1st Parliament of Queen Anne

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Robert Harley, Speaker RobertHarleyInColour.jpg
Robert Harley, Speaker

The 1st Parliament of Queen Anne was summoned by Queen Anne of England on 2 July 1702 and assembled on 20 August 1702 (but prorogued until 20 October 1702). Its composition was 298 Tories, 184 Whigs and 31 others, representing a large swing to the Tories since the previous election. Robert Harley, the member for Radnor, was re-elected Speaker of the House of Commons.

Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer English politician

Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, KG PC FRS was an English and later British statesman of the late Stuart and early Georgian periods. He began his career as a Whig, before defecting to a new Tory Ministry. He was raised to the peerage of Great Britain as an earl in 1711. Between 1711 and 1714 he served as Lord High Treasurer, effectively Queen Anne's chief minister. He has been called a Prime Minister, although it is generally accepted that the de facto first minister to be a prime minister was Robert Walpole in 1721.

Radnor or New Radnor was a constituency in Wales between 1542 and 1885; it elected one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliaments of England (1542–1707), Great Britain (1707–1800) and the United Kingdom (1801–1885), by the first past the post electoral system. In the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, the division was merged into Radnorshire.

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Queen Anne's new ministry was Tory dominated, led by Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin at the Treasury and Marlborough as the commander of the army (The major War of the Spanish Succession was now in full progress). Anne's commitment to the Church of England also ensured the presence of several High Church Tories in the government, including her uncle Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester. However, disputes between Godolphin and Rochester forced the latter’s resignation from the Cabinet in February 1703. The attitudes of the High Church Tories hardened against the expensive war and they became obstructive to the point that Queen Anne was obliged to replace them at the end of the second session. The speaker Robert Harley replaced Lord Nottingham as Secretary of State for the Northern Department in addition to his Parliamentary role.

Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin British politician

Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, was a leading British politician of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. He was a Privy Councillor and Secretary of State for the Northern Department before attaining real power as First Lord of the Treasury. He was instrumental in negotiating and passing the Acts of Union 1707 with Scotland, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain.

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough British soldier and statesman

General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire,, was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs. From a gentry family, he served first as a page at the court of the House of Stuart under James, Duke of York, through the 1670s and early 1680s, earning military and political advancement through his courage and diplomatic skill.

War of the Spanish Succession 18th-century conflict in Europe

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700. His closest heirs were members of the Austrian Habsburg and French Bourbon families; acquisition of an undivided Spanish Empire by either threatened the European balance of power and thus involved the other leading powers. Related conflicts include Rákóczi's War of Independence in Hungary, the Camisard revolt in Southern France, Queen Anne's War in North America, and minor struggles in Colonial India. The 1700-1721 Great Northern War is viewed as connected but separate.

The third session saw the Aliens Bill introduced, which threatened that unless Scotland agreed to negotiate terms for union with England and accepted the Hanoverian succession by 25 December 1705, there would be a ban on the import of Scottish products. In addition Scots would also lose the privileges accorded to English nationals, endangering their rights to any property they held in England.

Following a prorogation in March 1705, the Parliament was dissolved on 5 April 1705.

Notable Acts passed by the Parliament

Bridges Act 1702 United Kingdom legislation

The Bridges Act 1702 was an Act of the Parliament of England.

Crown Lands Act 1702 United Kingdom legislation

The Crown Lands Act 1702 is an Act of the Parliament of England, originally entitled An Act for the better Support of Her Majesties Houshold and of the Honour and Dignity of the Crown. The Act was still partly in force in Great Britain at the end of 2010.

Demise of the Crown Act 1702 United Kingdom legislation

The Demise of the Crown Act 1702 is an Act of the Parliament of England. It is partly still in force. It abolished the rule that all legal proceedings automatically came to an end on the death of the monarch.

See also

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