2nd Parliament of Queen Anne

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John Smith, Speaker JohnSmithSpeaker.jpg
John Smith, Speaker
Composition of the House of Commons. House of Commons elected members, 1705.svg
Composition of the House of Commons.

The 2nd Parliament of Queen Anne was summoned by Queen Anne of England on 2 May 1705 and assembled on 14 July 1705. Its composition was 260 Tories, 233 Whigs and 20 others but in practice the House was evenly divided. John Smith, the member for Andover, was elected Speaker of the House of Commons.

The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with their rivals, the Tories. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute monarchy. The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders, who were Roman Catholic. The Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained totally dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories back in. The Whig Supremacy (1715–1760) was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715 by Tory rebels. The Whigs thoroughly purged the Tories from all major positions in government, the army, the Church of England, the legal profession and local offices. The Party's hold on power was so strong and durable, historians call the period from roughly 1714 to 1783 the age of the Whig Oligarchy. The first great leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government through the period 1721–1742 and whose protégé Henry Pelham led from 1743 to 1754.

John Smith (Chancellor of the Exchequer) English politician, twice serving as Chancellor of the Exchequer

John Smith (1656–1723) of Tedworth House, Hampshire, was an English politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons between 1678 and 1723. He served as Speaker and twice as Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Andover was the name of a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England from 1295 to 1307, and again from 1586, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1918. It was a parliamentary borough in Hampshire, represented by two Members of Parliament until 1868, and by one member from 1868 to 1885. The name was then transferred to a county constituency electing one MP from 1885 until 1918.

By the second session (December 1706 to April 1707) the Union with Scotland Act 1706 was ready for Royal Assent, which was duly received on 6 March 1707 during the third session. On 29 April 1707, after the session had ended, a proclamation was issued to declare that the present Parliament would henceforth be known as the ‘First Parliament of Great Britain’. In another proclamation on 5 June, Anne listed the Scottish members (16 peers and 45 commissioners) by name who would join their English counterparts in the respective British assemblies and, without issuing new writs of summons, the Queen scheduled the First Parliament of Great Britain to "meet and be holden" on 23 October 1707.

First Parliament of Great Britain parliamentary term established in 1707 after the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland

The first Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain was established in 1707 after the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. It was in fact the 4th and last session of the 2nd Parliament of Queen Anne suitably renamed: no fresh elections were held in England, and the existing members of the House of Commons of England sat as members of the new House of Commons of Great Britain. In Scotland, prior to the union coming into effect, the Scottish Parliament appointed sixteen peers and 45 Members of Parliaments to join their English counterparts at Westminster.

The details of the fourth session which duly convened on 23 October 1707 are described under First Parliament of Great Britain.

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1st Parliament of Queen Anne

The 1st Parliament of Queen Anne was summoned by Queen Anne of England on 2 July 1702 and assembled on 20 August 1702. Its composition was 298 Tories, 184 Whigs and 31 others, representing a large swing to the Tories since the previous election. Robert Harley, the member for Radnor, was re-elected Speaker of the House of Commons.

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