Timeline of Spanish history

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This is a timeline of Spanish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Spain and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Spain. [1] [2]


Centuries: 6th  · 7th  · 8th  · 9th  · 10th  · 11th  · 12th  · 13th  · 14th  · 15th  · 16th  · 17th  · 18th  · 19th  · 20th  · 21st

6th century

507The Franks attacked allied with the Burgundians to the Visigothic Kingdom of Toulouse. Alaric II was killed at the Battle of Vouillé, and Toulouse was sacked. The Visigoths had lost most of their Gallic holdings and are retreated to Hispania and Septimania, helped by Ostrogoths. Kingdom of Toulouse ended and The Arian Kingdom of Hispania began. Barcelona was the new capital of the Visigoths. [3] From this moment, little by little, Visigothic Hispania will be the first effective realisation of an independent Kingdom or State of wholly Hispanic territories and scope. [4]
552 Byzantine Empire conquered part of the south of the Visigothic kingdom.
Visigothic Hispania and the Byzantine province of Spania, after Byzantine Empire conquest (green colour). Iberia 560.svg
Visigothic Hispania and the Byzantine province of Spania, after Byzantine Empire conquest (green colour).
567Toledo. Capital of the Visigothic kingdom by the end of the reign of Athanagild. [5]
568 Liuvigild began his reign. He is among the greatest Visigothic kings of the Arian period because he consolidated Visigothic power in Spain. He is known for his Code of Leovigild, a law that allowed equal rights between the Visigothic and Hispano-Roman populations, and for expanding the territory of the Visigothic Kingdom. Since Leovigild, the Visigoth kings minted their own Tremissis coin.
585 Liuvigild conquered the Suebic Kingdom.
Map showing the conquests of Leovigild. Hispania 586 AD.PNG
Map showing the conquests of Leovigild.
5898 MayThe Third Council of Toledo marks the entry of Visigothic Spain into the Catholic Church, after Reccared I converted in 587. The Catholic Kingdom of Toledo began.

7th century

624 Swinthila reconquered the south of Byzantine Hispania.
"History of the Kings of the Goths" is written by Isidore of Seville. In the prologue, "Laus Spaniae" (Praises to Spain), introduces the phrase mater Spania (mother Spain) and defends the Gothic identity of a unified Spain.
625The entire Hispania and Septimania is under the Visigothic Kingdom. Swinthila defeated the Basques. [6]
Visigothic Hispania and its regional divisions from 625 to 711, prior to the Muslim conquest Hispania 700 AD.PNG
Visigothic Hispania and its regional divisions from 625 to 711, prior to the Muslim conquest
654 Recceswinth was responsible for the promulgation of a law code, Liber Iudiciorum. The new laws applied to both Gothic and Hispano-Roman populations.

8th century

711 JulyThe Battle of Guadalete was the first major battle of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. Roderic, the last Visigothic king in Hispania under the rule from Toledo, died in the battle.
718 The Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias rebelled against the Umayyad Caliphate.
722 Summer Battle of Covadonga : Forces loyal to Pelagius decimated an Umayyad army sent to reconquer them in a valley in the Picos de Europa.
Pelagius was elected princeps of the independent Kingdom of Asturias with his capital at Cangas de Onís.
Kingdom of Asturias and Umayyad Caliphate Map Iberian Peninsula 750-es.svg
Kingdom of Asturias and Umayyad Caliphate
737 Pelagius died. He was succeeded as princeps by his son Favila of Asturias.
739 Favila was killed by a bear while hunting. He was succeeded by his brother-in-law Alfonso I the Catholic of Asturias, the son of Peter of Cantabria, the duke of Cantabria.
740 Asturias conquered and annexed Galicia.
757 Alfonso the Catholic died. He was succeeded as king by his son Fruela I the Cruel of Asturias.
76814 January Fruela was assassinated.
Fruela's cousin Aurelius of Asturias was crowned king of Asturias.
774 Aurelius died. He was succeeded by his cousin-in-law, Silo of Asturias, husband of Alfonso the Catholic's daughter Adosinda. Silo established his capital at Pravia.
783 Silo died.
Adosinda engineered the election of her nephew Alfonso II the Chaste of Asturias, son of Fruela, as king of Asturias.
A coalition of nobles elected Alfonso the Catholic's illegitimate son Mauregatus of Asturias king of Asturias. Alfonso the Chaste fled to Álava.
789 Mauregatus died.
Aurelius's brother Bermudo I the Deacon, the Monk of Asturias was elected king of Asturias.
791 Battle of the Burbia River : An Asturian force attacked a Cordoban army near Villafranca del Bierzo on its return to Córdoba and was defeated.
Bermudo abdicated the throne.
14 September Alfonso the Chaste was crowned king of Asturias in Toledo, Spain.
Alfonso the Chaste established his capital at Oviedo.
794 Battle of Lutos : A Cordoban army returning from a scorched earth campaign in modern Álava was wiped out by an Asturian force.
795 18 September Battle of Las Babias : Córdoba attacked and routed an Asturian force near Astorga, Spain.

9th century

816 Battle of Pancorbo (816) : Córdoba slaughtered a Basque-Asturian force defending the Basque homeland in the Pyrenees at Pancorbo.
Iberian Peninsula in 814 Peninsula iberica 814.svg
Iberian Peninsula in 814
824 Battle of Roncevaux Pass (824) : A combined force of Basques and the Banu Qasi, both vassals of the emirate of Córdoba, defeated a Carolingian military expedition in the Roncevaux Pass. The Basque chieftain Íñigo Arista of Pamplona was crowned king of Navarre at Pamplona.
842 Alfonso the Chaste died.
The Asturian nobility elected Nepotian of Asturias, a relative of Alfonso the Chaste, king.
Battle of the Bridge of Cornellana : Forces loyal to Bermudo's son Ramiro I of Asturias defeated Nepotian in modern Salas, Asturias.
8501 February Ramiro died. He was buried in the Pantheon of Asturian Kings in Oviedo. His son Ordoño I of Asturias succeeded him as king.
851 Battle of Albelda (851) : Ordoño suppressed a Basque revolt in northeastern Asturias and expelled an opportunistic Cordoban invasion near Albelda.
Íñigo died. He was succeeded as king of Navarre by his son García Íñiguez of Pamplona.
852 Battle of Guadalacete : Asturian and Pamplonan forces arriving in support of a revolt of the people of Toledo, Spain were routed by a Cordoban army.
859 Vikings captured García and extorted a ransom of some seventy thousand gold dinars from Navarre for his return.
860 Cordoban forces captured García's son and heir Fortún Garcés the One-Eyed, the Monk of Pamplona in Milagro, Navarre.
862An eastern march of Asturias was created the county of Castile under count Rodrigo of Castile.
8659 August Battle of the Morcuera : Córdoba attacked Asturias, forcing the retreat of Asturian forces and their Castilian allies along the valley of the Ebro.
86627 May Ordoño died. He was succeeded by his eldest son Alfonso III the Great of Asturias.
Fruela seized the throne of Asturias and forced Alfonso the Great to flee to Castile.
Fruela was assassinated in Oviedo.
868 Asturias conquered Porto. Vímara Peres was created count of Portugal.
870 García died. García Jiménez of Pamplona took power as regent, García's son and heir Fortún Garcés remaining in captivity in Córdoba.
8735 November Rodrigo died. He was succeeded as count of Castile by his son Diego Rodríguez Porcelos.
878 Asturias conquered Coimbra.
882 First Battle of Cellorigo : Vela Jiménez, count of the Asturian county of Álava, repelled an attempted conquest by the Emirate of Córdoba of an important mountain pass at Cellorigo.
Fortún Garcés was returned to rule in Navarre.
883 Second Battle of Cellorigo : Vela Jiménez repelled an attempted conquest by the Emirate of Córdoba of an important mountain pass at Cellorigo.
88531 January Rodríguez died.

10th century

901July Day of Zamora : The Asturian defenders of Zamora, Spain dealt heavy casualties to a Cordoban force attempting to conquer it. The heads of the besiegers were displayed on the city walls.
905The Navarrese nobility removed Fortún Garcés from the throne, placing Sancho I of Pamplona there in his stead.
91020 December Alfonso the Great died and was buried at Oviedo Cathedral. His kingdom was divided among his three sons, with his eldest, García I of León, receiving León, Ordoño II of León receiving Galicia, and Fruela II of Asturias receiving a rump Asturias including Castile.
91419 January García I died. His lands passed to Ordoño II.
917 Battle of San Esteban de Gormaz (917) : Leonese forces broke a Cordoban siege of San Esteban de Gormaz.
92026 July Battle of Valdejunquera : A Cordoban army invading Castile routed a joint Leonese-Navarrese force at Valdejunquera, probably between modern Estella-Lizarra and Pamplona, forcing the abandonment by León of Clunia.
922 Navarre defeated Galindo Aznárez II, count of the County of Aragon, in battle and forced him into vassalage.
924June Ordoño II died.
The Leonese nobility elected Fruela II king of León.
925July Fruela II died, possibly from leprosy. His will named his son Alfonso Fróilaz his successor. Ordoño II's sons Sancho Ordóñez, Alfonso IV the Monk of León and Ramiro II of León did not recognize Fróilaz's succession, however, leaving him in de facto authority only in Galicia.
Fruela II's younger brother, a Ramiro, married his widow Urraca bint Abd Allah and claimed the royal title.
Ordóñez, Alfonso the Monk and Ramiro II forced Fróilaz into exile in the eastern marches of Asturias.
Ordóñez seized León, Spain.
Alfonso the Monk, with the support of Navarre and the Leonese nobility, expelled Ordóñez from León, Spain.
10 December Sancho I died. He was succeeded by his young son García Sánchez I of Pamplona with his brother Jimeno Garcés of Pamplona acting as regent.
926 Ordóñez was crowned princeps of Galicia.
92916 August Ordóñez died. His territory passed to Alfonso the Monk.
931 Fernán González of Castile became count of Castile.
Álvaro Herraméliz, count of Lantarón and Álava, died. Fernán González inherited his territories and united them with Castile.
29 May Jimeno Garcés died.
Alfonso the Monk was forced to abdicate the rule of León and Galicia to his brother Ramiro II.
93919 July Battle of Simancas : A battle began near Simancas which would see a joint Leonese-Navarrese force repel an attempted Cordoban conquest of the lands around the Douro.
5 August Battle of Alhandic : Cordoban forces conquered the Leonese city of Zamora, Spain with great cost in lives to both sides.
9511 January Ramiro II died and was buried in the Basílica de San Isidoro, León. He was succeeded by his son Ordoño III of León.
956 Ordoño III died in Zamora, Spain. He was succeeded by his half-brother Sancho I the Fat of León.
958The Leonese nobility, led by Fernán González, deposed Sancho the Fat in favor of Alfonso the Monk's son Ordoño IV the Wicked, the Bad of León.
960 Sancho the Fat was restored to the throne of León with the support of Navarre and Córdoba.
966 Sancho the Fat was poisoned by count Gonzalo Menéndez of Portugal and buried in the Basílica de San Isidoro, León. He was succeeded by his young son Ramiro III of León, with the latter's aunt Elvira Ramírez and mother Teresa Ansúrez ruling as regents.
97022 February García Sánchez I died. He was succeeded by his eldest son Sancho II of Pamplona. A small territory around Viguera he willed to another son as the Kingdom of Viguera.
Fernán González died. He was succeeded as count of Castile by his son García Fernández of the White Hands of Castile.
9819 July Battle of Torrevicente : A Cordoban force dealt a bloody defeat to a rebel Cordoban general and his Vigueran and Castilian allies, probably near Atienza.
Battle of Rueda : A Cordoban force dealt a decisive defeat to a joint Leonese-Navarrese army in Rueda, Valladolid.
98215 OctoberThe Galician nobility acclaimed Ordoño III's son Bermudo II the Gouty of León king of Galicia with the support of the Caliphate of Córdoba.
984 Bermudo deposed Ramiro III and replaced him as king of León.
987 León expelled Cordoban forces from Zamora, Spain.
991NovemberThe Leonese nobility expelled Bermudo from the kingdom.
992September Bermudo was allowed to return to León.
994 Sancho II died and was buried at San Juan de la Peña. He was succeeded as king of Navarre and count of Aragon by his son García Sánchez II of Pamplona.
995May Fernández was captured by a Cordoban raiding party.
June Fernández died of his wounds at Medinaceli. He was succeeded by his son Sancho García of the Good Laws of Castile.
996 Córdoba conquered the Leonese city of Astorga, Spain.
999 Castile declined to pay its annual tribute to Córdoba.
September Bermudo died. He was succeeded by his young son Alfonso V the Noble of León, with the latter's mother Elvira of Castile, Queen of León and the count Menendo González, count of Portugal and duke in Galicia, acting as regents.
1000 29 July Battle of Cervera : Córdoba defeated the combined forces of García of the Good Laws and García Gómez, count of Saldaña, Carrión and Liébana on a punitive expedition near modern Espinosa de Cervera.
García Sánchez II died. He was succeeded as king of Navarre and count of Aragon by his young son Sancho III the Great of Pamplona, with the latter's mother Jimena Fernández and grandmother Urraca Fernandez ruling with the bishops of Navarre as regents.

11th century

1005A Cordoban army under the caliph Hisham II invaded León with the intent of conquering Zamora, Spain.
García Ramírez of Viguera, king of Viguera, died without male heirs. His territory was absorbed by Navarre.
10086 October Menendo González died. Alfonso the Noble entered his majority.
1009 Hisham was overthrown and imprisoned by his cousin Muhammad II of Córdoba.
1 November Sulayman ibn al-Hakam, at the head of an army of disaffected Berbers and with the help of García of the Good Laws, defeated Muhammad, forcing the latter to flee to Toledo, Spain, and freed Hisham.
1011 Sancho the Great married García of the Good Laws's daughter Muniadona of Castile.
1015 Sancho the Great conquered the county of Sobrarbe.
10175 February García of the Good Laws died. He was succeeded as count of Castile and Álava by his young son García Sánchez of Castile, with Urraca of Covarrubias, the latter's aunt and Fernández's daughter, acting as regent with the Castilian nobility.
1018 Sancho the Great annexed half of the county of Ribagorza.
1025 Raymond III of Pallars Jussà, count of Pallars Jussà and the rump Ribagorza, pledged submission to Sancho the Great as his vassal.
10287 August Alfonso the Noble died. He was succeeded as king of León by his son Bermudo III of León.
1029 García Sánchez was assassinated in León, Spain by the sons of a noble he had expelled from the lands between the Cea and the Pisuerga.
Sancho the Great appointed Ferdinand I the Great of León, his son and grandson of García of the Good Laws on his mother's side, count of Castile.
1031 Hisham III of Córdoba, the caliph of Córdoba in exile, was overthrown and his title abolished by the local nobility, resulting in the immediate de jure independence of the taifas of Al-Andalus.
1032 Alfonso the Noble's daughter Sancha of León was married to Ferdinand the Great.
1034 Navarre conquered León, Spain. Bermudo III fled to modern Galicia.
103518 October Sancho the Great died. His kingdom was divided among his sons. Gonzalo of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza received Sobrarbe and Ribagorza. The illegitimate Ramiro I of Aragon was granted the title of bailiff and some property in Aragon. García Sánchez III of Pamplona succeeded his father as king of Navarre and held suzerainty over his brothers.
Battle of Tafalla : García Sánchez III repelled an invasion of his kingdom by Ramiro I.
10374 September Battle of Tamarón : Bermudo III of León fell from his horse and was slain by forces loyal to Ferdinand the Great.
Iberian Peninsula as of 1037 Map Iberian Peninsula 1037-en.svg
Iberian Peninsula as of 1037
103822 June Ferdinand the Great was crowned king of León and Castile in León, Spain.
104326 June Gonzalo of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza was assassinated by one of his knights.
Ramiro I annexed Sobrarbe and Ribagorza.
10541 September Battle of Atapuerca : Navarrese and Leonese forces met near modern Atapuerca, Province of Burgos. García Sánchez III and his tutor Fortún Sánchez were killed. García Sánchez III's son Sancho IV of Peñalén of Pamplona succeeded him as king under the regency of Stephanie, Queen of Navarre. León annexed Navarrese territories south of the Ebro.
1056 Ferdinand the Great crowned himself Imperator totius Hispaniae .
105825 May Stephanie died.
106229 December Sancho of Peñalén and Ferdinand the Great signed a treaty defining their border.
1063 Synod of Jaca (1063) : Ramiro I presided over a synod in Jaca which reestablished the Roman Catholic Diocese of Huesca.
8 May Battle of Graus : Ramiro I died in a failed attempt to take Graus from the taifa of Zaragoza. He was succeeded by his son Sancho Ramírez.
1064August Crusade of Barbastro : At the urging of the pope Pope Alexander II, a coalition of Aragon, Urgell, Aquitaine and the Papal States conquered Barbastro from the taifa of Lérida.
1065 Battle of Paterna : Valencian forces pursuing the army of Ferdinand the Great, then in retreat from a failed siege of Valencia, were ambushed and wiped out at Paterna.
24 December Ferdinand the Great died. His kingdom was divided among his three children. The eldest, Sancho II the Strong of Castile and León, received Castile. León was divided; Galicia went to García II of Galicia, and the remainder went to Alfonso VI the Brave, the Valiant of León and Castile.
War of the Three Sanchos : Sancho the Strong began ordering border raids on Navarre.
1067War of the Three Sanchos: The war reached a stalemate. Castile remained in possession of the Navarrese territories in modern Álava, Montes de Oca, Pancorbo, Burgos and La Rioja.
1068Spring Alfonso the Brave invaded the taifa of Badajoz.
19 July Battle of Llantada : Sancho the Strong defeated Alfonso the Brave at Llantadilla, in the taifa of Badajoz near modern Melgar de Fernamental.
1071June Sancho the Strong and Alfonso the Brave invaded Galicia from the north and south, respectively, partitioning the kingdom and forcing García II into exile in Seville.
1072January Battle of Golpejera : Sancho the Strong defeated and captured Alfonso the Brave near Carrión de los Condes. The latter was released and sent into exile in Toledo.
12 January Sancho the Strong was crowned king of León.
7 October Sancho the Strong was betrayed and murdered by a Zamoran noble during his assault on Zamora, Spain.
Alfonso the Brave succeeded his brother Sancho the Strong as king of León and Castile.
1074The taifas of Toledo and Granada were forced to pay the parias to Alfonso the Brave.
10764 June Sancho of Peñalén was thrown from a cliff in Peñalén by his brother and sister. Alfonso the Brave recognized his young son García Sánchez as his successor.
The Navarrese nobility elected Sancho Ramírez king. The latter ceded some territory in Navarre's west to Alfonso the Brave.
The Emir of Zaragoza began to pay the parias to Alfonso the Brave.
1077 Alfonso the Brave took the title Imperator totius Hispaniae .
1079 Battle of Cabra : Seville defeated the invading forces of Granada. Both sides were aided by Castilian knights.
Alfonso the Brave conquered Coria, Cáceres.
108328 April Sancho Ramírez conquered Graus.
Under the pretense of surrender, the occupants of the castle of Rueda de Jalón, a Zaragozan stronghold, invited important nobles of León to the castle and murdered them.
108414 August Battle of Morella : A Zaragozan army led by the general El Cid decisively defeated the forces of Sancho Ramírez near Tortosa.
25 December Battle of Piedra Pisada : A Zaragozan army skirmished with the forces of Alfonso the Brave, then following the valley of the Cinca from Naval, Huesca to El Grado.
108525 May Alfonso the Brave conquered Toledo, Spain.
Alfonso the Brave conquered modern Madrid.
1086March Alfonso the Brave installed his vassal, an al-Qádir, as king of Valencia.
23 October Battle of Sagrajas : Yusuf ibn Tashfin, the sultan of the Almoravid dynasty, at the head of a coalition of Andalusian taifas , defeated León and Castile and Aragon in a bloody battle near Badajoz. The taifas renounced payment of the parias .
1087 Siege of Tudela : Alfonso the Brave, Sancho Ramírez, Odo I, Duke of Burgundy, the duke of Burgundy, and William the Carpenter, viscount of Melun, laid siege to the Zaragozan fortress at Tudela, Navarre.
Sancho Ramírez conquered Estada.
1088 Sancho Ramírez took the Castle of Montearagón.
108924 June Sancho Ramírez conquered Monzón.
1090 Yusuf overthrew the king of Valencia and sent him into exile.
10944 June Sancho Ramírez died during a siege of Huesca. He was succeeded as king of Aragon and Navarre by his eldest son Peter I of Aragon and Pamplona.
June El Cid reconquered Valencia, Spain for Castile.
November Alfonso the Brave lost Lisbon, Sintra and Santarém, Portugal to Almoravid conquests.
109516 MarchThe pope Pope Urban II issued a bull forbidding the excommunication of Peter I or his queen Agnes of Aquitaine, Queen of Aragon and Navarre without his express authorization.
1096 Battle of Alcoraz : Peter I defeated the Zaragozan forces sent to relieve his siege of Huesca.
27 November Peter I conquered Huesca.
1097 Battle of Bairén : An Aragonese army pinned between Almoravid forces and the Mediterranean Sea routed their enemies near modern Gandia.
15 August Battle of Consuegra : An Almoravid force defeated one of Alfonso the Brave's armies near Consuegra.
16 August Peter I married Bertha of Aragon in Huesca, marking the transfer of the Aragonese capital from Jaca.

12th century

1102 Alfonso the Brave ordered Valencia evacuated and burned in the face of an Almoravid threat.
1104 Alfonso the Brave conquered the Almoravid city of Medinaceli.
Peter I died. He was succeeded as king of Aragon and Navarre by his brother Alfonso I the Battler of Aragon.
1105 Alfonso the Battler conquered the Almoravid cities of Ejea de los Caballeros and Tauste.
1107 Alfonso the Battler conquered Tamarite de Litera and San Esteban de Litera from the Almoravid dynasty.
110829 May Battle of Uclés (1108) : The Almoravids dealt a decisive defeat to the forces of Alfonso the Brave at Uclés, reconquering the city as well as Cuenca, Spain, Huete and Ocaña, Spain. Alfonso the Brave's son and heir Sancho Alfónsez was killed in flight by local Muslims.
11091 July Alfonso the Brave died in Toledo, Spain. His daughter Urraca the Restless of León succeeded him as queen regnant of León and Castile.
October Urraca the Restless married Alfonso the Battler.
111126 October Battle of Candespina : Alfonso the Battler, joined by Henry, Count of Portugal, the count of Portugal, defeated forces loyal to the former's wife Urraca the Restless at Fresno de Cantespino.
Autumn Battle of Viadangos : The noble Pedro Fróilaz de Traba and Diego Gelmírez, archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela, marching in support of Urraca the Restless, were routed at Villadangos del Páramo by a superior force led by Alfonso the Battler.
1112The pope Pope Paschal II annulled the marriage of Urraca the Restless to Alfonso the Battler. The two agreed to a truce.
1117 Alfonso the Battler conquered the Almoravid cities of Fitero, Belchite, Corella, Spain, Cintruénigo, Murchante, Monteagudo, Navarre, and Cascante.
1118 Alfonso the Battler, joined by French soldiers following the declaration of a crusade, conquered the Almoravid cities of Almudévar, Gurrea de Gállego and Zuera and laid siege to Zaragoza.
18 December Alfonso the Battler conquered Zaragoza.
1119 Alfonso the Battler conquered Cervera, Tudejen, Castellón, Tarazona, Ágreda, Magallón, Borja, Zaragoza, Alagón, Zaragoza, Novillas, Mallén, Rueda, Valladolid and Épila from the Almoravid dynasty.
1120 Battle of Cutanda : Alfonso the Battler defeated forces of the Almoravid dynasty at Cutanda near Calamocha, conquering that town as well as Calatayud and Daroca for Aragon.
Alfonso the Battler conquered the Almoravid cities of Calatayud, Bubierca, Alhama de Aragón, Ariza, Zaragoza and Daroca.
1122 Alfonso the Battler established the Confraternity of Belchite, a military order at Belchite devoted to war with Muslims.
1123 Alfonso the Battler conquered the Barcelonan city of Lleida.
11268 March Urraca the Restless died in childbirth at Saldaña de Burgos. Alfonso VII the Emperor of León and Castile, her son by her first husband Raymond of Burgundy, succeeded her as king of Castile and León, though Alfonso the Battler remained in control of the former kingdom.
1127 Alfonso the Battler conquered the Almoravid city of Longares.
June Alfonso the Emperor and Alfonso the Battler signed the Peace of Támara at Támara de Campos. The treaty recognized Alfonso the Emperor's sovereignty over Castile and reestablished the 1054 border between Castile and Aragon. Alfonso the Battler renounced the title of emperor.
11296 April Afonso I the Conqueror of Portugal, the count of Portugal, took the title prince.
1130October Siege of Bayonne : Alfonso the Battler laid siege to the Aquitainian city of Bayonne, probably with the intent of impressing Alfonso the Emperor's vassal Alfonso Jordan, the count of Toulouse.
1131October Alfonso the Battler drafted a will leaving his kingdom to the Knights Templar, the Knights Hospitaller, and the Order of the Holy Sepulchre.
OctoberSiege of Bayonne: Alfonso the Battler withdrew after failing to conquer Bayonne.
1133 Alfonso the Battler conquered the Almoravid city of Mequinenza.
113417 July Battle of Fraga : The Almoravids broke an Aragonese siege of Fraga. Alfonso the Battler was wounded.
7 September Alfonso the Battler died of wounds suffered at the Battle of Fraga.
The Navarrese nobility elected García Ramírez of Navarre, a grandson of García Sánchez III's illegitimate son, king of Navarre.
The Aragonese nobility elected Ramiro II the Monk of Aragon king of Aragon.
113526 May Alfonso the Emperor took the title Imperator totius Hispaniae .
113711 August Ramiro the Monk's daughter Petronilla of Aragon was betrothed to Ramon Berenguer IV the Saint, Count of Barcelona, the count of Barcelona. Under the terms of the contract, Petronilla was appointed Ramiro the Monk's heir, and in the event of her childless death, Ramon Berenguer the Saint was to inherit all her territories.
13 November Ramiro the Monk retired to the monastery, retaining the royal title but granting Ramon Berenguer the Saint royal authority under the title prince of the Aragonese people.
1138July Siege of Coria (1138) : Alfonso the Emperor failed to take the Almoravid city of Coria, Caceres. His commanding general Rodrigo Martínez was killed in the assault.
1139April Siege of Oreja : Alfonso the Emperor laid siege to the Almoravid castle at Colmenar de Oreja.
25 July Battle of Ourique : Afonso defeated an Almoravid force deep inside Almoravid territory at Ourique. His soldiers proclaimed him king of Portugal.
OctoberSiege of Oreja: The Almoravid garrison surrendered.
1141Summer Battle of Valdevez : Afonso invaded Galicia. Alfonso the Emperor met him at Arcos de Valdevez and was defeated.
1142May Siege of Coria (1142) : Alfonso the Emperor laid siege to the Almoravid city of Coria, Caceres.
JuneSiege of Coria (1142): The Almoravid garrison surrendered.
11435 October Afonso and Alfonso the Emperor signed the Treaty of Zamora in Zamora, Spain, under which the latter recognized the independence of Portugal and pledged peace between Portugal and León.
1147October Second Crusade : Alfonso the Emperor, Ramon Berenguer the Saint and García Ramírez, with the support of the Genoese and Pisan navies, conquered the Almoravid port city of Almería. One-third of the city was granted to Genoa, the rest to Castile.
1151 Alfonso the Emperor and Ramon Berenguer the Saint signed the Treaty of Tudilén, recognizing recent Aragonese conquests as well as any further conquests in the Taifa of Murcia.
1157The Almohad Caliphate conquered Almería.
16 August Ramiro the Monk died. Petronilla succeeded him as queen regnant of Aragon.
21 August Alfonso the Emperor died. His kingdom was divided between his two sons. The elder, Sancho III the Desired of Castile, received Castile; the younger, Ferdinand II of León, received León.
115831 August Sancho the Desired died. He was succeeded as king of Castile by his young son Alfonso VIII the Noble of Castile. A number of Castilian nobles began to vie for the regency.
11626 August Ramon Berenguer the Saint died. He was succeeded as count of Barcelona by his young son Alfonso II the Chaste, the Troubadour of Aragon.
116418 July Petronilla abdicated the throne of Aragon in favor of her young son Alfonso the Chaste.
1166 Alfonso the Chaste conquered the county of Provence.
1168 Alfonso the Chaste conquered Cerdanya.
19 December Alfonso the Chaste and Sancho VI the Wise of Navarre, king of Navarre, signed the Treaty of Sangüesa providing for a twenty-year truce between their countries and agreeing to a division of the Taifa of Murcia.
1171 Alfonso the Chaste conquered Teruel and Caspe.
1172 Girard II of Roussillon, count of Roussillon, died without heirs. The nobles of his county elected Alfonso the Chaste to succeed him.
1173 Alfonso the Chaste gifted Provence to his brother Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Provence.
1174 Alfonso the Noble ceded Uclés to the Order of Santiago.
117721 September Castile conquered Cuenca, Spain.
1179 Alfonso the Noble and Alfonso the Chaste signed the Treaty of Cazola, setting out their respective zones of conquest in Andalusia. Aragon ceded the right to Murcia.
1188 Alfonso the Noble recognized Alfonso IX of León as king of León. In exchange, Alfonso IX recognized the supremacy of Castile over León.
119518 July Battle of Alarcos : The Almohad Caliphate decisively defeated a Castilian force in what is now the province of Ciudad Real, forcing the latter's retreat to Toledo, Spain and cession of Trujillo, Cáceres, Montánchez and Talavera de la Reina.
119625 April Alfonso the Chaste died. He was succeeded as king by his son Peter II the Catholic of Aragon.

13th century

1209 Albigensian Crusade : The pope Pope Innocent III called for a crusade to exterminate Catharism in Languedoc.
1212 Alfonso the Noble, Peter the Catholic, Sancho VII the Strong, the Prudent of Navarre, king of Navarre, and the papal legate Arnaud Amalric, at the head of an army of Franks, conquered the Almohad cities of Calatrava la Vieja, Alarcos and Benavente, Zamora.
16 July Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa : A coalition of Castilian, Aragonese, Portuguese and Navarrese forces, joined by the Order of Santiago, the Order of Calatrava, the Knights Templar and French and Leonese volunteers, decisively defeated an Almohad army in what is now the Province of Jaén. The caliph Muhammad al-Nasir was forced into flight.
121312 September Battle of Muret : Peter the Catholic was killed in battle at Muret in an attempt to reinstall his vassal Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse, count of County of Toulouse. His army was routed. Peter the Catholic was succeeded by his young son James I the Conqueror of Aragon.
12145 October Alfonso the Noble died. He was succeeded by his young son Henry I of Castile, whose elder sister Berengaria of Castile ruled as regent.
12176 June Henry I was killed by a tile falling off a roof. Berengaria succeeded him as queen regnant of Castile.
31 August Berengaria resigned in favor of her son Ferdinand III the Saint of Castile.
1224The Almohad caliph Yusuf II, Almohad caliph was gored to death while playing with his pet cows, leaving no heir.
The Almohad governor of Andalusia took the majority of his forces across the Strait of Gibraltar to contest the succession to the caliphate.
An Abdallah al-Bayyasi established the Taifa of Baeza with himself at its head and appealed to Ferdinand the Saint to help him conquer Andalusia.
1225 Siege of Jaén (1225) : Castile and Baeza failed to take the city of Jaén, Spain.
Ferdinand the Saint established al-Bayyasi at Córdoba, Spain in exchange for Baños de la Encina, Capilla, Badajoz and Salvatierra Castle.
1226NovemberAl-Bayyasi was killed in Córdoba, Spain in a popular uprising. Castile annexed some of his territory including Baeza.
12295 September Conquest of Majorca : James the Conqueror led a fleet of some two hundred vessels and twenty thousand men from Salou, Cambrils and Tarragona to Majorca.
12 September Battle of Portopí : Aragonese forces defeated an Almohad force in the Serra de Na Burguesa, forcing the latter to retreat to Palma, Majorca.
31 DecemberConquest of Majorca: James the Conqueror took the last redoubt of the Almohad forces at Palma, Majorca and captured the vali Abu Yahya.
1230 James the Conqueror issued the Llibre del Repartiment (Majorca), granting territory in Majorca according to participation in its conquest. Half became crown lands; the rest was divided primarily between Catalan and Marseillais knights and the Knights Templar.
24 June Siege of Jaén (1230) : Ferdinand the Saint laid siege to Jaén, Spain.
24 September Alfonso IX died. He was succeeded as king of León by his son Ferdinand the Saint.
SeptemberSiege of Jaén (1230): On hearing of the death of Alfonso IX, Ferdinand the Saint abandoned his siege of Jaén, Spain to be crowned king of León in León, Spain.
1231 Ferdinand the Saint conquered Cazorla.
Battle of Jerez : A Castilian army defeated an army of the emir Ibn Hud near modern Jerez de la Frontera, deep in the latter's territory.
1232 James the Conqueror conquered Menorca.
1233 Ferdinand the Saint conquered Úbeda.
May Siege of Burriana : James the Conqueror laid siege to Borriana, Castellón.
JulySiege of Burriana: The city fell.
1235 James the Conqueror conquered Ibiza.
12367 February Siege of Córdoba (1236) : Ferdinand the Saint arrived in Córdoba, Spain following its fall at the hands of local knights and internal fifth columnists.
123715 August Battle of the Puig : The Valencian king Zayyan ibn Mardanish met an Aragonese invasion force at El Puig, where he was decisively defeated.
1238 Ferdinand the Saint conquered Huelva and obtained the vassalage of Niebla, Andalusia.
28 September James the Conqueror captured Valencia and created himself king of the Kingdom of Valencia.
1240 Ferdinand the Saint conquered Écija and Lucena, Córdoba.
1243 Ferdinand the Saint captured Orihuela and obtained the vassalage of Murcia.
124426 March James the Conqueror signed the Treaty of Almizra, establishing Valencia's border with Castile.
Ferdinand the Saint conquered Arjona, Spain, Mula, Spain and Lorca, Spain.
1245 Ferdinand the Saint conquered Cartagena, Spain.
Siege of Jaén (1245–46) : Ferdinand the Saint, joined by the Order of Santiago, laid siege to Jaén, Spain.
124628 FebruarySiege of Jaén (1245–46): Muhammad I of Granada, king of Granada, surrendered the city to Castile and agreed to tributary relationship. He was created king of the Kingdom of Jaén.
1247July Siege of Seville : Ferdinand the Saint laid siege to Seville.
1248 Ferdinand the Saint obtained the vassalage of Alicante.
23 NovemberSiege of Seville: Seville, the last Muslim polity on the Iberian Peninsula apart from the Emirate of Granada, surrendered to Castile, promising that the city would be turned over no later than the following month. Ferdinand the Saint created himself king of the Kingdom of Seville.
125230 May Ferdinand the Saint died. He was succeeded by his son Alfonso X the Wise of Castile.
1253 Alfonso the Wise captured the Algarve from Portugal.
Alfonso the Wise gave his daughter Beatrice of Castile to the Portuguese king Afonso III of Portugal, and promised to cede the Algarve to their firstborn son on his seventh birthday.
125628 January King of the Romans William II of Holland was killed in battle with the Frisians near Hoogwoud.
125715 January Imperial election, January 1257 : Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, count of Poitou and earl of Cornwall, was elected King of the Romans.
1 April Imperial election, April 1257 : Alfonso the Wise, who claimed the title through descent from his grandfather Philip of Swabia, was elected King of the Romans.
Alfonso the Wise debased the Castilian coinage and introduced a tariff to raise money for a campaign in support of his claim to the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, against that of Richard.
1261 Siege of Jerez (1261) : Castile and Granada laid siege to Jerez de la Frontera.
Siege of Jerez (1261): The citizens of Jerez de la Frontera agreed to resume tribute payments to Castile.
1262 James the Conqueror created the Kingdom of Majorca in his will.
Niebla, Andalusia was incorporated into Castile.
Iberian Peninsula as of 1262 after Niebla, Andalusia was incorporated into Castile. CastillaLeon 1360-es.svg
Iberian Peninsula as of 1262 after Niebla, Andalusia was incorporated into Castile.
1264 Mudéjar revolt of 1264–1266 : The Muslim subjects of Castile, encouraged by Muhammad I, rebelled in Andalusia and Murcia.
8 AugustMudéjar revolt of 1264–1266: Nuño González de Lara, head of the Castilian garrison at Jerez de la Frontera, fled his post. The Alcázar of Jerez de la Frontera was taken.
9 OctoberMudéjar revolt of 1264–1266: Castilian forces retook Jerez de la Frontera.
126528 AugustThe Siete Partidas , a code of law, was completed in Castile.
October Conquest of Murcia (1265–66) : James the Conqueror entered Muslim-held territory in support of the Castilian suppression of the Mudéjar revolt.
12662 JanuaryConquest of Murcia (1265–66): James the Conqueror laid siege to Murcia.
31 JanuaryConquest of Murcia (1265–66): Murcia surrendered.
26 February Battle of Benevento : Manfred, King of Sicily, the king of Sicily, was killed during the conquest of the kingdom by Charles I of Anjou, count of Anjou.
Alicante was incorporated into Castile.
126716 February Alfonso the Wise and Afonso III signed the Treaty of Badajoz, a pact of friendship and mutual assistance. The treaty established the border between Castile and Portugal to the latter's disadvantage.
1272The Castilian nobility rebelled against Alfonso the Wise following his mismanagement of the economy.
1275 Battle of Écija (1275) : Granadan forces routed a Castilian army moving through their territory to meet a Marinid advance.
127627 July James the Conqueror died. He was succeeded as king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona by one son, Peter III the Great of Aragon, and as king of Majorca by another, James II of Majorca.
1278July Siege of Algeciras (1278–79) : Castile laid siege to the Marinid port city of Algeciras.
25 July Battle of Algeciras (1278) : A combined Marinid-Granadan fleet destroyed the Castilian navy in the Strait of Gibraltar.
1279 James II agreed by treaty to become a vassal of Aragon.
5 AugustSiege of Algeciras (1278–79): A Marinid force destroyed the Castilian navy in port in the Bay of Gibraltar and captured and executed the soldiers besieging the city.
128023 June Battle of Moclín (1280) : A force consisting of Castilian soldiers and most of the Order of Santiago was wiped out by a Granadan army at Moclín while returning from a raid.
1282 Alfonso the Wise, facing military pressure from his nobility, was forced to accept his son Sancho IV the Brave of Castile as his heir.
30 March Sicilian Vespers : A number of French officers were killed by locals in rioting near Palermo.
War of the Sicilian Vespers : Sicilian rebels appealed to Peter the Great to overthrow Charles of Anjou's administration and rule by right of his wife Constance of Sicily, Queen of Aragon, Manfred's daughter.
12838 July Battle of Malta : An Aragonese fleet surprised and sank a Neapolitan fleet in the Grand Harbour, delaying the latter's planned invasion of Sicily.
12842 February Aragonese Crusade : The pope Pope Martin IV called for a crusade against Peter the Great, and declared him deposed in Aragon in favor of Charles, Count of Valois, the count of Valois.
4 April Alfonso the Wise died. He was succeeded by Sancho the Brave, though his will appointed his grandson Alfonso de la Cerda his successor in León.
5 June Battle of the Gulf of Naples : The Aragonese and Sicilian navies drew out a Neapolitan fleet in the Gulf of Naples and captured Charles of Anjou as well as some ten galleys.
12854 September Battle of Les Formigues : A Sicilian-Aragonese fleet decisively defeated the French and Genoans, probably near the Formigues Islands.
30 September Battle of the Col de Panissars : An Aragonese force massacred the French army during its retreat over the Pyrenees.
11 November Peter the Great died at Vilafranca del Penedès. He was succeeded as king of Aragon by his eldest son Alfonso III the Liberal, the Free of Aragon and as king of Sicily by his second son James II the Just of Aragon.
Alfonso the Liberal conquered Mallorca.
1286 Alfonso the Liberal conquered Ibiza.
128717 January Alfonso the Liberal conquered Menorca and annexed it to the Kingdom of Majorca, dissolving its autonomous government.
23 June Battle of the Counts : A Sicilian-Aragonese fleet defeated a superior Angevin force at Naples, breaking the latter's attempted invasion of Sicily.
20 DecemberThe Union of Aragon, a political organization of nobles and townspeople in Aragon, won the Privilege of the Union, a devolution of many royal powers to the Aragonese nobility, from Alfonso the Liberal.
1288 Alfonso the Liberal released Alfonso de la Cerda from captivity in the fortress at Xàtiva and declared him king of Castile and León.
129119 FebruaryAragonese Crusade: The pope Pope Nicholas IV, Philip IV the Fair, the Iron King of France, king of France, Charles II the Lame of Naples, king of Naples, and Alfonso the Liberal signed the Treaty of Tarascon, ending the crusade. Alfonso the Liberal agreed to remove all Aragonese troops from Sicily. In return, the pope recognized him as king of Aragon and lifted his excommunication.
18 June Alfonso the Liberal died. He was succeeded by James the Just.
1295 Battle of Iznalloz : The Emirate of Granada expelled a Castillian garrison and the Order of Calatrava from their fortress overlooking the border at Iznalloz.
25 April Sancho the Brave died of tuberculosis in Toledo, Spain. He was succeeded by his young son Ferdinand IV the Summoned of Castile as king of Castile and León, with his wife María de Molina acting as regent.
20 JuneThe pope Pope Boniface VIII, James the Just, Philip the Fair, Charles the Lame and James II of Majorca signed the Treaty of Anagni. Under the treaty, James the Just granted Sicily to the pope, who in turn gifted it to Charles the Lame, and agreed to aid the latter in its reconquest.
War of the Sicilian Vespers: The people of Sicily rejected the Treaty of Anagni and acclaimed James the Just's younger brother Frederick III of Sicily their king.
1296April Aragonese troops invaded Castile in support of Alfonso de la Cerda's claim to the throne.
John of Castile, Lord of Valencia de Campos, a son of Alfonso the Wise, was crowned king of León, Seville and Galicia in León, Spain.
Alfonso de la Cerda was crowned king of Castile, Toledo, Córdoba, Murcia and Jaén at Sahagún.
129713 September María de Molina and Denis of Portugal, king of Portugal signed the Treaty of Alcañices. Denis agreed to support Ferdinand the Summoned against the rebels Alfonso de la Cerda and John of Castile and to give him the hand of his daughter Constance of Portugal in marriage. In exchange, he received some Castilian territory along the Portuguese border.
12994 July Battle of Cape Orlando : An Aragonese-Angevin fleet defeated the Sicilian navy near Sicily.
1 December Battle of Falconaria : A Sicilian fleet decisively defeated the Neapolitan navy off the shore between Marsala and Trapani and captured its commander, Charles the Lame's son Philip I, Prince of Taranto.
130014 June Battle of Ponza (1300) : An Aragonese-Angevin fleet defeated a Sicilian one near Ponza.
26 June John of Castile renounced his royal titles and declared his fealty to Ferdinand the Summoned.

14th century

1331In the city of Alicante, Moorish forces attempted a siege.
1339The Treaty of Madrid was signed in Madrid.
1366Starts a civil war against Enrique de Trastamara, son of Alfonso XI.

15th century

146919 October Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon were married, laying the foundation for the unification of the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon into Spain.
147410 DecemberThe reign of Isabella began.
1475The War of the Castilian Succession began. Vasco Nunez de Balboa was born.
1478The Spanish Inquisition was founded.
1479War of the Castilian Succession: The war ended.
20 JanuaryThe reign of Ferdinand began, marking the foundation of the Kingdom of Spain.
4 SeptemberBy the Treaty of Alcáçovas, Portugal recognized Spanish control of the Canary Islands.
149212 OctoberSpanish conquerors discover (encounter) America
The Reconquista ended.
Jews were expelled from Spain by the Alhambra Decree.
3 AugustColumbus sets sail.
1493 Spanish colonization of the Americas began.
1494The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed.
1499 Italian War of 1499–1504 : Ferdinand allied with the French King Louis XII of France.

16th century

1501AprilThe Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1499–1501), a series of uprisings by the Muslim population of the Kingdom of Granada against their Catholic rulers was defeated.
1504Isabella I of Castile died. Her daughter, Joanna of Castile succeeded her with her father, Ferdinand as regent
1506Christopher Columbus died at the age of 51 from an illness.
1512 Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre began.
1516 Ferdinand died.
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, became King of Castile and Aragon.
1519 Vasco Nunez de Balboa died.
15358 March New Spain began till 1821.
155425 July English Queen Mary I of England married Spanish Prince Philip. [7]
1556 Charles abdicated in favor of Philip, who became King Philip II of Spain.
1557 Battle of St. Quentin (1557) : Spain won the battle.
1561 Philip moved his court to Madrid.
1568 Dutch Revolt : A revolt began against Habsburg control of the Netherlands. This started the Eighty Years' War
15717 October Battle of Lepanto (1571) : The Holy League was victorious.
1578Dutch Revolt: The revolt ended.
158025 AugustThe Iberian Union of the crowns of Aragon, Castile and Portugal was established.
The realms of Philip II of Spain
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Territories administered by the Council of Castile
Territories administered by the Council of Aragon
Territories administered by the Council of Portugal
Territories administered by the Council of Italy
Territories administered by the Council of the Indies
Territories appointed to the Council of Flanders Philip II's realms in 1598.png
The realms of Philip II of Spain
  Territories administered by the Council of Castile
  Territories administered by the Council of Aragon
  Territories administered by the Council of Portugal
  Territories administered by the Council of Italy
  Territories administered by the Council of the Indies
  Territories appointed to the Council of Flanders
Philip's European and North African dominions as of 1580 Dominios de Felipe II.svg
Philip's European and North African dominions as of 1580
158126 July Dutch Republic, the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, declared their independence against Spanish rule.
1585 Anglo–Spanish War (1585) : The war began. It was an intermittent conflict
15888 AugustThe Spanish Armada was defeated in the English Channel.
1589The English Armada (known as the Counter Armada) was defeated.
159813 SeptemberPhilip II died in El Escorial, near Madrid, of cancer. [8] He was succeeded by his 20-year-old son, Philip III.

17th century

1604 Anglo-Spanish War (1585) : The war ends with the treaty of London, which is beneficial to both the Spanish and the English side.
1605The Treaty of London (1604) was signed concluding the nineteen-year Anglo-Spanish War on peace terms.
1609April 9The Expulsion of the Moriscos was decreed. The Moriscos were descendants of Spain's Muslim population that had converted to Christianity in the early 16th century.
1618 Thirty Years' War : The war, one of the most destructive conflicts in human history, [9] began.
1621 Philip IV of Spain was crowned. [10]
1640 Portuguese Restoration War : The war began.
The Iberian Union was dissolved.
1648The Treaty of Westphalia was signed. Habsburg supremacy was curtailed. Recognition of the independence of the Dutch Republic by the Spanish Empire. Recognition of Spanish sovereignty of Southern Netherlands and Luxembourg by the Dutch Republic.
1659The Peace of the Pyrenees was signed to end the 1635–1659 war between France and Spain. Spain lost French Flanders and northern part of the Principality of Catalonia.
1665 Philip IV died. [10] The Spanish Empire had reached approximately 12.2 million square kilometers (4.7 million square miles) in area
1668The Treaty of Lisbon was signed. Spain recognized the sovereignty of Portugal's new ruling dynasty, the House of Braganza.
1675 Charles II of Spain, the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire, was crowned.
17001 November Charles II died childless .
House of Bourbon began with Philip V.

18th century

1701 War of the Spanish Succession : The war began.
Europe in 1701 at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession. Colour Grey: Spanish Monarchy (Crown of Castile, Crown of Aragon, Spanish viceroyalty of Naples and Sicily, Duchy of Milan and Spanish Netherlands). Europe c. 1700.png
Europe in 1701 at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession. Colour Grey: Spanish Monarchy (Crown of Castile, Crown of Aragon, Spanish viceroyalty of Naples and Sicily, Duchy of Milan and Spanish Netherlands).
170729 June Nueva Planta decrees : Kingdom of Spain as an absolute monarchy and a centralized state, abolishing the political differences of the two crowns (Crown of Castile, Crown of Aragon).
1713 Peace of Utrecht till 1715. The Kingdom of Spain lost Spanish Netherlands, Spanish viceroyalty of Naples and Sicily, Duchy of Milan, Menorca and Gibraltar.
171727 May Viceroyalty of New Granada began.
1761 Seven Years' War : Spain declared war on Great Britain.
176310 February Treaty of Paris. Spain recovers Florida and obtains Louisiana till 1801.
1778 American Revolutionary War : Spain supported the United States.
1789Spain during this time opened up the slave trade to Havana.
1790 Spanish base in Nootka Sound. Maximum extension of the Spanish empire.
Spanish Empire in 1790. SpanishEmpire1790.svg
Spanish Empire in 1790.

19th century

1801Louisiana given to France
1806 British invasions of the Río de la Plata : The invasions began.
1807British invasions of the Río de la Plata: The invasions ended.
1808 Peninsular War : The war began.
Military campaign of Napoleonic troops in Spain (1808-1812). Dark blue: Territories annexed by France 01 campanasfrancesasenespana.svg
Military campaign of Napoleonic troops in Spain (1808–1812). Dark blue: Territories annexed by France
2 May Dos de Mayo Uprising : An uprising took place in Madrid against the French occupation of the city.
1809 Bolivian Independence War : The war began.
1811 Venezuelan War of Independence : The war began.
1812The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was issued.
1814Peninsular War: The war ended.
1815 Spanish reconquest of New Granada : The reconquest began.
1816Spanish reconquest of New Granada: The reconquest ended.
1820 Trienio Liberal : The period began.
1823Trienio Liberal: The period ended.
1824Bolivian Independence War: The war ended.
1833 First Carlist War : The war began.
1839First Carlist War: The war ended.
1846 Second Carlist War : The war began.
1849Second Carlist War: The war ended.
1864 Chincha Islands War : The war began.
1866Chincha Islands War: The war ended.
1868 Ten Years' War : A war with Cuba began.
1872 Third Carlist War : The war began.
1873The First Spanish Republic was established.
1874 Spain under the Restoration : The period began.
The First Spanish Republic was disestablished.
1876Third Carlist War: The war ended.
1878Ten Years' War: The war ended.
1879 Pablo Iglesias founds the Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE in Casa Labra, a bar from Madrid
189825 April Spanish–American War : The war began.
Spanish Empire as of 1898. Spain in 1898.png
Spanish Empire as of 1898.
12 AugustSpanish–American War: The war ended.

20th century

191227 November Spanish protectorate in Morocco till 1956.
Pink: Spanish Morocco. Red: Spain and Spanish colonies. Morocco Protectorate.svg
Pink: Spanish Morocco. Red: Spain and Spanish colonies.
191428 July Spain remained neutral throughout World War I.
1920 Rif War (1920) : The war began.
192313 September Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera till 1930.
1926Rif War (1920): The war ended.
1931The Second Spanish Republic was established.
Spain under the Restoration: The period ended.
1936 Spanish Civil War (to 1939)
Brown: Initial Nationalist zone - July 1936 General map of the Spanish Civil War (1936-39).svg
Brown: Initial Nationalist zone – July 1936
1939 Spain under Franco : The period began. Spain stays neutral through World War II
1953Spain and the United States signs the Pact of Madrid.
1955Spain joins the United Nations.
1959 Spanish miracle : A period of economic growth began.
1973Spanish miracle: The period ended.
1975 History of Spain (1975–present)
6 NovemberThe Green March forced Spain to hand over its last remaining colonial possession, Spanish Sahara, to Morocco.
20 November Francisco Franco died; the monarchy was restored to Juan Carlos I of Spain.
197618 November Spanish transition to democracy : The transition began.
197715 JuneFirst democratic election since 1934.
197827 DecemberThe Spanish Constitution of 1978 was signed by the King.
Autonomous communities of Spain Comunidades autonomas de Espana.svg
Autonomous communities of Spain
1981 Spanish society after the democratic transition : A democratic society was established.
23 February 23-F : An attempted coup took place.
1982Spain joins NATO.
1986Spain joined the European Union. [11]
1992 1992 Summer Olympics : The Summer Olympics were held in Barcelona. [12]
1997Spain hosts the 1997 NATO Summit.
1998Judge Baltasar Garzón issued an international arrest warrant for former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet.
19991 JanuarySpain joins Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. Euro is a real currency, and a single monetary policy is introduced under the authority of the ECB.
Eurozone as of 2023. Blue color: Members of the Eurozone. Rest of colors: Members of the European Union outside the Eurozone. Europaische Wirtschafts- und Wahrungsunion.svg
Eurozone as of 2023. Blue color: Members of the Eurozone. Rest of colors: Members of the European Union outside the Eurozone.

21st century

2003 22 August Fernando Alonso wins the Hungarian Grand Prix, marking him F1's youngest winner.
2004 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings : Madrid train bombings killed one hundred and ninety-one and injured over two thousand. Prime Minister José María Aznar blamed the Basque terrorists ETA.
14 March Aznar's People's Party lost an election after the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero promised to withdraw Spanish troops from Iraq.
2005 PADICAT (archive) established.
25 SeptemberFernando Alonso wins the Championship against Kimi Räikkönen in Brazil, marking him F1's youngest world champion.
2006 30 December 2006 Madrid–Barajas Airport bombing : A bombing by ETA ended an active ceasefire and peace negotiations.
2008Moroccan national Jamal Zougam was found guilty of the 2004 train bombings in Madrid.
Garzón was charged with criminal conduct in three cases, causing an international scandal and protests.
Spain won the UEFA European Championship Final, establishing the team as an international soccer power house.
2010 JulySpain won the FIFA World Cup. [13]
Garzón was granted leave to work as a consultant to the International Criminal Court at The Hague.
2015 Artur Mas defies Spain by calling early elections on independence of the region of Catalonia.
2017 17–18 August 2017 Barcelona attacks : Barcelona, Cambrils, Alcanar and Subirats were attacked by terrorists from Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
1 October 2017 Catalan independence referendum : An unconstitutional referendum of independence were called by Generalitat de Catalunya, as Parliament of Catalonia approved the Law on the Referendum of Self-determination of Catalonia. In early September the High Court of Justice of Catalonia had issued orders to the police to try to prevent it, including the detention of various persons responsible for its preparation.
27 October Catalan declaration of independence : Catalan unilateral declaration of independence was ratified by Parliament of Catalonia as the results of the referendum were in favor. Spain considers this action illegal and article 155 of the constitution was applied.
29 October Carles Puigdemont flee from Spain to avoid being arrested after his dismissal by Spain, after proclaiming the independence of Catalonia.
2018 June Pedro Sánchez is sworn in as Prime Minister after winning a motion of censure.
2019 Trial of Catalonia independence leaders : Takes place over several months, following the 2017 declaration of independence of Catalonia. Nine defendants sentenced to 9 to 13 years in prison on sedition and misuse of public funds charges; three other defendants fined for disobedience. This sparked subsequent protests by independence citizens.
2020 13 January Sánchez II Government : It become the first nationwide coalition government to be formed in Spain since the Second Spanish Republic. The parties were Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and Unidas Podemos.
31 January COVID-19 pandemic starts in Spain with the first confirmated case in La Gomera (Canary Islands). You can view the confirmed cases, recovered and deaths in this link: COVID-19 pandemic in Spain.
2022 28 JuneSpain hosts the 2022 Madrid Summit.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Spain</span>

The history of Spain dates to contact between the pre-Roman peoples of the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula made with the Greeks and Phoenicians. During Classical Antiquity, the peninsula was the site of multiple successive colonizations of Greeks, Carthaginians, and Romans. Native peoples of the peninsula, such as the Tartessos people, intermingled with the colonizers to create a uniquely Iberian culture. The Romans referred to the entire peninsula as Hispania, from which the name "Spain" originates. As was the rest of the Western Roman Empire, Spain was subject to the numerous invasions of Germanic tribes during the 4th and 5th centuries AD, resulting in the end of Roman rule and the establishment of Germanic kingdoms, marking the beginning of the Middle Ages in Spain.

<i>Reconquista</i> Medieval Christian military campaign

The Reconquista or the reconquest of al-Andalus was the successful series of military campaigns that European Christian kingdoms waged against the Muslim kingdoms following the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by the Umayyad Caliphate. The beginning of the Reconquista is traditionally dated to the Battle of Covadonga, in which an Asturian army achieved the first Christian victory over the forces of the Umayyad Caliphate since the beginning of the military invasion. Its culmination came in 1492 with the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the Catholic Monarchs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Bourbon</span> Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty

The House of Bourbon is a dynasty that originated in the Kingdom of France as a branch of the Capetian dynasty, the royal House of France. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. A branch descended from the French Bourbons came to rule Spain in the 18th century and is the current Spanish royal family. Further branches, descended from the Spanish Bourbons, held thrones in Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Today, Spain and Luxembourg have monarchs of the House of Bourbon. The royal Bourbons originated in 1272, when Robert, the youngest son of King Louis IX of France, married the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon. The house continued for three centuries as a cadet branch, serving as nobles under the direct Capetian and Valois kings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Philip V of Spain</span> King of Spain (r. 1700–1724; 1724–1746)

Philip V was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 14 January 1724 and again from 6 September 1724 to his death in 1746. His total reign is the longest in the history of the Spanish monarchy, surpassing Philip IV. Philip V instigated many important reforms in Spain, most especially the centralization of power of the monarchy and the suppression of regional privileges, via the Nueva Planta decrees, and restructuring of the administration of the Spanish Empire on the Iberian Peninsula and its overseas regions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Isabella II</span> Queen of Spain from 1833 to 1868

Isabella II was Queen of Spain from 1833 until her deposition in 1868. She is the only queen regnant in the history of unified Spain.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ferdinand VII</span> King of Spain, 1808 and 1813–1833

Ferdinand VII was King of Spain during the early 19th century. He reigned briefly in 1808 and then again from 1813 to his death in 1833. Before 1813 he was known as el Deseado, and after, as el ReyFelón.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Habsburg monarchy</span> Monarchy in Europe (1282–1918)

The Habsburg monarchy, also known as Habsburg Empire, or Habsburg Realm, was the collection of empires, kingdoms, duchies, counties and other polities that were ruled by the House of Habsburg. From the 18th century it is also referred to as the Danubian monarchy or the Austrian monarchy.

The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the 18th century with the new Bourbon dynasty, following the death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, in 1700. The period of reform and 'enlightened despotism' under the eighteenth-century Bourbons focused on centralizing and modernizing the Spanish government, and improvement of infrastructure, beginning with the rule of King Charles III and the work of his minister, José Moñino, count of Floridablanca. In the political and economic sphere, the crown implemented a series of changes, collectively known as the Bourbon reforms, which were aimed at making the overseas empire more prosperous to the benefit of Spain.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coat of arms of Spain</span> National coat of arms of Spain

The coat of arms of Spain represents Spain and the Spanish nation, including its national sovereignty and the country's form of government, a constitutional monarchy. It appears on the flag of Spain and it is used by the Government of Spain, the Cortes Generales, the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and other state institutions. Its design consists of the arms of the medieval kingdoms that would unite to form Spain in the 15th century, the Royal Crown, the arms of the House of Bourbon, the Pillars of Hercules and the Spanish national motto: Plus Ultra. The monarch, the heir to the throne and some institutions like the Senate, the Council of State and the General Council of the Judiciary have their own variants of the coat of arms; thus the state coat of arms is not an arms of dominion.

Ardo is attested as the last of all Visigothic kings of Hispania, reigning from 713 or 714 until his death in 720 or 721. The Visigothic Kingdom was already severely reduced in power and area at the time he succeeded Achila II, and his dominions probably did not extend beyond Septimania and present-day Catalonia, due to the Arab conquests of the previous three years.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Royal Standard of Spain</span> Official flag of Spanish monarchs

The Royal Standard of Spain is the official flag of the King of Spain. It comprises a crimson square, traditional colour of both Castilian and Spanish monarchs, with the coat of arms of the King in the center. It is raised over the official royal residence in Madrid, the Palacio de la Zarzuela and other Spanish royal sites, when the monarch is in residence and displayed on his official car as small flag. The current flag was adopted when Felipe VI acceded the throne as King of Spain on 19 June 2014. The Royal Standard is regulated by Rule 2 of Royal Decree 527/2014, 20 June, an amendment to Title II of Spanish Royal Decree 1511/1977 adopting Flags, Standards, Guidons, Insignia and Emblems Regulation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Visigothic Kingdom</span> 418–720 kingdom in Iberia

The Visigothic Kingdom, Visigothic Spain or Kingdom of the Goths occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries. One of the Germanic successor states to the Western Roman Empire, it was originally created by the settlement of the Visigoths under King Wallia in the province of Gallia Aquitania in southwest Gaul by the Roman government and then extended by conquest over all of Hispania. The Kingdom maintained independence from the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, whose attempts to re-establish Roman authority in Hispania were only partially successful and short-lived.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of the Catholic Church in Spain</span> Church history in Spain

The Catholic Church in Spain has a long history, starting in the 1st century. It is the largest religion in Spain, with 58.6% of Spaniards identifying as Catholic.

The Democratic Party, more formally known as the Democratic Progressive Party, was a Spanish political party in the reign of Isabella II. It was a clandestine organisation except during the Progressive Biennium (1854–1856).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Republicanism in Spain</span> Political position and movement

Republicanism in Spain is a political position and movement that holds that Spain should be a republic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bombardment of Barcelona (1842)</span>

The Barcelona of 1842 was a keg of social conflict. Amongst the issues was the free trade policy of the regent General Espartero and the damage it was causing to the textile industry and the livelihood of workers. Another simmering issue was the tax required to be paid for bringing food into the city. A climate of permanent tension existed in the city that foreshadowed an eventual explosion of violence.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Spain (1700–1808)</span> Period of Spanish history

The Kingdom of Spain entered a new era with the death of Charles II, the last Spanish Habsburg monarch, who died childless in 1700. The War of the Spanish Succession was fought between proponents of a Bourbon prince, Philip of Anjou, and the Austrian Habsburg claimant, Archduke Charles. After the wars were ended with the Peace of Utrecht, Philip V's rule began in 1715, although he had to renounce his place in the succession of the French throne.


  1. "History of Spain". www.lamoncloa.gob.es. Retrieved 13 June 2024.
    • The Visigothic Kingdom: First Attempt at Peninsular Unity (472–710)
    • Moorish Spain/Christian Spain: Resistance to the Reconquest of Spain (710–1492)
    • House of Habsburg: The Spanish Empire (1516–1700)
    • House of Bourbon: Centralism (1700–1808)
    • Dissolution of the Old Regime and the Napoleonic Invasion (1808–1814)
    • Liberal reaction and Revolution (1814–1833)
    • Regency and reign of Isabella II (1833–1868)
    • Revolutionary Six Years (1868–1874)
    • Restoration (1875–1923)
    • Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and the fall of the Monarchy (1923–1931)
    • Second Republic and Spanish Civil War (1931–1939)
    • General Franco's regime (1939–1975)
    • Democratic transition and Constitutional Monarchy (1975–present)
  2. "Inicio - La Monarquía en la Historia - The Monarchy through History". www.casareal.es. Retrieved 13 June 2024.
  3. Following the death of Amalaric (531). See: Barnish, S. J. B.; Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Social Stress (2007). The Ostrogoths from the migration period to the sixth century: an ethnographic perspective. Boydell & Brewer. p. 369.
  4. www.casareal.es "The Monarchy through the History of Spain"
  5. Capital of the Visigothic kingdom by the end of the reign of Athanagild (died 567). Collins, Roger (2004). Visigothic Spain, 409–711. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 44.
  6. JUAN GIL/ HABIS 44 (2013) 359-366 - © Universidad de Sevilla – ISSN 0210-7694359DE ALTA EDAD MEDIA HISPANAJuan GilReal Academia Españ- (2013). "DE ALTA EDAD MEDIA HISPANA". p. 363 Isidore of Seville about Swinthila: "Totius Spaniae intra oceani fretum monarchiam regni primum iste potitus" (He first obtained the monarchy of the whole of Spain within the coast of the ocean. ).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  7. "RCIN 630355 – Philippus II 1555". www.royalcollection.org.uk. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  8. Koenigsberger, Helmut Georg (2012), Philip II, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, retrieved 31 January 2012
  9. Peter H. Wilson, Europe's Tragedy: A New History of the Thirty Years War (London: Penguin, 2010), 787.
  10. 1 2 "Philip IV – king of Spain and Portugal". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  11. "Spain in the European Union: the first twenty-five years (1986–2011)". University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  12. "Barcelona 1992 Olympic Games". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  13. "Spain win World Cup 2010". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 25 July 2017.