JanuaryThe UNTAES mission ended.
199926 November Tuđman was declared incapacitated due to illness. Speaker of the Croatian Parliament Vlatko Pavletić became acting president.
10 December Tuđman died of cancer.
20003 January Croatian parliamentary election, 2000 : The Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP) won a plurality of seats in the Sabor.
24 January Croatian presidential election, 2000 : Mesić, running with the Croatian People's Party – Liberal Democrats (HNS), and Dražen Budiša of the Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS) qualified for the second round.
27 January Ivica Račan of the SDP was elected Prime Minister, with the HSLS joining the SDP in coalition.
2 February Zlatko Tomčić of the HSS was elected Speaker of the Croatian Parliament, replacing Pavletić in that role and as acting president.
7 FebruaryCroatian presidential election, 2000: Mesić won with 56% of the vote.

21st century

2001The Chamber of Counties was abolished by Constitutional amendment.
200323 November Croatian parliamentary election, 2003 : The HDZ won a plurality of seats in the Sabor.
23 December Ivo Sanader of the HDZ was confirmed Prime Minister by the Sabor, with the Croatian Party of Pensioners (HSU) and Independent Democratic Serb Party (SDSS) joining the HDZ in coalition.
20052 January Croatian presidential election, 2005 : Mesić, running as an independent, and Jadranka Kosor of the HDZ qualified for the second round.
16 JanuaryCroatian presidential election, 2005: Mesić was reelected with 66% of the vote.
200725 November Croatian parliamentary election, 2007 : The HDZ maintained its plurality in the Sabor.
Sanader was again confirmed Prime Minister, with the HSS and HSLS now supporting his candidacy.
20091 AprilCroatia joins NATO
1 July Sanader resigned. Deputy Prime Minister Kosor became Prime Minister.
3 July 2009 flu pandemic in Croatia . First case confirmed with its origin from Australia. 526 people were infected and 22 people died from the Swine Flu.
27 December Croatian presidential election, 2009–2010 : Ivo Josipović of the SDP and the independent Milan Bandić qualified for the second round.
201010 JanuaryCroatian presidential election, 2009–2010: Josipović won with 60% of the vote.
20114 December Croatian parliamentary election, 2011 : The SDP won a plurality of seats in the Sabor.
20131 JulyCroatia becomes the 28th member state of the European Union.
201511 January 2014–15 Croatian presidential election : Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović was voted to be the president of Croatia with 50,74% of the vote., [36] becoming Croatia's first female president. [37] [Note 1]
20158 November Croatian parliamentary election, 2015 : The Patriotic Coalition won a plurality of seats in the Sabor, with Croatia is Growing coalition coming second and MOST third.
2019-2022 December-5 January 2019–20 Croatian presidential election was held. Zoran Milanović (SDP) wins with over 52% popular vote against Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (HDZ)
202025 February-Present 2020 coronavirus outbreak in Croatia. Currently there over 210 cases of COVID-19 confirmed.
202022 March 2020 Zagreb earthquake. At 6:24 AM, an 5.4 magnitude earthquake hit Zagreb and killed 1 teenager from the falling bricks. Its shock traveled few hundred kilometers.
202029 DecemberAn earthquake hit near village of Petrinja at 12:19 PM with magnitude 6.2ML killing 7 people.
2021 GDP growth in Croatia increased by hitting record high 10.4% after contracting 8.1% in 2020
202212 July European Union formally approved Croatia to become 20th Eurozone member by start of 2023
20225 September 2022-December 31 2023Croatia needs to show prices in both kunas and euros
2022December 1-December 31Euro packages available to buy in Financial agencies and Hrvatska pošta d.d
20231 JanuaryCroatia is going to officially join Eurozone as 20th member and Schengen area as 20th member
20231 January-14 JanuaryDual kuna/euro circulation will be in effect

Map Timeline

Byzantine Empire Map.png
7th century Byzantine Empire Constantinople
Simple Labarum.svg
Duchy of Croatia.png
7th century-925 Duchy of Croatia No permanent capital
Kingdom of Croatia (925-1102).png
925-1102 Kingdom of Croatia No permanent capital
Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia.png
1102-1526 Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia.

(Croatia in union with Hungary)

No permanent capital
Flag of Croatia (Early 16th century-1526) (Border).svg
Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg).png
(Shown in Red)
1526-1868 Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg) No permanent capital
Flag of the Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg).svg
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.png
(Shown in Red)
1868-1918 Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Zagreb
Flag of Croatia-Slavonia.svg
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.png
29 Oct 1918 – 1 Dec 1918 State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs Zagreb
Flag of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.png
Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Kingdom of Yugoslavia..png
1918-1929 Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs Belgrade
Flag of Yugoslavia (1918-1941).svg
Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Kingdom of Yugoslavia..png
1929-1941 Kingdom of Yugoslavia Belgrade
Flag of Yugoslavia (1918-1941).svg
Independent State of Croatia (1953).png
1941-1945 Independent State of Croatia Zagreb
Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia..png
1945-1963 Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia Belgrade
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia..png
1963-1991 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Belgrade
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg
Republic of Croatia.png
1991-Now Republic of Croatia Zagreb
Flag of Croatia.svg

See also

Cities in Croatia

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Croatia</span> Occurrences and people in Croatia throughout history

At the time of the Roman Empire, the area of modern Croatia comprised two Roman provinces, Pannonia and Dalmatia. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, the area was subjugated by the Ostrogoths for 50 years, before being incorporated into the Byzantine Empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Croats</span> South Slavic ethnic group

The Croats are a South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia, western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina and other neighboring countries in Southeastern Europe who share a common Croatian ancestry, culture, history and language. They are also a recognized minority in a number of neighboring countries, namely Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sisak</span> City in Sisak-Moslavina, Croatia

Sisak is a city in central Croatia, spanning the confluence of the Kupa, Sava and Odra rivers, 57 km (35 mi) southeast of the Croatian capital Zagreb, and is usually considered to be where the Posavina begins, with an elevation of 99 m. The city's total population in 2021 was 40,185 of which 27,886 live in the urban settlement (naselje).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zachlumia</span> Medieval Balkan principality

Zachlumia or Zachumlia, also Hum, was a medieval principality located in the modern-day regions of Herzegovina and southern Dalmatia. In some periods it was a fully independent or semi-independent South Slavic principality. It maintained relations with various foreign and neighbouring powers and later was subjected to Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Serbia, Kingdom of Bosnia, Duchy of Saint Sava and at the end to the Ottoman Empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Croatia in personal union with Hungary</span> Personal union of two kingdoms

The Kingdom of Croatia entered a personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102, after a period of rule of kings from the Trpimirović and Svetoslavić dynasties and a succession crisis following the death of king Demetrius Zvonimir. With the coronation of King Coloman of Hungary as "King of Croatia and Dalmatia" in 1102 in Biograd, the realm passed to the Árpád dynasty until 1301, when the (male) line of the dynasty died out. Then, kings from the Capetian House of Anjou, who were also cognatic descendants of the Árpád kings, ruled the kingdoms. Later centuries were characterized by conflicts with the Mongols, who sacked Zagreb in 1242, competition with Venice for control over Dalmatian coastal cities, and internal warfare among Croatian nobility. Various individuals emerged during the period, such as Paul I Šubić of Bribir, who was representing the most powerful Croatian dynasty at the time, the Šubić noble family. These powerful individuals were on occasion able to de facto secure great deal of independence for their fiefdoms. The Ottoman incursion into Europe in the 16th century significantly reduced Croatian territories and left the country weak and divided. After the death of Louis II in 1526 during the Battle of Mohács and a brief period of dynastic dispute, both crowns passed to the Austrian House of Habsburg, and the realms became part of the Habsburg monarchy.

Tomislav was the first king of Croatia. He became Duke of Croatia c. 910 and was crowned king in 925, reigning until 928. During Tomislav's rule, Croatia forged an alliance with the Byzantine Empire against Bulgaria. Croatia's struggles with the First Bulgarian Empire eventually led to war, which culminated in the decisive Battle of the Bosnian Highlands in 926. In the north, Croatia often clashed with the Principality of Hungary; the state retained its borders and, to some extent, expanded with the disintegrated Lower Pannonia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Sisak</span> 1593 Habsburg victory over the Ottomans in Croatia

The Battle of Sisak was fought on 22 June 1593 between Ottoman Bosnian forces and a combined Christian army from the Habsburg lands, mainly Kingdom of Croatia and Inner Austria. The battle took place at Sisak, central Croatia, at the confluence of the Sava and Kupa rivers, on the borderland between Christian Europe and the Ottoman Empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Travunia</span> Historical state

Travunia was a South Slavic medieval principality that was part of Medieval Serbia (850–1371), and later the Medieval Bosnia (1373–1482). The principality became hereditary in a number of noble houses, often kin to the ruling dynasty. The region came under Ottoman rule in 1482. Its seat was in the city of Trebinje.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kingdom of Croatia (925–1102)</span> Medieval Kingdom

The Kingdom of Croatia, or Croatian Kingdom, was a medieval kingdom in Southern Europe comprising most of what is today Croatia, as well as most of the modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Croatian Kingdom was ruled for part of its existence by ethnic dynasties, and the Kingdom existed as a sovereign state for nearly two centuries. Its existence was characterized by various conflicts and periods of peace or alliance with the Bulgarians, Byzantines, Hungarians, and competition with Venice for control over the eastern Adriatic coast. The goal of promoting the Croatian language in the religious service was initially introduced by the 10th century bishop Gregory of Nin, which resulted in a conflict with the Pope, later to be put down by him. In the second half of the 11th century Croatia managed to secure most coastal cities of Dalmatia with the collapse of Byzantine control over them. During this time the kingdom reached its peak under the rule of kings Peter Krešimir IV (1058–1074) and Demetrius Zvonimir (1075–1089).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ljudevit (Lower Pannonia)</span> Duke of Lower Pannonia

Ljudevit or Liudewit, often also Ljudevit Posavski, was the Duke of the Slavs in Lower Pannonia from 810 to 823. The capital of his realm was in Sisak. As the ruler of the Pannonian Slavs, he led a resistance to Frankish domination. Having lost the war against Franks, he fled to the south, presumably to Dalmatia, first to an unknown Serb župa, and then to the Croat ruler Ljudemisl, who treacherously killed him.

Zdeslav was a duke in Croatia from 878 until his death in 879. He was from the Trpimirović dynasty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gregory of Nin</span> Chalcedonian bishop who introduced the Croatian language in church services

Gregory of Nin was a medieval bishop of Nin who strongly opposed the pope and official circles of the Church and introduced the Croatian language in the religious services after the Great Assembly in 926, according to traditional Croatian historiography. Until that time, services were held only in Latin, not being understandable to a majority of the population. Not only was this important for Croatian language and culture, but it also made Christianity stronger within the Croatian kingdom.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ban of Croatia</span> Historical title of rulers and viceroys in Croatian history

Ban of Croatia was the title of local rulers or office holders and after 1102, viceroys of Croatia. From the earliest periods of the Croatian state, some provinces were ruled by bans as a ruler's representative (viceroy) and supreme military commander. In the 18th century, Croatian bans eventually became the chief government officials in Croatia.

Usora (<i>zemlja</i>) Historical region of the Bosnia and Herzegovina

Usora was important zemlja of the medieval Bosnian state, first banate and later kingdom, although it also had some periods outside its jurisdiction and royal authority, when it was connected with neighboring banates of Slavonia, or Mačva at times. The administrative seat of this zemlja was Srebrenik, which also served as residence for its rulers for entire period of existence of the medieval Bosnian state. It took its name from the river Usora.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vojnomir</span> Military commander and Duke of the Slavs in Lower Pannonia

Vojnomir, Voynomir or Vonomir I was a Slavic military commander in Frankish service, the duke of Slavs in Lower Pannonia, who ruled from c. 790 to c. 800 or from 791 to c. 810 over an area that corresponds to modern-day Slavonia, Croatia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Siege of Trsat</span> Part of Frankish campaign against Avars and Slavs

The siege of Trsat was a battle fought over possession of the town of Trsat in Liburnia, near the Croatian–Frankish border. The battle was fought in the autumn of 799 between the defending forces of Dalmatian Croatia under the leadership of Croatian duke Višeslav, and the invading Frankish army of the Carolingian Empire led by Eric of Friuli. The battle was a Croatian victory, and the Frankish commander Eric was killed during the siege.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Triune Kingdom</span> Concept of a united kingdom between Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia

The Triune Kingdom or Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia was the concept—advocated by the leaders of the 19th-century Croatian national revival—of a united kingdom between Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia, which were already within the Austrian Empire under one king, who was also the Emperor of Austria, but were politically and administratively separate entities. This concept had roots in the high medieval period, as a successor to the historical Kingdom of Croatia which was made up of those regions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War</span> Sequence of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and Kingdom of Croatia from 1493 to 1593

The Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War is the name of a sequence of conflicts, mostly of relatively low intensity, between the Ottoman Empire and the medieval Kingdom of Croatia, and the later Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia. Except for periods of "small" borderland warfare, the conflict also saw episodes of major conquest campaigns of Croatian land undertaken by the Ottomans especially during the 16th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trpimir I of Croatia</span> 9th-century Duke of Croatia

Trpimir I was a duke in Croatia from around 845 until his death in 864. He is considered the founder of the Trpimirović dynasty that ruled in Croatia, with interruptions, from around 845 until 1091. Although he was formally vassal of the Frankish Emperor Lothair I, Trpimir used Frankish-Byzantine conflicts to rule on his own.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duchy of Croatia</span> State in the northwest Balkan Peninsula from the 623 to c. 925

The Duchy of Croatia was a medieval state that was established by White Croats who migrated into the area of the former Roman province of Dalmatia c. 7th century CE. Throughout its existence the Duchy had several seats – namely, Klis, Solin, Knin, Bijaći and Nin. It comprised the littoral – the coastal part of today's Croatia except Istria, and included a large part of the mountainous hinterland as well. The Duchy was in the center of competition between the Carolingian Empire and the Byzantine Empire for rule over the area. Croatian rivalry with Venice emerged in the first decades of the 9th century and would continue through the following centuries. Croatia also waged battles with the Bulgarian Empire and with the Arabs; it also sought to extend its control over important coastal cities under the rule of Byzantium. Croatia experienced periods of vassalage to the Franks or to the Byzantines and of de facto independence until 879, when Duke Branimir was recognized as an independent ruler by Pope John VIII. The Duchy was ruled by the Trpimirović and Domagojević dynasties from 845 to 1091. Around 925, during the rule of Tomislav, Croatia became a kingdom.


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Further reading


  1. Not counting Ema Derossi-Bjelajac who, as President of the Presidency of Croatia served as the first female head of state of SR Croatia.