Bolliger & Mabillard

Last updated

Bolliger & Mabillard Consulting Engineers Inc.
TypePrivate
Industry Roller coaster design
Founded1988
Founder
  • Walter Bolliger
  • Claude Mabillard
Headquarters,
Switzerland
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
  • Walter Bolliger
  • Claude Mabillard
Products
Number of employees
37 (2012)
Website Official website

Bolliger & Mabillard, officially Bolliger & Mabillard Consulting Engineers, Inc. and often abbreviated B&M, is a roller coaster design consultancy based in Monthey, Switzerland. The company was founded in 1988 by Walter Bolliger and Claude Mabillard, both of whom had worked for Giovanola. [1]

Contents

B&M has pioneered several new ride technologies, most notably the inverted roller coaster [2] [3] and the box-section track. [4] In 2016, the company completed its 100th roller coaster. B&M produces nine types of coaster models: Stand-Up Coaster, Inverted Coaster, Floorless Coaster, Flying Coaster, Hyper Coaster, Dive Coaster, Sitting Coaster, Wing Coaster and Family Coaster. Though B&M has not used the term, the company has also manufactured three giga coasters.

History

Roots

Walter Bolliger and Claude Mabillard started working for Giovanola, a manufacturing company who supplied rides to Intamin, in the 1970s. During their time at Giovanola, they helped design the company's first stand-up roller coaster, Shockwave (at Six Flags Magic Mountain). They also worked on other projects, such as Z-Force (at Six Flags Great America). [5] Bolliger & Mabillard left Giovanola, but the company continued to use their track design; the company's roller coasters Goliath (at Six Flags Magic Mountain) and Titan (at Six Flags Over Texas), use a track style very similar to B&M's. [6] [7]

An inverted model with the angled drop, common on inverted coasters, Batman: The Ride at Six Flags Great Adventure Batman The Ride SFGA.jpg
An inverted model with the angled drop, common on inverted coasters, Batman: The Ride at Six Flags Great Adventure

Launch

In 1987, Giovanola underwent a change of management, and B&M decided to leave and create their own company. [5] At the time, B&M employed four people, including two draftsmen: Bolliger and Mabillard. When B&M was created, the pair had agreed not to make any more amusement attractions. [8] [9] However, Robert Mampe, Six Flags Great America's staff engineer, had worked with both men during the construction of Z-Force ; he contacted the newly-formed company and asked them to reconfigure the cars for their Giovanola-built, Intamin bobsled coaster, to be relocated from Six Flags Great Adventure. [10]

Following that project, Mampe asked the new company to design and build a stand-up roller coaster for Six Flags Great America, similar to Shockwave at Six Flags Magic Mountain. [10] B&M accepted the offer and hired two more draftsmen. But B&M had a problem regarding how and where to manufacture the track pieces for the roller coaster. With the favorable history of the work done by Clermont Steel Fabricators (on Vortex , Kings Island, and Shockwave , Six Flags Great America), Walter Bolliger went to the steel plant and asked if they would be interested in manufacturing the track. Clermont Steel Fabricators accepted, and to this day, manufactures all of B&M’s roller coaster track pieces for all of North America. [4] Now with a company to manufacture the track, B&M built its first roller coaster, a stand-up roller coaster, Iron Wolf , which opened in 1990 at Six Flags Great America. [8] [9] Two years later, Bolliger & Mabillard built another project for Six Flags Great America, Batman: The Ride , the world's first inverted roller coaster, which brought them to prominence in the industry. [11] [12]

Development

Bolliger & Mabillard also invented the Floorless Coaster [13] and the Dive Coaster. The company also built its first launched roller coaster, the Incredible Hulk , which is at Islands of Adventure. [14] In 2010, B&M unveiled its new Wing Coaster and premiered the prototype model, named Raptor , at Gardaland in 2011. [15] It has two seats on each side on the car that hang riders over the sides of the track. As of 2019 there are fifteen in operation. [15] In 2015, B&M constructed Thunderbird at Holiday World & Splashin' Safari, its first in-house launched coaster. [16]

By 2010, B&M employed twelve engineers, twelve draftsmen and two draftswomen. [8] [9] The company has made other contributions to the roller coaster industry. The company built the trains for the Psyclone , a now-demolished wooden roller coaster at Six Flags Magic Mountain. The trains were later used on the park's Colossus wooden roller coaster (until it was refurbished by Rocky Mountain Construction), but were only used during October each year. The trains faced backward and usually raced against trains on the second track, which ran forward. [17]

In 2013, the company launched the construction of Banshee, the world's longest inverted roller coaster. [18] B&M supplied new trains for Steel Dragon 2000, built by D. H. Morgan Manufacturing in 2000. [19] [20] As of 2012, Bolliger & Mabillard had 85 operating roller coasters worldwide. [2] Of these, twenty-two were listed among that year's Amusement Today Golden Ticket Awards Top 50 Steel Coasters List for 2012 and five were in the top 10.

By 2016, Bolliger & Mabillard had completed their 100th coaster, and had built more roller coasters than any other manufacturer on the Golden Ticket Awards Steel Coasters list. [21]

Features

Raptor's cobra roll, a first for inverted roller coasters Raptor 05.JPG
Raptor's cobra roll, a first for inverted roller coasters

Bolliger & Mabillard currently manufactures nine different roller coaster styles: Stand-Up Coaster, Inverted Coaster, Floorless Coaster, Flying Coaster, Hyper Coaster, Dive Coaster, Sitting Coaster, Wing Coaster and Family Coaster. [22] [23] Bolliger & Mabillard has been involved in developing new technologies and concepts in roller coasters almost since its inception. It has often worked with engineer Werner Stengel and with designers and management of client theme parks. [24] [25]

Lift hills

Diagram comparing a standard lift hill and the B&M pre-drop lift hill. Pre-drop.jpg
Diagram comparing a standard lift hill and the B&M pre-drop lift hill.

Early Bolliger & Mabillard coasters feature an element known as a "pre-drop", a short drop after the top of the lift hill and before the start of the first drop, designed to reduce stress on the lift chain. The flat section between the pre-drop and the first drop serves as a shelf to support the weight of the train, reducing related stresses on the chain. On most coasters without a pre-drop, the weight of the train tends to pull on the lift chain as it begins its descent because the latter half of the train is still being lifted by the chain. Pre-drops have not been used on the company's Dive or Flying coasters, or on hyper coasters built after 1999. [26] [27] OzIris at Parc Astérix was the first B&M inverted roller coaster that does not feature a pre-drop. [28] Ever since, no coaster built by B&M has featured a pre-drop [29] [30] because the chain accelerates to acquire the same speed as the train when it is being taken over by gravity after it passes the crest . [31]

Trains

Most of Bolliger & Mabillard's roller coaster trains use four-abreast seating. Each car has one row of four seats, while the train length can vary between coasters. All of the company's coaster models, except the Dive Coaster and Wing Coaster use this configuration. The Dive Coaster uses six, seven, eight or ten-abreast seating, with two or three rows of seats. For example, Griffon at Busch Gardens Williamsburg, uses ten seats in three rows, while Krake at Heide Park uses six-across seating in three rows. [32] On recent hyper coaster projects, B&M has used a new car design that has two rows of two seats; the two seats in the rear of the car pushed out from the centerline so that the four seats resemble a V formation. This formation has only been used on Behemoth at Canada's Wonderland, Diamondback at Kings Island, Intimidator and Shambhala: Expedición al Himalaya at PortAventura Park, in the resort PortAventura World. In 2013, B&M introduced a new car design that has two rows of two seats, however, they are not in a V formation. [19] [20]

All B&M hyper coasters use a type of restraint called a "T-bar" or "Clamshell" restraint, which consists of bar with a cushioned lap bar with two handles for riders to hold on to. This type of restraint generally does not use a seat belt, however seat belts have been added to Behemoth and Leviathan at Canada's Wonderland, Diamondback and Orion at Kings Island, and Intimidator and Fury 325 at Carowinds. [33] Bolliger & Mabillard also uses over-the-shoulder restraints, in that the restraint is placed over the riders' shoulders and sits and extends to the riders' laps. This type of restraint is used on Dive, Inverted, Sitting, Flying, Floorless, Stand-up and Wing Coasters. [34] Bolliger & Mabillard has recently begun using a vest like over the shoulder restraint, which reduces headbanging found on the older, more common padded over the shoulder restraints. These have been met with some criticism from the coaster community, due to the nature in which they tighten during the ride; stapling riders to their seats, resulting in less airtime (negative g-forces) being felt.

CAD model of B&M's signature box-spined track BandMTrack.jpg
CAD model of B&M's signature box-spined track
B&M Friction Brakes Model B&M brakes.png
B&M Friction Brakes Model

Track

A notable feature of Bolliger & Mabillard roller coasters is the box-section track. The running rails are connected to a box-section spine, instead of the circular spine used by other manufacturers. When a train travels around a box-section track, it creates a one-of-a-kind whooshing sound, which is sometimes nicknamed the “B&M roar” by roller coaster enthusiasts. However, on some Bolliger & Mabillard roller coasters, such as Talon at Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom and GateKeeper at Cedar Point, the track is filled with a proprietary sound dampening material to reduce this noise. [35]

Also, depending on the model of the roller coaster, the track size can vary. Models such as the Flying, Wing and Dive Coaster have heavier trains which require a larger track size while models with lighter trains, such as the Stand-Up and Hyper Coaster, do not and use a smaller sized track. [4]

Brakes

As of 2016, Bolliger & Mabillard uses three types of braking systems: friction, magnetic, and water.

Friction brakes

When B&M was first founded, the linear magnetic eddy brake had yet to be developed, so it used friction brakes as its main braking system. On the train, pads are fitted on the vehicle chassis between the wheel assemblies. On the brakes, similar pads are connected to steel supports. When the pads on the train come into contact with the brakes, friction is created which slows the train. [36] Beginning with Kumba in 1993, friction brakes have also been used as trim brakes that regulate the speed of the train while it is still navigating the course. [37]

SheiKra's splashdown element SheiKra (Busch Gardens Africa) 03.jpg
SheiKra's splashdown element

Magnetic brakes

Magnetic brakes provide smoother deceleration than friction brakes; most B&M roller coasters built after 2003 have at least one set of magnetic brakes. Magnetic brakes do not make contact with the train. Metal fins that run parallel to the train are fitted on the vehicle chassis between the wheel assemblies. As the fins pass through the brakes, the magnetic field created by the brakes slows the train. Magnetic brakes have also been used as an alternate type of trim brake on B&M roller coasters such as Leviathan at Canada's Wonderland. [38]

Water brakes

Water brakes were first introduced on SheiKra at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay in 2005. [39] Water brakes can only be used when a splashdown element, in which a body of water surrounds a section of track, is present within the layout of the roller coaster. When scoops on the last car of each train come in contact with the surrounding water, the train slows down and the water is sprayed several feet into the air behind it. [40]

List of roller coasters

Vortex at Carowinds, a Stand-up Coaster model Vortex (Carowinds) 02.JPG
Vortex at Carowinds, a Stand-up Coaster model
Leviathan at Canada's Wonderland, a Hyper Coaster model Leviathan Hammerhead Turn.jpg
Leviathan at Canada's Wonderland, a Hyper Coaster model
Batman: The Ride at Six Flags Great Adventure, an Inverted Coaster model Batman (Corkscrew) - Six Flags Great Adventure.JPG
Batman: The Ride at Six Flags Great Adventure, an Inverted Coaster model
Dragon Khan at PortAventura Park, a Sitting Coaster model Rollercoaster dragon khan universal port aventura spain.jpg
Dragon Khan at PortAventura Park, a Sitting Coaster model
Oblivion at Alton Towers, a Dive Coaster model AltonTowers-Oblivion.JPG
Oblivion at Alton Towers, a Dive Coaster model
Hydra at Dorney Park, a Floorless Coaster model Hydra (Jo-Jo Roll).JPG
Hydra at Dorney Park, a Floorless Coaster model
Behemoth at Canada's Wonderland, a Hyper Coaster model 900behe.jpg
Behemoth at Canada's Wonderland, a Hyper Coaster model
Manta at SeaWorld Orlando, a Flying Coaster model SeaWorld Manta 1.JPG
Manta at SeaWorld Orlando, a Flying Coaster model
Raptor at Gardaland, first Wing Coaster model Raptor Gardaland 2011.jpg
Raptor at Gardaland, first Wing Coaster model

In North America, B&M coaster designs have been manufactured by Ohio company Clermont Steel Fabricators since 1990. [41] [42] [4] As of 2022, Bolliger & Mabillard has built 124 roller coasters around the world. [43] Some have either been relocated, renamed or closed.

NameModelParkCountryOpenedStatusRef
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Great America Flag of the United States.svg United States1992Operating [12]
Vortex Stand-Up Coaster Carowinds Flag of the United States.svg United States1992Operating [44]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure Flag of the United States.svg United States1993Operating [45]
Flight Deck
Formerly Top Gun
Inverted Coaster California's Great America Flag of the United States.svg United States1993Operating [46]
Kumba Sitting Coaster Busch Gardens Tampa Flag of the United States.svg United States1993Operating [47]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Magic Mountain Flag of the United States.svg United States1994Operating [48]
Diavlo Inverted Coaster Himeji Central Park Flag of Japan.svg Japan1994Operating [49]
Nemesis Inverted Coaster Alton Towers Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom1994Undergoing Refurbishment [50]
Raptor Inverted Coaster Cedar Point Flag of the United States.svg United States1994Operating [51]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags St. Louis Flag of the United States.svg United States1995Operating [52]
Dragon Khan Sitting Coaster PortAventura Park Flag of Spain.svg Spain1995Operating [53]
Montu Inverted Coaster Busch Gardens Tampa Flag of the United States.svg United States1996Operating [54]
Alpengeist Inverted Coaster Busch Gardens Williamsburg Flag of the United States.svg United States1997Operating [55]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Over Georgia Flag of the United States.svg United States1997Operating [56]
Pyrenees Inverted Coaster Parque Espana-Shima Spain Village Flag of Japan.svg Japan1997Operating [57]
Great White Inverted Coaster SeaWorld San Antonio Flag of the United States.svg United States1997Operating [58]
Oblivion Dive Coaster Alton Towers Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom1998Operating [59]
Great Bear Inverted Coaster Hersheypark Flag of the United States.svg United States1998Operating [60]
The Riddler's Revenge Stand-Up Coaster Six Flags Magic Mountain Flag of the United States.svg United States1998Operating [61]
Afterburn
Formerly Top Gun - The Jet Coaster
Inverted Coaster Carowinds Flag of the United States.svg United States1999Operating [62]
Medusa
Formerly Bizarro
Floorless Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure Flag of the United States.svg United States1999Operating [63]
Incredible Hulk Sitting Coaster Universal Studios Islands of Adventure Flag of the United States.svg United States1999Operating [64]
Dragon Challenge
Formerly Dueling Dragons
Inverted Coaster Universal Studios Islands of Adventure Flag of the United States.svg United States1999Removed [65]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Over Texas Flag of the United States.svg United States1999Operating [66]
Raging Bull Hyper Coaster Six Flags Great America Flag of the United States.svg United States1999Operating [67]
Georgia Scorcher Stand-Up Coaster Six Flags Over Georgia Flag of the United States.svg United States1999Operating [68]
Apollo's Chariot Hyper Coaster Busch Gardens Williamsburg Flag of the United States.svg United States1999Operating [69]
Kraken
Formerly Kraken Unleashed
Floorless Coaster SeaWorld Orlando Flag of the United States.svg United States2000Operating [70]
Medusa Floorless Coaster Six Flags Discovery Kingdom Flag of the United States.svg United States2000Operating [71]
Katun Inverted Coaster Mirabilandia Flag of Italy.svg Italy2000Operating [72]
Superman: Krypton Coaster Floorless Coaster Six Flags Fiesta Texas Flag of the United States.svg United States2000Operating [73]
Diving Machine G5 Dive Coaster Janfusun Fancyworld Flag of the Republic of China.svg Taiwan2000Operating [74]
Insane Speed Floorless Coaster Janfusun Fancyworld Flag of the Republic of China.svg Taiwan2001Operating [75]
Nitro Hyper Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure Flag of the United States.svg United States2001Operating [76]
Talon Inverted Coaster Dorney Park Flag of the United States.svg United States2001Operating [77]
Wildfire Sitting Coaster Silver Dollar City Flag of the United States.svg United States2001Operating [78]
Galactica
Formerly Air
Flying Coaster Alton Towers Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom2002Operating [79]
Batman: The Dark Knight Floorless Coaster Six Flags New England Flag of the United States.svg United States2002Operating [80]
Batman: Arkham Asylum
Formerly Batman: La Fuga
Inverted Coaster Parque Warner Madrid Flag of Spain.svg Spain2002Operating [81]
Silver Star Hyper Coaster Europa Park Flag of Germany.svg Germany2002Operating [82]
Superman: La Atracción de Acero Floorless Coaster Parque Warner Madrid Flag of Spain.svg Spain2002Operating [83]
Superman: Ultimate Flight Flying Coaster Six Flags Over Georgia Flag of the United States.svg United States2002Operating [84]
Vampire Inverted Coaster La Ronde Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada2002Operating [85]
Nemesis Inferno Inverted Coaster Thorpe Park Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom2003Operating [86]
Scream Floorless Coaster Six Flags Magic Mountain Flag of the United States.svg United States2003Operating [87]
Superman: Ultimate Flight Flying Coaster Six Flags Great America Flag of the United States.svg United States2003Operating [88]
Superman: Ultimate Flight Flying Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure Flag of the United States.svg United States2003Operating [89]
Dæmonen Floorless Coaster Tivoli Gardens Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark2004Operating [90]
Lightning Inverted Coaster Kuwait Entertainment City Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait2004Removed [91]
Silver Bullet Inverted Coaster Knott's Berry Farm Flag of the United States.svg United States2004Operating [92]
Hydra the Revenge Floorless Coaster Dorney Park Flag of the United States.svg United States2005Operating [93]
SheiKra Dive Coaster Busch Gardens Tampa Flag of the United States.svg United States2005Operating [94]
Black Mamba Inverted Coaster Phantasialand Flag of Germany.svg Germany2006Operating [95]
Crystal Wing Flying Coaster Happy Valley Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2006Operating [96]
Goliath Hyper Coaster La Ronde Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada2006Operating [97]
Goliath Hyper Coaster Six Flags Over Georgia Flag of the United States.svg United States2006Operating [98]
Patriot Inverted Coaster Worlds of Fun Flag of the United States.svg United States2006Operating [99]
Tatsu Flying Coaster Six Flags Magic Mountain Flag of the United States.svg United States2006Operating [100]
Griffon Dive Coaster Busch Gardens Williamsburg Flag of the United States.svg United States2007Operating [101]
Hollywood Dream: The Ride Hyper Coaster Universal Studios Japan Flag of Japan.svg Japan2007Operating [102]
Phaethon Inverted Coaster Gyeongju World Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea2007Operating [103]
Behemoth Hyper Coaster Canada's Wonderland Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada2008Operating [104]
Dive Coaster Dive Coaster Chimelong Paradise Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2008Operating [105]
Dominator
Formerly Batman: Knight Flight
Floorless Coaster Kings Dominion
Geauga Lake
Flag of the United States.svg United States2008
2000 to 2007
Operating [106]
[107]
Goliath
Formerly Batman: The Ride
Formerly Gambit
Inverted Coaster Six Flags Fiesta Texas
Six Flags New Orleans
Thrill Valley
Flag of the United States.svg United States2008
2003 to 2005
1995 to 2002
Operating [108]
[109]
[110]
Diamondback Hyper Coaster Kings Island Flag of the United States.svg United States2009Operating [111]
Diving Coaster Dive Coaster Happy Valley Shanghai Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2009Operating [112]
Manta Flying Coaster SeaWorld Orlando Flag of the United States.svg United States2009Operating [113]
Monster
Formerly Orochi
Inverted Coaster Walygator Parc
Expoland
Flag of France.svg France2010
1996 to 2007
Operating [114]
[115]
Intimidator Hyper Coaster Carowinds Flag of the United States.svg United States2010Operating [116]
Green Lantern
Formerly Chang
Stand-Up Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure
Kentucky Kingdom
Flag of the United States.svg United States2011
1997 to 2009
Operating [117]
[118]
Hair Raiser Floorless Coaster Ocean Park Hong Kong Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong2011Operating [119]
Krake Dive Coaster Heide Park Flag of Germany.svg Germany2011Operating [120]
Raptor Wing Coaster Gardaland Flag of Italy.svg Italy2011Operating [121]
Starry Sky Ripper
Formerly Sky Scrapper
Flying Coaster Joyland Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2011Operating [122]
Leviathan Hyper Coaster Canada's Wonderland Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada2012Operating [123]
OzIris Inverted Coaster Parc Astérix Flag of France.svg France2012Operating [124]
Shambhala Hyper Coaster PortAventura Park Flag of Spain.svg Spain2012Operating [125]
Swarm Wing Coaster Thorpe Park Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom2012Operating [126]
Wild Eagle Wing Coaster Dollywood Flag of the United States.svg United States2012Operating [127]
X-Flight Wing Coaster Six Flags Great America Flag of the United States.svg United States2012Operating [128]
GateKeeper Wing Coaster Cedar Point Flag of the United States.svg United States2013Operating [129]
Nitro Floorless Coaster Adlabs Imagica Flag of India.svg India2013Operating [130]
Banshee Inverted Coaster Kings Island Flag of the United States.svg United States2014Operating [131]
Parrot Coaster
Formerly Flying over the Rainforest
Wing Coaster Chimelong Ocean Kingdom Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2014Operating [132]
Flug der Dämonen Wing Coaster Heide Park Flag of Germany.svg Germany2014Operating [133]
Family Inverted Coaster Family Inverted Coaster Happy Valley Shanghai Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2014Operating [134]
Harpy Flying Coaster Xishuangbanna Sunac Land Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2015SBNO [135]
Rougarou
Formerly Mantis
Floorless Coaster
Formerly Stand-Up Coaster
Cedar Point Flag of the United States.svg United States2015
1996 to 2014
Operating [136]
Acrobat Flying Coaster Nagashima Spa Land Flag of Japan.svg Japan2015Operating [137]
Thunderbird Wing Coaster Holiday World Flag of the United States.svg United States2015Operating [138]
Oblivion: The Black Hole Dive Coaster Gardaland Flag of Italy.svg Italy2015Operating [139]
Baron 1898 Dive Coaster Efteling Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands2015Operating [140]
Fury 325 Hyper Coaster Carowinds Flag of the United States.svg United States2015Operating [141]
Mako Hyper Coaster SeaWorld Orlando Flag of the United States.svg United States2016Operating [142]
The Flying Dinosaur Flying Coaster Universal Studios Japan Flag of Japan.svg Japan2016Operating [143]
Valravn Dive Coaster Cedar Point Flag of the United States.svg United States2016Operating [144]
Dragon's Run
Formerly Time Machine
Formerly Led Zeppelin - The Ride
Sitting Coaster Dragon Park Ha Long
Freestyle Music Park
Hard Rock Park
Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam2017
2009
2008
Operating [145]
[146]
Patriot
Formerly Vortex
Floorless Coaster
Formerly Stand-Up Coaster
California's Great America Flag of the United States.svg United States2017
1991 to 2016
Operating [147]
Flying Wing Coaster Wing Coaster Happy Valley Chongqing Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2017Operating [148]
Draken Dive Coaster Gyeongju World Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea2018Operating [149]
Western Regions Heaven Dive Coaster Happy Valley Chengdu Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2018Operating [150]
Valkyria Dive Coaster Liseberg Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden2018Operating [151]
Family Inverted Coaster Family Inverted Coaster Happy Valley Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2018Operating [152]
Wing Coaster Wing Coaster Colourful Yunnan Happy World Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2018Operating [153]
Fēnix Wing Coaster Toverland Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands2018Operating [154]
Heaven's Wing Wing Coaster HB World Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2018Operating [155]
Yukon Striker Dive Coaster Canada's Wonderland Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada2019Operating [156]
Firebird
Formerly Apocalypse
Formerly Iron Wolf
Floorless Coaster
Formerly Stand-Up Coaster
Six Flags America
Six Flags Great America
Flag of the United States.svg United States2019
2012 to 2018
1990 to 2011
Operating [157]
[158]
UnknownWing Coaster Hot Go Dreamworld Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ChinaUnknownSBNO [159]
UnknownHyper Coaster Hot Go Dreamworld Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg ChinaUnknownSBNO [160]
Flight of the Himalayan Eagle Music Roller Coaster Hyper Coaster Happy Valley Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2019Operating [161]
Falcon Wing Coaster Wuxi Sunac Land Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2019Operating [162]
Forest Predator Wing Coaster Happy Valley Nanjing Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2020Operating [163]
Candymonium Hyper Coaster Hersheypark Flag of the United States.svg United States2020Operating [164]
Orion Hyper Coaster Kings Island Flag of the United States.svg United States2020Operating [165]
Monster Inverted Coaster Gröna Lund Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden2021Operating [166]
Decepticoaster Sitting Coaster Universal Studios Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2021Operating [167]
Emperor Dive Coaster SeaWorld San Diego Flag of the United States.svg United States2022Operating [168]
DaVinci Ride Wing Coaster Fantasy Valley Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2022Operating [169]
Dr. Diabolical’s Cliffhanger Dive Coaster Six Flags Fiesta Texas Flag of the United States.svg United States2022Operating [170]
Pipeline: The Surf Coaster Surf Coaster (Stand Up) SeaWorld Orlando Flag of the United States.svg United States2023Under construction [171]
UnknownWing Coaster Chessington World of Adventures Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom2023Under construction [172]
UnknownWing Coaster Legoland Deutschland Flag of Germany.svg Germany2023Under construction [173]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Floorless Coaster</span> Type of roller coaster

A Floorless Coaster is a type of steel roller coaster manufactured by Bolliger & Mabillard where riders sit with no floor underneath them, allowing their feet to swing freely just above the track. Development of the Floorless Coaster model began between 1995 and 1996 with Medusa at Six Flags Great Adventure opening on April 2, 1999, making it the world's first Floorless Coaster. Floorless Coasters also tend to have 3 to 7 inversions incorporated in the layout of the coaster.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Batman: The Ride</span> Roller coasters at seven Six Flags parks

Batman: The Ride is an inverted roller coaster based on the DC Comics character Batman and found at seven Six Flags theme parks in the United States. Built by consulting engineers Bolliger & Mabillard, it rises to a height of between 100 and 105 feet and reaches top speeds of 50 mph (80 km/h). The original roller coaster at Six Flags Great America was partially devised by the park's general manager Jim Wintrode. Batman: The Ride was the world's first inverted roller coaster when it opened in 1992, and has since been awarded Coaster Landmark status by the American Coaster Enthusiasts. Clones of the ride exist at amusement parks around the world.

Giovanola Frères SA was a prominent steel manufacturing company based in Monthey, Switzerland. It was known for building electrical power stations, water storage tanks, pipelines, boilers, highway bridges, submarines, ski lifts and many other steel products. The company started out as a small metal forging shop, founded by Joseph Giovanola in 1888. Joseph Sr. died in 1904, and the company was taken over by his sons, the eldest of which, Joseph Jr., was just 17 years of age. By 1930 the company had grown to the point that it required a new factory which was constructed in Monthey.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hypercoaster</span> Height class for roller coasters

A hypercoaster can mean one of two things:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Green Lantern (Six Flags Great Adventure)</span> Steel roller coaster

Green Lantern, formerly known as Chang, is a stand-up roller coaster located at Six Flags Great Adventure in Jackson Township, New Jersey. Green Lantern stands 155 feet (47 m) tall and features a top speed of 63 miles per hour (101 km/h). The 4,155-foot-long (1,266 m) ride features five inversions and a duration of approximately 212 minutes. This steel coaster was designed and built by Swiss manufacturer Bolliger & Mabillard.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Riddler's Revenge</span> Stand-up roller coaster

The Riddler's Revenge is a stand-up roller coaster located at Six Flags Magic Mountain. Manufactured by Bolliger & Mabillard, the ride opened as the park's eleventh roller coaster on April 4, 1998, setting multiple world records among stand-up coasters. Originally located in the Movie District section of the park, which later became Metropolis in 2017, The Riddler's Revenge was also the park's single biggest investment at a cost of $14 million. It features a height of 156 feet (48 m), a maximum speed of 65 mph (105 km/h), six inversions, and a track length of 4,370 feet (1,330 m).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nemesis (roller coaster)</span> Steel inverted roller coaster

Nemesis is an inverted roller coaster located at the Alton Towers theme park in England. It opened to the public on March 19, 1994. The ride was manufactured by Bolliger & Mabillard and designed by Werner Stengel, in collaboration with attraction developer John Wardley. It is located in the Forbidden Valley area of the park, adjacent to Galactica and The Blade attractions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Montu (roller coaster)</span> Inverted roller coaster at Busch Gardens Tampa

Montu is an inverted roller coaster at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay in Tampa, Florida. Designed by Swiss manufacturer Bolliger & Mabillard, it is the park's second roller coaster designed by that company following the success of Kumba, which opened 3 years prior. When the ride opened on May 16, 1996, it was the world's tallest and fastest inverted roller coaster, a title it has since conceded to Alpengeist at sister park Busch Gardens Williamsburg. The ride stands 150 feet (46 m) tall and reaches speeds of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Superman: Ultimate Flight</span> Roller coasters at three Six Flags parks

Superman: Ultimate Flight is the name of three flying roller coasters currently operating at three Six Flags amusement parks in the United States, those being Six Flags Over Georgia, Six Flags Great Adventure and Six Flags Great America. Each of these steel coasters were designed and built by Swiss manufacturer Bolliger & Mabillard and opened in 2002 and 2003. Since 2003, Six Flags has installed Superman: Ultimate Flight in three of their parks. Themed to the popular comic book character, Superman: Ultimate Flight simulates flying by positioning its passengers parallel to the track, supported by harnesses and facing the ground through most of the ride. In the station, riders board the train sitting down. After the train is locked and checked, the trains are raised into the flying position. After the ride, the seats are lowered back into the sitting position for the next round of riders.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Suspended Looping Coaster</span> Type of roller coaster

The Suspended Looping Coaster is a model of steel inverted roller coaster built by Vekoma. There are at least 39 different installations across the world. The minimum rider height requirement is 130 centimetres. Vekoma is now marketing a Suspended Thrill Coaster as a successor to the Suspended Looping Coaster. The Odyssey is the largest, fastest and tallest SLC ever built at Fantasy Island in the UK.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flashback (Six Flags Magic Mountain)</span> Defunct roller coaster

Flashback was a steel roller coaster made by Intamin of Switzerland. The coaster was located in the Six Flags Plaza area of Six Flags Magic Mountain in Valencia, California. The model of the ride, a Space Diver coaster, was intended to be mass-produced, however, Flashback was the only installation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scream (roller coaster)</span> Steel roller coaster

Scream is a steel roller coaster at Six Flags Magic Mountain. Manufactured by Bolliger & Mabillard, the Floorless Coaster model was the park's sixteenth roller coaster and is located in the Screampunk District area of the park. The 150-foot-tall (46 m) ride consists of a series of roller coaster elements including seven inversions ranging from a zero-g roll to interlocking corkscrews. The ride is a mirror image of Medusa at Six Flags Great Adventure.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Batman: The Dark Knight (roller coaster)</span> Roller coaster at Six Flags New England

Batman: The Dark Knight is a steel floorless roller coaster designed by Bolliger & Mabillard located in the Gotham City section of Six Flags New England. The roller coaster has 2,600 feet (790 m) of track, reaches a maximum height of 117.8 feet (35.9 m) and features five inversions. The coaster was announced on February 6, 2002 and opened to the public on April 20, 2002. In 2008, the ride's name was changed to Batman: The Ride to avoid confusion with Six Flags New England's installation of The Dark Knight Coaster that was planned to be built at the park; but after the project was cancelled, the ride's name reverted to Batman: The Dark Knight.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dive Coaster</span> Roller coaster model

The Dive Coaster is a steel roller coaster model developed and engineered by Bolliger & Mabillard. The design features one or more near-vertical drops that are approximately 90 degrees, which provide a moment of free-falling for passengers. The experience is enhanced by unique trains that seat up to ten riders per row, spanning only two or three rows total. Unlike traditional train design, this distinguishing aspect gives all passengers virtually the same experience throughout the course of the ride. Another defining characteristic of Dive Coasters is the holding brake at the top of the lift hill that holds the train momentarily right as it enters the first drop, suspending some passengers with a view looking straight down and releasing suddenly moments later.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medusa (Six Flags Discovery Kingdom)</span> Floorless roller coaster

Medusa is a steel roller coaster located at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom in Vallejo, California. Built by Bolliger & Mabillard, Medusa opened in 2000 as the first floorless roller coaster on the West Coast. The roller coaster features seven inversions, a 150-foot (46 m)-tall lift hill with a 150-foot (46 m) drop, and the first Sea serpent roll element ever built on a B&M roller coaster. The ride is the longest coaster in Northern California at 3,937 feet (1,200 m) long and is notable as having one of the largest vertical loops in the world at 128 feet (39 m). It also shares the height record in Northern California with another two rides in the same park, The Flash: Vertical Velocity, and Superman: Ultimate Flight at 150 feet (46 m) high.

Roller coaster elements are the individual parts of roller coaster design and operation, such as a track, hill, loop, or turn. Variations in normal track movement that add thrill or excitement to the ride are often called "thrill elements".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Goliath (Six Flags Fiesta Texas)</span> Steel inverted roller coaster

Goliath is an inverted roller coaster located at Six Flags Fiesta Texas in San Antonio, Texas, United States. Designed by Werner Stengel and Swiss manufacturer Bolliger & Mabillard, Goliath initially opened in 1995 at an amusement park in Japan, and has been operating at Six Flags Fiesta Texas since 2008. It stands at a height of 105 feet (32 m), reaches a maximum speed of 50 mph (80 km/h), and features multiple inversions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wing Coaster</span> Type of roller coaster

Wing Coaster is engineering firm Bolliger & Mabillard’s designation for its winged roller coaster designs. Winged roller coasters are a type of steel roller coaster where pairs of riders sit on either side of a roller coaster track in which nothing is above or below the riders. B&M began development on the first Wing Coaster between 2007 and 2008 leading to the opening of Raptor at Gardaland on 1 April 2011. There are currently sixteen B&M-designed Wing Coasters either under construction or operating worldwide as of December 2020.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">X-Flight (Six Flags Great America)</span> Roller coaster in Gurnee, Illinois

X-Flight is a steel roller coaster located at Six Flags Great America in Gurnee, Illinois. Designed and built by Bolliger & Mabillard, the ride opened as the fourth Wing Coaster in the world and the second in the United States on May 16, 2012. It replaced both the Splashwater Falls and Great American Raceway attractions. The 3,000-foot-long (910 m) roller coaster features barrel rolls, high-speed drops, and a signature fly-through element, where the train narrowly misses a support structure – designed to look like an air traffic control tower – as it passes through an opening known as a keyhole element.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sky Scrapper</span> Roller coaster

Sky Scrapper is a flying roller coaster at World Joyland in Wujin, Changzhou, Jiangsu, China. Sky Scrapper was one of World Joyland's opening day attractions, officially opening on April 30, 2011. The 2,805.1-foot-long (855.0 m) ride stands 131.3 feet (40.0 m) tall, and features a top speed of 54.7 mph (88.0 km/h). Designed by Swiss firm Bolliger & Mabillard, Sky Scrapper restrains riders in the prone position and features five inversions.

References

  1. "Bolliger & Mabillard". RCDB. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2007.
  2. 1 2 "Bolliger & Mabillard". Roller Coaster Database. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  3. "Bolliger & Mabillard – Inverted Coaster" . Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  4. 1 2 3 4 "Scott & Carol Present: Getting On Track With B&M". NewsPlusNotes. December 11, 2008. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  5. 1 2 "The Significance of Bolliger & Mabillard". Coaster-net.com. February 12, 2011. Archived from the original on April 27, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  6. Marden, Duane. "Titan  (Six Flags Over Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  7. Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  8. 1 2 3 PointBuzz (June 7, 2010). "Cedar Point Video – Walter Bolliger at CoasterMania! 2010 (Part 1 / 2)". YouTube. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  9. 1 2 3 PointBuzz (June 7, 2010). "Cedar Point Video – Walter Bolliger at CoasterMania! 2010 (Part 2 / 2)". YouTube. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  10. 1 2 Davidson, Mark (2005). "A Revolution on Rails: The Bolliger & Mabillard Story (Part I)". RollerCoaster!. Vol. dd27, no. 1. Minneapolis, Minnesota: American Coaster Enthusiasts. pp. 31–46. ISSN   0896-7261.
  11. USpatent 5272984,Bolliger, Walter&Mabillard, Claude,"Amusement ride of the roller coaster type",issued December 28, 1993, assigned to Le, Mark T.
  12. 1 2 Marden, Duane. "Batman: The Ride  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  13. USpatent 6352034,Bolliger, Walter&Mabillard, Claude,"Installation for amusement park, installation referred to as roller coaster",issued March 5, 2002, assigned to Morano, Joseph
  14. "Yes, Bolliger & Mabillard is Building the New Hulk Coaster at Universal Orlando". Theme Park Insider. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  15. 1 2 MacDonald, Brady (April 11, 2012). "X-Flight wing coaster premieres at Six Flags Great America in May". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
  16. McCleery, Bill (July 24, 2014). "Holiday World takes flight with $22M Thunderbird wing coaster". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
  17. Marden, Duane. "Psyclone  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  18. "NewsParcs - Bolliger & Mabillard to supply world's longest inverted roller coaster at Kings Island in 2014". NewsParcs. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  19. 1 2 ""Steel Dragon 2000 new" is finally here! Debut on March 15, 2013 (Friday)!". Nagashima Spa Land. March 13, 2013. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
  20. 1 2 "Steel Dragon 2000 Adds B&M Trains". VHCoasters.com. March 17, 2013. Archived from the original on March 20, 2013. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
  21. "Amusement Today — Golden Ticket Winners 2012" (PDF). Amusement Today. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 19, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  22. "Family Coaster". Bolliger & Mabillard. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
  23. 2012 B&M product catalog.
  24. "Ing.-Büro Stengel GmbH". Roller Coaster Database. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  25. Alvey, Robb (November 16, 2011). "IAAPA 2011 Trade Show Part 4 Theme Park Review Fishpipe Water Ride B&M Zamperla". Theme Park Review . YouTube. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  26. "Dive Machine". Roller Coaster Database. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  27. "Flying Coaster". Roller Coaster Database. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  28. "OzIris". Roller Coaster Database. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  29. "Nitro - Adlabs Imagica". Roller Coaster Database. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  30. "Banshee - Kings Island". Roller Coaster Database. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  31. "Why no pre-drops on B&M's anymore?". Themeparkreview Forum. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  32. "Bolliger & Mabillard 2011". Parkthoughts.com. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
  33. USpatent 6287211,Bolliger, Walter&Mabillard, Claude,"Installation for amusement park",issued September 11, 2001, assigned to Nguyen, Kien T.
  34. "Bolliger & Mabillard Products". Bolliger & Mabillard. Archived from the original on June 21, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  35. Baldwin, Tim (June 2013). "Cedar Point's new GateKeeper gives entrance a complete makeover" (PDF). Amusement Today. 17 (3): 16. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  36. "Batman – The Dark Knight". Roller Coaster Database. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  37. "Behemoth". Roller Coaster Database. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  38. "Leviathan Construction Tour 2012-01-23 (Part 2)". cwcoasterboy (YouTube). January 23, 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  39. "Splashdown". Roller Coaster Database. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  40. USpatent 7430966,Mabillard, Claude&Bolliger, Walter,"Brake, vehicle and roller coaster circuit",issued October 7, 2008, assigned to Morano, Joseph
  41. "Typical Clermont Steel Fabrications". Clermont Steel Fabrications. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  42. "Diamondback built in Clermont". Loveland Magazine. March 23, 2009. Archived from the original on January 28, 2013. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  43. Bolliger & Mabillard - rcdb.com
  44. Marden, Duane. "Vortex  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  45. Marden, Duane. "Batman: The Ride  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  46. Marden, Duane. "Flight Deck  (California's Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  47. Marden, Duane. "Kumba  (Bush Gardens Tampa)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  48. Marden, Duane. "Batman: The Ride  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  49. Marden, Duane. "Diavlo  (Himeji Central Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  50. Marden, Duane. "Nemesis  (Alton Towers)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  51. Marden, Duane. "Raptor  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  52. Marden, Duane. "Batman: The Ride  (Six Flags St. Louis)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  53. Marden, Duane. "Dragon Khan  (PortAventura)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  54. Marden, Duane. "Montu  (Bush Gardens Tampa Bay)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  55. Marden, Duane. "Alpengeist  (Bush Gardens Williamsburg)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  56. Marden, Duane. "Batman: The Ride  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  57. Marden, Duane. "Pyrenees  (Parque Espana)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  58. Marden, Duane. "The Great White  (SeaWorld San Antonio)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  59. Marden, Duane. "Oblivion  (Alton Towers)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  60. Marden, Duane. "Great Bear  (Hersheypark)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  61. Marden, Duane. "The Riddler's Revenge  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  62. Marden, Duane. "Afterburn  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  63. Marden, Duane. "Medusa  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  64. Marden, Duane. "Incredible Hulk  (Universal Studios Islands of Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  65. Marden, Duane. "Dragon Challenge  (Universal Studios Islands of Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  66. Marden, Duane. "Batman: The Ride  (Six Flags Over Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  67. Marden, Duane. "Raging Bull  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  68. Marden, Duane. "Georgia Scorcher  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  69. Marden, Duane. "Apollo's Chariot  (Busch Gardens Williamsburg)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  70. Marden, Duane. "Kraken Unleashed  (SeaWorld Orlando)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  71. Marden, Duane. "Medusa  (Six Flags Discovery Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  72. Marden, Duane. "Katun  (Mirabilandia)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  73. Marden, Duane. "Superman: Krypton Coaster  (Six Flags Fiesta Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  74. Marden, Duane. "Diving Machine G5  (Janfusun Fancyworld)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  75. Marden, Duane. "Insane Speed  (Janfusun Fancyworld)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  76. Marden, Duane. "Nitro  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  77. Marden, Duane. "Talon  (Dorney Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  78. Marden, Duane. "Wildfire  (Silver Dollar City)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  79. Marden, Duane. "Air  (Alton Towers)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  80. Marden, Duane. "Batman – The Dark Knight  (Six Flags New England)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  81. Marden, Duane. "Batman: Arkham Asylum  (Parque Warner Madrid)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  82. Marden, Duane. "Silver Star  (Europa Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  83. Marden, Duane. "Superman: La Atracción de Acero  (Parque Warner Madrid)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  84. Marden, Duane. "Superman: Ultimate Flight  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  85. Marden, Duane. "Vampire  (La Ronde)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  86. Marden, Duane. "Nemesis Inferno  (Thorpe Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  87. Marden, Duane. "Scream  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  88. Marden, Duane. "Superman: Ultimate Flight  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  89. Marden, Duane. "Superman:Ultimate Flight  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  90. Marden, Duane. "Dæmonen  (Tivoli Gardens)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  91. Marden, Duane. "Lightning  (Kuwait Entertainment City)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  92. Marden, Duane. "Silver Bullet  (Knott's Berry Farm)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  93. Marden, Duane. "Hydra the Revenge  (Dorney Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  94. Marden, Duane. "SheiKra  (Bush Gardens Tampa Bay)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  95. Marden, Duane. "Black Mamba  (Phantasialand)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  96. Marden, Duane. "Crystal Wing  (Happy Valley Beijing)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  97. Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (La Ronde)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  98. Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  99. Marden, Duane. "Patriot  (Worlds of Fun)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  100. Marden, Duane. "Tatsu  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  101. Marden, Duane. "Griffon  (Busch Gardens Williamsburg)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  102. Marden, Duane. "Hollywood Dream: The Ride  (Universal Studios Japan)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  103. Marden, Duane. "Phaethon  (Gyeongju World)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  104. Marden, Duane. "Behemoth  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  105. Marden, Duane. "Dive Coaster  (Chimelong Paradise)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  106. Marden, Duane. "Dominator  (Kings Dominion)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  107. Marden, Duane. "Dominator  (Geauga Lake)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  108. Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (Six Flags Fiesta Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  109. Marden, Duane. "Batman: The Ride  (Six Flags New Orleans)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  110. Marden, Duane. "Gambit  (Thrill Valley)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  111. Marden, Duane. "Diamondback  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  112. Marden, Duane. "Diving Coaster  (Happy Valley Shanghai)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  113. Marden, Duane. "Manta  (SeaWorld Orlando)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  114. Marden, Duane. "Monster  (Walygator Parc)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  115. Marden, Duane. "Orochi  (Expoland)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  116. Marden, Duane. "Intimidator  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  117. Marden, Duane. "Green Lantern  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  118. Marden, Duane. "Chang  (Kentucky Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  119. Marden, Duane. "Hair Raiser  (Ocean Park Hong Kong)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  120. Marden, Duane. "Krake  (Heide Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  121. Marden, Duane. "Raptor  (Gardaland)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  122. Marden, Duane. "Starry Sky Ripper  (Joyland)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  123. Marden, Duane. "Leviathan  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  124. Marden, Duane. "OzIris  (Parc Astérix)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  125. Marden, Duane. "Shambhala  (PortAdventura)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  126. Marden, Duane. "The Swarm  (Thorpe Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  127. Marden, Duane. "Wild Eagle  (Dollywood)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  128. Marden, Duane. "X-Flight  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  129. Marden, Duane. "GateKeeper  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  130. Marden, Duane. "Nitro  (Adlabs Imagica)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  131. Marden, Duane. "Banshee  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  132. Marden, Duane. "Parrot Coaster  (Ocean Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  133. Marden, Duane. "Flug der Dämonen  (Heide Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  134. Marden, Duane. "Family Inverted Coaster  (Happy Valley)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  135. Marden, Duane. "Harpy  (Xishuangbanna Sunac Land)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  136. Marden, Duane. "Rougarou  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  137. Marden, Duane. "Acrobat  (Nagashima Spa Land)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  138. Marden, Duane. "Thunderbird  (Holiday World)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  139. Marden, Duane. "Oblivion The Black Hole  (Gardaland)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  140. Marden, Duane. "Baron 1898  (Efteling)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  141. Marden, Duane. "Fury 325  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  142. Marden, Duane. "Mako  (SeaWorld Orlando)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  143. Marden, Duane. "The Flying Dinosaur  (Universal Studios Japan)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  144. Marden, Duane. "Valravn  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  145. Marden, Duane. "Dragon's Run  (Dragon Park Ha Long)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  146. Marden, Duane. "Time Machine  (Freestyle Music Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  147. Marden, Duane. "Patriot  (California's Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  148. Marden, Duane. "Flying Wing Coaster  (Happy Valley Chongqing)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  149. Marden, Duane. "Draken  (Gyeongju World)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  150. Marden, Duane. "Western Regions Heaven  (Happy Valley Chengdu)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  151. Marden, Duane. "Valkyria  (Liseberg)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  152. Marden, Duane. "Family Inverted Coaster  (Happy Valley Beijing)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  153. Marden, Duane. "Wing Coaster  (Colourful Yunnan Happy World)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  154. Marden, Duane. "Fēnix  (Toverland)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  155. Marden, Duane. "Heaven's Wing  (HB World)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  156. Marden, Duane. "Yukon Striker  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  157. Marden, Duane. "Firebird  (Six Flags America)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  158. Marden, Duane. "Iron Wolf  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  159. Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Hot Go Dreamworld)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  160. Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Hot Go Dreamworld)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  161. Marden, Duane. "Flight of the Himalayan Eagle Music Roller Coaster  (Happy Valley Beijing)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  162. Marden, Duane. "Falcon  (Wuxi Sunac Land)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  163. Marden, Duane. "Forest Predator  (Happy Valley Nanjing)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  164. Marden, Duane. "Candymonium  (Hersheypark)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  165. Marden, Duane. "Orion  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  166. Marden, Duane. "Monster  (Gröna Lund)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  167. Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Universal Studios Beijing)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  168. Marden, Duane. "Mako  (SeaWorld San Diego)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  169. Marden, Duane. "DaVinci Ride  (Fantasy Valley)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  170. Marden, Duane. "Dr. Diabolical's Cliffhanger  (Six Flags Fiesta Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  171. Marden, Duane. "Pipeline  (SeaWorld Orlando)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  172. Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Chessington World of Adventures)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  173. Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Legoland Deutschland)". Roller Coaster DataBase.