Wisconsin Sikh temple shooting

Last updated

Wisconsin Sikh temple shooting
Part of mass shootings in the United States
USA Wisconsin location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Oak Creek
Wisconsin Sikh temple shooting (Wisconsin)
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Wisconsin Sikh temple shooting (the United States)
LocationSikh Temple of Wisconsin
7512 S. Howell Avenue
Oak Creek, Wisconsin, United States
Coordinates 42°54′29″N87°54′39″W / 42.90806°N 87.91083°W / 42.90806; -87.91083 Coordinates: 42°54′29″N87°54′39″W / 42.90806°N 87.91083°W / 42.90806; -87.91083
DateAugust 5, 2012 (2012-08-05)
10:25 a.m. (CDT)
TargetWorshippers at a Sikh temple
Attack type
Mass shooting
Murder-suicide
Mass murder
Domestic terrorism
Hate crime
Weapons 9mm Springfield XD(M) semi-automatic pistol [1] [2]
Deaths8 (including the perpetrator and a victim who died in 2020)
Injured3
PerpetratorWade Michael Page [3]
Motive White supremacy

On August 5, 2012, a mass shooting took place at the gurdwara (Sikh temple) in Oak Creek, Wisconsin, United States where 40-year-old Wade Michael Page fatally shot six people and wounded four others. [3] [4] A seventh victim died of his wounds in 2020. [5] Page committed suicide by shooting himself in the head after he was shot in the hip by a responding police officer.

Contents

Page was an American white supremacist and Army veteran from Cudahy, Wisconsin. Apart from the shooter, all of the dead were members of the Sikh faith. The incident drew responses from President Barack Obama and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Dignitaries attended candlelight vigils in countries such as the U.S., Canada, and India. [3] [6] [7] First Lady Michelle Obama visited the temple on August 23, 2012. [8]

Shooting and police response

The temple was preparing langar , a Sikh communal meal, for later in the day. [9] Witnesses suggested that women and children would have been at the temple preparing for the meal at the time of the incident, as children's classes were scheduled to begin at 11:30 a.m. [10] [11]

Wade Michael Page was armed with a 9mm Springfield XD(M) semi-automatic pistol. [12] [9] Page had legally purchased the gun in Wisconsin. [12]

Following emergency calls around 10:25 a.m. CDT, police responded to a shooting at a Sikh gurdwara located in Oak Creek, Wisconsin. On arrival, they engaged the gunman, later identified as Wade Michael Page, who had shot several people at the temple, killing six. Page wounded an officer; after being shot in the stomach by another, he fatally shot himself in the head. Four people were killed inside the temple, and three people, including Page, died outside. Page killed five men and one woman, ranging in age from 39 to 84. [9]

Three men were transported to Froedtert Hospital, including one of the responding officers. [13] [14] [15] [16]

Initial reports said the gunman had died from being shot by police officers at the scene, but the FBI later clarified that Page, after being shot by an officer, died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head. [17] [18]

Authorities released an audio recording of the incident, during which the first responding officer, Lieutenant Brian Murphy, was shot by the gunman. It contained the words "I have someone walking out the driveway towards me. Man with a gun, white t-shirt", followed by the sound of gunfire. [19] In September 2012, authorities released video recordings taken by squad cars during the incident, including the moments when Murphy was shot, and the gunman being shot by another officer. [20] Murphy was shot fifteen times by Page, but survived. [21]

The Joint Terrorism Task Force investigated the site, and Oak Creek police chief John Edwards said his force treated the incident as a "domestic terrorism incident" in "the beginning stages of this investigation". [22] [23] Oak Creek police handed the investigation over to the FBI. [24] They also investigated possible ties to white supremacist groups and other racial motivations. [25] [26] [27] [28] The FBI said there was no reason to think anyone else was involved in the attack, and they were not aware of any past threat made against the temple. [29] U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder described the incident as "an act of terrorism, an act of hatred, a hate crime". [30]

Victims

The six victims killed [31] included one woman: Paramjit Kaur, 41; and five men: Satwant Singh Kaleka, 65, the founder of the gurdwara; Prakash Singh, 39, a Granthi; Sita Singh, 41; Ranjit Singh, 49; and Suveg Singh, 84. [9] [32] [33] All of the male victims wore turbans as part of their Sikh faith. [34] [35] Four of the victims were Indian nationals, while the rest were Americans. [36]

The injured included a responding officer, Lt. Brian Murphy, [37] who was shot fifteen times at close range, including once in the face and once in the back of the head. [33] He was discharged from the hospital on August 22, 2012. [38] Sikhs for Justice, a New York-based group, pledged a $10,000 award to Murphy. [37] Two Sikh residents of Yuba City, California donated another $100,000 to Lieutenant Murphy and praised his bravery. [39]

Included among the injured was Baba Punjab Singh, a Sikh priest who was shot in the head. He was left partially paralyzed from the wound for more than seven years and died on March 2, 2020. [5]

Perpetrator

Wade Michael Page (November 11, 1971 – August 5, 2012) [40] was an American white supremacist living in Cudahy, Wisconsin. [41] Page was born and grew up in Colorado. [42] He served in the U.S. Army from April 1992 through October 1998, [43] [44] In the Army, Page had learned to repair the Hawk missile system, before becoming a psychological operations specialist. [25] [45] He was demoted and received a general discharge [25] for "patterns of misconduct," including being drunk while on duty and going absent without leave. [14] [15] [45]

After his discharge, Page returned to Colorado, living in the Denver suburb of Littleton from 2000 through 2007. [46] Page worked as a truck driver from 2006 to 2010, but was fired after receiving a citation for impaired driving due to drinking. [47] [48]

Page had ties to white supremacist and neo-Nazi groups, and was reportedly a member of the Hammerskins. [26] He entered the white power music scene in 2000, becoming involved in several neo-Nazi bands. [49] He founded the band End Apathy in 2005 and played in the bands Definite Hate and Blue Eyed Devils, [50] all considered racist white-power bands by the Southern Poverty Law Center. [25] [51]

Page's former step-mother apologized to the Sikh victims [52] and said she had not been in touch with her stepson for the past twelve years, after divorcing his father. [25] A former friend described him as a "loner" and said he had talked about an "impending racial holy war". [53] According to his neighbors, Page lived alone, rarely left his apartment, and avoided eye contact with them. [54]

Page legally purchased the handgun used in the shooting on July 28, 2012, at a gun shop in West Allis, Wisconsin. [12] Page passed the background checks required, and paid cash for the gun, along with three 19-round magazines. [55] The owner of the gun shop said that Page's appearance and demeanor in the shop "raised no eyebrows whatsoever". [2]

Following the shooting, photographs of Page appeared in media reports showing him with a range of tattoos on his arms and upper body, which were said to show his links to white supremacist organizations. [56]

Oak Creek Police Chief John Edwards declined to speculate on the motive behind the attack, saying "I don't know why, and I don't know that we'll ever know, because when he died, that died with him what his motive was or what he was thinking." [57]

Reactions

President Barack Obama offered his condolences, calling the Sikh community "a part of our broader American family," [58] and ordered flags at federal buildings flown at half-staff until August 10 to honor the victims. [59] [60] Obama called for "soul searching" on how to reduce violence. [61] Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker and other officials also issued statements of sympathy for the victims of the shooting and their families. [62] [63] Nancy Powell, the United States Ambassador to India, attended prayers for the victims at Gurudwara Bangla Sahib in New Delhi. [64] Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that the attack being at a Sikh temple added to the pain, and stated that India stood in support of all peace-loving Americans who condemned the shooting. [65] Following the incident, there were vigils as well as some protests against the United States by Sikhs in India. [66] [67] [68] [69] On August 9, Indian members of parliament in New Delhi joined ranks in parliament to offer condolences to families of the victims. [70] Jathedar Giani Gurbachan Singh, the highest-ranking priest within the Sikh faith, [71] called the shooting a "security lapse" by the U.S. government, and recommended that Sikhs in the United States adopt all possible security measures at their temples. [71] Oak Creek Sikh residents said the incident had shocked their community. [72]

Many Sikh Americans did not approve of the protests in India against the United States, and strongly condemned the actions, such as flag-burnings, taken by the protesters. [73] U.S.-based Sikh community groups pledged assistance to the victims and their families, and urged Sikh Americans to organize interfaith vigils. [74] They also organized to send an emergency response team to Wisconsin. [74]

Many other Americans held candlelight vigils in support of the Sikh community, and dignitaries such as Governor Walker attended. [75] [76] Congressman Paul Ryan introduced a bill in Congress condemning the tragedy which stated the House "condemns the senseless attack". [77] On September 19, 2012, a Congressional hearing addressed hate crimes in response to the tragedy, before the Senate Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights convened by Senator Dick Durbin. [78] [79]

In the aftermath of the shooting, Amar Kaleka, the son of Satwant Singh Kaleka, became involved in politics, supporting gun control and new legislation to reduce hate crimes. [80] Kaleka criticized Obama, who visited the sites of other mass shootings, but not the Sikh Temple. [81] As a member of the Democratic Party, Kaleka ran unsuccessfully in the Democratic primary for the United States House of Representatives in Wisconsin's 1st congressional district in the 2014 election. [80]

Political scientist Naunihal Singh criticized the media response, pointing out that the shooting received less media attention than other similar shootings. He suggested that this was due to the racial and religious identities of the shooter and victims. [82]

See also

Related Research Articles

Oak Creek, Wisconsin City in Wisconsin, United States

Oak Creek is a city in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. Located in Milwaukee County, it sits on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan and is located immediately south of Milwaukee. The city is one of the fastest growing in Milwaukee County and all of Wisconsin. As of the 2020 census the population was 36,497.

Operation Blue Star 1984 Indian military operation

Operation Blue Star was the codename of a military-operation carried out by Indian security forces between 1 and 10 June 1984 in order to remove Damdami Taksal, Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and their followers from the buildings of the Golden Temple, the holiest site for Sikhs located in Amritsar, Punjab, India. The decision to launch the operation rested with the Prime Minister of India, then Indira Gandhi, who had already authorized military preparation for a confrontation at the temple complex 18 months prior according to the then-Vice Chief of the Army Staff, S. K. Sinha. In July 1982, Harchand Singh Longowal, the president of the Sikh political party Shiromani Akali Dal, had invited Bhindranwale to take up residence in the Golden Temple to evade arrest by government authorities.

Balbir Singh Sodhi, a Sikh-American entrepreneur and franchisee in Mesa, Arizona, was murdered in a hate crime in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. This was the first of several cases across the United States that were reported to the police as supposed acts of retaliation for the attacks. Balbir Singh Sodhi, who had a beard and wore a turban in accordance with his Sikh faith, was profiled as an Arab Muslim and murdered by 42-year-old Frank Silva Roque, a Boeing aircraft mechanic at a local repair facility who held a criminal record for an attempted robbery in California. Roque had reportedly told friends that he was "going to go out and shoot some towel-heads" the day of the attacks. Roque was sentenced to death for first degree murder. He died in prison on May 11, 2022.

The Hammerskins are a white supremacist group formed in 1988 in Dallas, Texas. Their primary focus is the production and promotion of white power rock music, and many white power bands have been affiliated with the group. The Hammerskins were affiliated with the record label 9% Productions. The Hammerskins host several annual concerts, including Hammerfest, an annual event in both the United States and Europe in honor of deceased Hammerskin Joe Rowan, the lead singer of the band Nordic Thunder.

South Asian Canadians Ethnic group

South Asian Canadians are Canadians who were either born in or can trace their ancestry to the South Asian subcontinent, which includes the nations of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives.

Domestic terrorism in the United States consists of incidents which are confirmed to be domestic terrorist acts. These attacks are considered domestic because they occurred within the United States and they were carried out by U.S. citizens and/or U.S. permanent residents. As of 2021, the United States government considers white supremacists to be the top domestic terrorism threat.

Ontario Gurdwara Committee

The Ontario Gurdwaras Committee is a group of over 20 gurdwaras located in Ontario and Quebec. A gurdwara, meaning "the doorway to the Guru", is the Sikh place of worship. It organizes the annual Khalsa Day parade in Mississauga; over 100,000 people attended the parade in 2012.

Gurdwara Sahib of El Sobrante

The Sikh Center of San Francisco Bay Area is a Sikh gurdwara in the hills of unincorporated El Sobrante, California, in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area.

Sikhism in the United States Religious community

Sikhism is a religion originating from medieval India which was introduced into the United States during the 19th century. In 2007, there were estimated to be between 250,000 and 500,000 Sikhs living in the United States, with the largest populations living on the East and West Coasts, together with additional populations in Detroit, Chicago, Houston, Dallas, and Indianapolis. The United States also has a number of non-Punjabi converts to Sikhism.

Sikhism in Canada Religious community

Canadian Sikhs number roughly 500,000 people and account for roughly 1.4% of Canada's population. Canadian Sikhs are often credited for paving the path and creating the presence of Sikhism in the United States. Sikhism is a world religion with 27 million followers worldwide, with majority of their population in Punjab, India. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario and all other provinces in Canada celebrates April as Sikh Heritage Month.

Sikhism is a religion originating in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent. The religion was recorded as the religion of 420,196 people resident in England at the 2011 Census, along with 2,962 people in Wales, 9,055 in Scotland and 216 in Northern Ireland, making for a total Sikh population of 432,429.

Asian Canadians Ethnic group

Asian Canadians are Canadians who can trace their ancestry back to the continent of Asia or Asian people. Canadians with Asian ancestry comprise both the largest and fastest growing group in Canada, after European Canadians, with roughly 17.7% of the Canadian population. Most Asian Canadians are concentrated in the urban areas of Southern Ontario, Southwestern British Columbia, Central Alberta, and other large Canadian cities.

Golden Temple Sikh religious site in Amritsar, Punjab, India

The Golden Temple is a gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. It is the preeminent spiritual site of Sikhism. It is one of the holiest sites in Sikhism, alongside the Gurdwara Darbar Sahib Kartarpur in Kartarpur, and Gurdwara Janam Asthan in Nankana Sahib.

<i>Overpass Light Brigade</i>

Overpass Light Brigade (OLB) is an activist collaborative public art project based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and organized by American artists Lane Hall and Lisa Moline and photographer Joe Brusky. The artwork is an episodic performance originally created as part of the 2011 Wisconsin protests to raise awareness about the campaign to recall Governor Scott Walker. OLB was co-founded by Hall and Moline. Brusky, a community organizer and co-founder of Occupy Riverwest, soon joined the project and facilitated its continued growth and social media presence.

Amar Kaleka Indian-American film director (born 1978)

Amardeep Singh Kaleka is an Indian-American film director who won a regional Emmy Award for his direction of the short film Jacob's Turn in 2010 and another one for Esperanza (2014). Following his father's death in the Wisconsin Sikh temple shooting in 2012, Kaleka became involved in politics, supporting gun control, progressive economic reform, and the peace agenda. During the summer of 2014, he ran unsuccessfully in the Democratic primary for the United States House of Representatives in Wisconsin's 1st congressional district, losing to Rob Zerban.

On Sunday 24 May 2009, several people in the Guru Ravidass Gurdwara in Vienna, Austria, were attacked by six men carrying knives and guns. Two of the victims were identified as visiting Dera Sach Khand head Niranjan Dass, 68, and another leader, Rama Nand, 57, who suffered multiple gunshot wounds and died the next day in hospital. At least 15 others were injured, including 4 of the attackers, who were in the end subdued by the other worshipers. It was described as a terrorist attack committed by Sikh fundamentalists. The incident sparked riots across northern India.

The Wall of Truth is a memorial in New Delhi, India, for Sikhs killed during the 1984 anti-Sikh riots. The memorial is located in Lutyens' Delhi at the Gurdwara Rakab Ganj Sahib complex near the Parliament of India. The foundation stone was laid in June 2013, the construction work began in November 2014 and the memorial was inaugurated on 15 January 2017. The monument complex is also known as the 'Sikh Genocide Memorial'. It has been built under the Delhi Sikh Gurudwara Management Committee.

On 25 March 2020, ISIS-Haqqani network gunmen and suicide bombers attacked the Gurdwara Har Rai Sahib in Kabul, Afghanistan.

References

  1. "Police evacuate Wis. neighborhood near shooting". CBS News. August 5, 2012. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  2. 1 2 Hennessy-Fiske, Molly; Murphy, Kim (August 8, 2012). "Sikh temple shooting: Gun shop owner says Wade Page seemed normal". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  3. 1 2 3 "Sources name alleged gunman in Wisconsin temple shooting". CNN. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  4. Ramde, Dinesh (August 5, 2012). "Wisconsin Temple Shooting: Oak Creek Incident Leaves At Least 7 Dead". Huffington Post . Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  5. 1 2 Mickle, Jordan. "Sikh priest who was left partially paralyzed after 2012 Sikh Temple shooting in Oak Creek has died". TMJ4.com. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  6. "Vigil for Sikh temple victims set for Manitoba legislature". CBC News . Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  7. "Peace prayer and vigil in Surrey for victims of Wisconsin Sikh temple massacre". Vancouver Observer. Archived from the original on April 16, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  8. Ramde, Dinesh. "Wisconsin Temple Shooting: Oak Creek Incident Leaves At Least 7 Dead". San Francisco Chronicle . Retrieved August 23, 2012.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Goode, Erica; Kovaleski, Serge F. (August 6, 2012). "Wisconsin Suspect Is Identified as U.S. Army Veteran". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  10. "Shooting at Sikh temple in Wis., at least 7 dead". CBC News . August 5, 2012. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  11. "Massive Carnage at Wisconsin Sikh Gurudwara leaves 6 Devotees Dead". Biharprabha News. Archived from the original on August 17, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  12. 1 2 3 "Police identify Army veteran as Wisconsin temple shooting gunman". CNN. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012. Bernard Zapor – the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives special agent in the investigation – said Monday that the 9mm semiautomatic handgun with multiple ammunition magazines used by the attacker had been legally purchased.
  13. Baldacci, Martena; Smith, Matt; Candiotti, Susan (August 5, 2012). "Gunman, six others dead at Wisconsin Sikh temple". CNN. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  14. 1 2 Dolak, Kevin; Martinez, Luis; Ryan, Jason (August 6, 2012). "Wade Michael Page Identified as Wisconsin Temple Shooter". ABC News. Archived from the original on August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  15. 1 2 "Sikh temple shooting suspect identified as Wade Michael Page; Motivation unclear". CBS News. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  16. Johnson, Mike; Herzog, Karen; Johnson, Annysa (August 5, 2012). "Seven killed at Sikh temple in Oak Creek; police surround Cudahy home". Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel . Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  17. "Wisconsin temple gunman Wade Page shot himself in head". BBC News . August 8, 2012. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  18. "FBI: Gunman in Wis. Temple Shot Himself". YouTube. Associated Press. August 8, 2012. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  19. "Sikh Attack: Moment U.S. Gunman Shot Policeman". Sky News. August 7, 2012. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  20. "Sikh Temple Shooting Footage Released". Sky News. September 11, 2012. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  21. Singh, Simran Jeet (August 5, 2013). "15 Rounds and Still Talking: Lt. Brian Murphy's Story of the Oak Creek Massacre". Daily Beast. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  22. "Wisconsin Sikh temple shooting: Six killed in act of 'domestic terrorism'". TheGuardian.com . August 5, 2012. Archived from the original on March 6, 2017. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
  23. Curry, Colleen. "Sikh Temple Shooting That Killed 7 a 'Domestic Terrorist' Attack". ABC News. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  24. "Police chief: Temple shooting being treated as "a domestic terrorist-type incident"". CNN. August 5, 2012. Archived from the original on August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 "Oak Creek Sikh temple shooter had military background, white supremacist ties". Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  26. 1 2 Leitsinger, Miranda (August 6, 2012). "Experts: Alleged temple gunman, 'Jack Boot,' led neo-Nazi band, had deep extremist ties". NBC News. Archived from the original on December 5, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  27. "Another person of interest in Sikh Temple shooting". WTMJ. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on August 9, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  28. "FBI to probe US gurdwara shooter's racist links for motive". The Times of India . August 7, 2012. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  29. "U.S. Sikh temple shooter was a white supremacist". First Post. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  30. "At service, Holder calls Sikh temple shooting a hate crime". CNN. August 10, 2012. Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
  31. "List of names of Sikhs killed in US domestic terror strike released by United Sikhs". SikhSiyasat.Net. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  32. "Wounded officer at temple waved off help". The Chicago Tribune. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  33. 1 2 "Sikh temple founder among the six killed". USA Today. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on August 10, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  34. "Gunman, six others dead at Wisconsin Sikh temple". CNN Wire Staff. August 5, 2012. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
  35. "Seven Die in Wisconsin Sikh Temple Shooting; FBI Probing". Bloomberg Businessweek. August 5, 2012. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
  36. McGreal, Chris; Williams, Matt; Choudhury, Chitrangada (August 7, 2012). "Wade Michael Page named as temple gunman as FBI examines far-right links". London: The Guardian, UK. Archived from the original on June 12, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  37. 1 2 "Wisconsin Temple Shooting Hero Cop Brian Murphy Shot 8 Times, Waved Off Aid". ABC News. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  38. "First lady to see Sikh shooting victims' families". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. August 23, 2012. Archived from the original on August 23, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
  39. Rob Parsons (September 12, 2012). "Sikhs donate to Wisconsin officer shot at temple". Appeal Democrat. Retrieved September 16, 2012.
  40. Abad-Santos, Alexander (August 6, 2012). "Sikh Temple Gunman Identified; Person of Interest Sought by FBI". The Atlantic Wire. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  41. Dinesh Ramde; Todd Richmond (August 6, 2013). "Sikh temple shooter identified as Wade Michael Page, white supremacist (+video) Page was a 'frustrated neo-Nazi' who led a racist white supremacist band, the Southern Poverty Law Center said Monday". csmonitor.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  42. Caroline Porter; Ben Kesling; Nathan Koppel (August 6, 2013). "Shooter Linked to Hate Group Wisconsin Sikh Temple Gunman Veered From the Army to Skinhead Rock Bands". Wall Street Journal . Archived from the original on September 21, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  43. O'Brien, Brendan (August 6, 2012). "Sikh temple gunman was ex-soldier linked to racist group". Chicago Tribune . Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  44. "Obama calls for 'soul searching' after Wisconsin attack". BBC News US & Canada. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  45. 1 2 "Alleged shooter at Sikh temple was Army veteran". Army Times. August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  46. Nicholson, Kieran; Parker, Ryan; Lofholm, Nancy (August 6, 2012). "Suspect in Sikh temple shootings linked to Colorado". The Denver Post . Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
  47. "Sikh temple shooter had history of getting in trouble for drinking". WTAQ Radio. August 7, 2012. Archived from the original on February 3, 2016. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  48. "Barr-Nunn Issues Statement on Wade Michael Page". Business Wire. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  49. "Alleged Sikh temple shooter former member of Skinhead band". Southern Poverty Law Center, US. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  50. Abraham H. Foxman; Christopher Wolf (June 4, 2013). Viral Hate: Containing Its Spread on the Internet. St. Martin's Press. pp. 46–. ISBN   978-1-137-35622-2.
  51. McGreal, Chris (August 7, 2012). "Wade Michael Page's acquaintances recall a troubled man guided by hate". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on October 24, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  52. "US gurdwara killer's mother apologizes to Sikh victims". The Times of India. August 7, 2012. Archived from the original on August 10, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  53. Piers Morgan (August 7, 2012). "Ex-friend says temple shooter Wade Michael Page was a 'loner'". CNN. Archived from the original on August 9, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  54. "FBI to probe US gurdwara shooter's racist links for motive". The Times of India. August 7, 2012. Archived from the original on February 3, 2016. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  55. Abby Rodgers (August 8, 2013). "Gun Shop Owner: Sikh Temple Shooter 'Raised No Eyebrows Whatsoever'". businessinsider.com. Archived from the original on April 29, 2013. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  56. "Cracking Wisconsin Gunman's Secret Racist Tattoo Code". ABC News. August 8, 2012. Archived from the original on August 9, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  57. "Question of motive remains in Sikh temple shooting". CBS News. August 7, 2012. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  58. Obama, Barack (August 5, 2012). "Statement by the President on the Shooting in Wisconsin". whitehouse.gov . Archived from the original on February 16, 2017. Retrieved August 5, 2012 via National Archives.
  59. "Gurudwara shooting: US flags to fly at half-staff till Aug 10". DNA India. August 7, 2012. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  60. Obama, Barack (August 6, 2012). "Presidential Proclamation—Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy in Oak Creek, Wisconsin". whitehouse.gov . Archived from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2012 via National Archives.
  61. Parsons, Christi (August 7, 2012). "Wisconsin shooting stirs Obama to call only for 'soul searching'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  62. "Governor Walker Statement on Oak Creek incident". Fox News 11. August 5, 2012. Archived from the original on August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  63. Pols React To Sikh Temple Shooting In Wisconsin Archived August 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Daily News (New York), August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012
  64. "US ambassador pays homage at Bangla Sahib". The Times of India . August 7, 2012. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  65. "Source: Wisconsin temple gunman Army vet; may have been white supremacist". CNN. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  66. Magnier, Mark (August 6, 2012). "India reacts with grief, outrage over Wisconsin killing of Sikhs". Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  67. VN, Sreeja (August 6, 2012). "Sikhs In India Protest Against Wisconsin Sikh Temple Shooting (PHOTOS)". International Business Times . Archived from the original on August 9, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  68. Magnier, Mark (August 10, 2012). "Sikhs in US condemn the burning of US flag by protestors in New Delhi". SikhSiyasaat. Archived from the original on August 17, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  69. Magnier, Mark (August 10, 2012). "Sikh rights body strongly condemn flag burners". SikhSiyasaat. Archived from the original on October 26, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  70. "Indian lawmakers voice anger at US Sikh temple shooting". Agence France-Presse. August 9, 2012.
  71. 1 2 "Some answers about the history of the Sikh religion in India". The Washington Post. August 8, 2012. Archived from the original on August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  72. Kelleher, James B.; Brendan O'Brien (August 5, 2012). "Small, tight-knit Wisconsin Sikh community shocked by shooting". Reuters. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  73. Magnier, Mark (August 9, 2012). "Gurudwara attack: American Sikhs angry at protests against U.S. in India". The Times of India . Archived from the original on December 29, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  74. 1 2 "United Sikhs to send emergency response team to Wisconsin to help deal with trauma". The Times of India . August 7, 2012. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  75. Stingl, Jim (August 7, 2012). "Outpouring of support trumps Page's hatred". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel . Archived from the original on August 9, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  76. "Live coverage: Oak Creek vigil for temple shooting victims". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel . August 7, 2012. Archived from the original on August 9, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  77. "Paul Ryan's First Bill Back After VP Nomination". National Journal . September 12, 2012. Archived from the original on January 29, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  78. "Congressional hearing addresses hate crimes after Sikh attack". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel . September 19, 2012. Archived from the original on November 23, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  79. "Congressional Hearing Investigates Hate Crimes Against Sikhs". PBS. September 21, 2012. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
  80. 1 2 Schaaf, Mark (October 14, 2013). "Son of Slain Sikh Temple President to Challenge Paul Ryan – Government – Oak Creek, WI Patch". Oakcreek.patch.com. Archived from the original on November 1, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
  81. Ramde, Dinesh (October 14, 2013). "Son of slain Sikh to challenge Ryan". Journaltimes.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
  82. "An American Tragedy". The New Yorker . August 13, 2012.