River rapids ride

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Pirana at Efteling in the Netherlands Efteling Pirana.jpg
Piraña at Efteling in the Netherlands

A river rapids ride (or river rafting ride) is an amusement ride that simulates whitewater rafting.

Contents

History

The river rapids ride concept was proposed by Bill Crandall (general manager of AstroWorld in Houston) and developed by Intamin. AstroWorld introduced the world's first river rapids ride, Thunder River, in 1980 and popularized a concept which can now be found at most major amusement parks. Despite being an incredibly popular attraction, AstroWorld's Thunder River (being a prototype) was initially plagued by issues that were corrected in the first few seasons of operation. The boat bumpers were re-designed, portions of the wide river channel were narrowed or barricaded to prevent boats from bottle-necking or getting caught in a backflow, and a planned whirlpool effect was scrapped.

Construction

Many modern river rapids rides feature a much narrower river channel as well as smaller boats (6 seats as opposed to 12 seats). Some are heavily themed, while others may present a natural setting for added realism. Multiple manufacturers have introduced new elements to the rapids ride concept: a vertical lift system, shoot the chute-style drops, and a whirlpool feature.

River rapids rides feature circular rafts with two main components: the fiberglass body in which passengers are seated and the rubber ring upon which the body is secured. The rubber ring provides buoyancy as well as shock absorption for when rafts collide with an obstacle during the course of the ride or with each other. Most rafts hold between six and twelve passengers, seated in groups of two or three depending on the manufacturer of the ride. Riders face toward center of the boat and are usually secured by a lap belt. Some rafts feature a circular metal bar in the middle of the raft; this gives passengers a place to grip or brace their feet. Some parks include a space for stowing small items in the center. The floor of the raft body is generally above water level to allow drainage. Most parks require riders to be 36 inches or taller.

Congo River Rapids in the Katanga Canyon area of Alton Towers. Congo River Rapids.jpg
Congo River Rapids in the Katanga Canyon area of Alton Towers.

Generally, the station starts at the highest point on the ride, with the river channel having a slight gradient to it for the remainder of the ride. A lift hill then brings the boats back up to station level at the end of the ride. This is usually also the point where the ride's main pumps are housed, bringing the water up from the low point and back up to the high point. The gradient on the river channel provides the water with its flow and pace. This also has the interesting side effect such that when the ride's pumps are switched off at the end of operation or in an emergency, the water naturally flows back to the end of the ride where it collects, leaving the majority of the ride's river channel empty and drained until the pumps are turned back on. All Intamin permanent (and most other) river rapids rides feature a connected lake of some sort at the end of the ride before the lift hill. This is sometimes used to store temporarily decommissioned boats. Its main purpose, however, is to help store the large amounts of water that collect at the end of the ride (before the lift hill) once the ride's main pumps are turned off. This is the water that would have been circulating around the ride when it is in operation. When observed, you can usually see the height difference in the water level in this lake from when the rides pumps are turned on, to when they are turned off. This effect is usually less noticeable if an already existing larger lake is used for the ride's water storage. Generally, a longer rapids ride will need a larger lake, as there will be more water to store once the ride's pumps have been turned off. Depending on the size and length of the river rapids ride, it can take up to 15 minutes to fill the ride's channel up from empty once the pumps have been switched on.

The flowing water makes its way over wooden logs or plastic tubes strapped to the base of the river channel, which disrupt the smooth flow of the water, thus providing the ride with its 'rapids'. Most river rapid rides also feature a wave section, where the river channel widens and a wave machine creates waves at a 90 degree angle to the flow of the water and the boats. Rocks are also sometimes bolted to the base of the river channel on metal frames, which helps create a more natural rapids feel.

There are generally two types of river rapids ride stations: those with conveyor belts and those with turntables. Those with conveyor belts are able to lift the raft completely out of the stream of water (usually as an extension of the lift hill at the end of the ride) and advance it to various points in the station to allow passengers to enter and exit via raised straight platforms on either side of the conveyors. Stations that utilize a turntable allow the raft to stay in the stream of water as the turntable continuously revolves, with the rafts wedged between the turntable and a curved surface so that the rafts move at the same speed as the turntable (and not at the same speed as the water). When they reach a certain point around the turntable, the rafts become un-wedged and are released in relatively even intervals to traverse the course.

Historically, axial flow submersible pumps have been the pump of choice for most rides of this type. The small lateral footprint and large vertical water pumping capacity make them perfect for this type of application, being large in vertical size, they fit right into the end of the ride where there is usually a sudden and large change in height from the end of the ride to the station. Some rides, due to their design, have multiple pump units at different locations along the ride. One example is the new Infinity Falls at SeaWorld Orlando. Occasionally, screw pumps have been used too. In the case of axial flow submersible pumps, rides are usually fitted with four; three being used at all times for the safe operation of the ride and a fourth on standby. The pumps are usually rotated in use to even out wear and tear.

Ride layout

Thunder River Rapids Ride drained for maintenance showing the system that generates the rapids effect Thunder River Rapids Ride maintenance.jpg
Thunder River Rapids Ride drained for maintenance showing the system that generates the rapids effect

After leaving the station, the raft will enter relatively calm waters. After travelling a safe distance (usually 5–15 metres), the raft will enter more turbulent waters. Usually rapids are made by the amusement park having large cylinder tubes underneath the water. The bigger the tube, the bigger the rapids. Along with the rapids, there are often waterfalls.

Finally, there may be pressurized water jets. An automated system may spray streams of water through a nozzle directed toward a passing raft, or on other rides, large amounts of water may shoot from a jet or cannon, often pointed upward so that the falling water will douse riders. Some parks (for instance, Busch Gardens Tampa Bay), have coin-operated water jets and cannons so that passersby can pay to attempt to soak riders.

Safety incidents

On 25 October 2016, a malfunction of the Thunder River Rapids Ride at Dreamworld in Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, resulted in the deaths of four people. Two were ejected from the ride and two were trapped in the conveyor belt under it. [1] [2] River rapids rides have also had accidents at a number of other theme parks. [3]

On 9 May 2017, an 11-year-old girl, Evha Jannath fell into the water on the Splash Canyon Ride at Drayton Manor Theme Park in Staffordshire, England at around 2:20pm. She was airlifted to Birmingham Children's Hospital but died later in the hospital due to the extent of her injuries. The park was closed from 10−12 May to allow the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to complete their work. The park said this was a mark of respect for her family.

Notable manufacturers

Installations


NameParkLocationManufacturerOpenedStatus
ACME Rápidos Parque Warner Madrid Flag of Spain.svg Spain Intamin 2002Operating
Adventure Cove River Rapids
Formerly Splash Canyon
Drayton Manor Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Intamin 2021
1993-2017
Not open yet
Airship Surfing Guilin Merryland Theme Park Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China Hopkins Rides 1997Operating
Alpin-Rafting Ravensburger Spieleland Flag of Germany.svg Germany Intamin 2006Operating
Amazone Express Everland Flag of South Korea.svg South KoreaUnknownUnknownOperating
Apache Falls Gulliver's Warrington Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United KingdomUnknown2016Operating
Aqua Ride Sea Paradise Flag of Japan.svg Japan Intamin 1992Operating
Arung Jeram Dunia Fantasi Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia Hopkins Rides 1993Operating
Atlantis Energylandia Flag of Poland.svg Poland SBF Visa Group 2014Operating
Beaver Rafting BonBon-Land Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark Intamin 1998Operating
Bengal Rapid River Bellewaerde Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium Vekoma 1988Operating
Blizzard River Six Flags New England Flag of the United States.svg United States Hopkins Rides 1999Operating
Bobby Drop Bobbejaanland Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium Van Egdom 1999Removed
Calico River Rapids
Formerly Bigfoot Rapids
Knott's Berry Farm Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1987Operating
Canyon Raft Ride Jin Jiang Action Park Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China Bear Rides UnknownOperating
Canyon River Rapids Hersheypark Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1987Removed
Çılgın Nehir Vialand Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey Intamin 2013Operating
Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs: River Expedition Motiongate Dubai Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates WhiteWater West 2017Operating
Colorad’Eau Parc du Bocasse Flag of France.svg France Reverchon Industries 2003Operating
Congo Rapids Six Flags Great Adventure Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1981Operating
Congo River Rapids Busch Gardens Tampa Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1982Operating
Congo River Rapids Alton Towers Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Intamin 1986Operating
Crazy River Dennlys Parc Flag of France.svg France Soquet 2008Operating
Crazy River Madagascar Beto Carrero World Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil Barr Engineering UnknownOperating
Crocodile Gorge Ratanga Junction Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa Intamin 1998Removed
Crocodile Rapids Etnaland Flag of Italy.svg Italy Hafema 2005Operating
Diablo Falls Six Flags AstroWorld Flag of the United States.svg United States WhiteWater West 2003Removed
Dino Raft Walygator Parc Flag of France.svg France Soquet 1989Operating
Disaster Canyon Elitch Gardens Flag of the United States.svg United States Hopkins Rides 1995Operating
Djengu River Toverland Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Hafema 2013Operating
Dòng sông thử thách Dragon Park Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam Intamin 2017Operating
Donner Fluss Holiday Park Flag of Germany.svg Germany Intamin 1984Operating
Dr. Geyser's Remarkable Raft Ride Story Land Flag of the United States.svg United States Hopkins Rides 1989Operating
Dragon RiverMitsui Greenland Flag of Japan.svg Japan ABC Rides 1966Operating
El Rio Bobbejaanland Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium Hafema 2000Operating
El Rio Grande Walibi Holland Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Vekoma 1994Operating
Excalibur - Secrets of the Dark Forest
Formerly Mystery River
Die Unendliche Geschichte - Auf der Suche nach Phantasien
Movie Park Germany Flag of Germany.svg Germany Intamin 1996Operating
Fårup Rafting Fårup Sommerland Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark Bear Rides 1998Operating
Fjord Rafting Europa-Park Flag of Germany.svg Germany Intamin 1991Operating
Fluch des Teutates Freizeitpark Plohn Flag of Germany.svg Germany ABC Rides 2013Operating
Fury of the Nile Worlds of Fun Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1984Operating
Grand Canyon Dream World Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand Hopkins Rides 2002Operating
Grand Canyon Rapids MGM Grand Adventures Theme Park Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1993Removed
Grand Canyon Rapids PortAventura Park Flag of Spain.svg Spain Intamin 1995Operating
Grand Rapids Michigan's Adventure Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 2006Operating
Grizzly River Rampage Opryland USA Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1982Removed
Grizzly River Run Disney California Adventure Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 2001Operating
Grizzly Run Darien Lake Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1989Removed
Grizzly Run Geauga Lake Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1996Removed
Hidrolift Parque Aventura d'Or Flag of Spain.svg Spain Zamperla 2008Operating
High-Speed-Rafting Churpfalzpark Flag of Germany.svg GermanyUnknown2003Operating
Hunderfossen Rafting Hunderfossen Familienpark Flag of Norway.svg Norway Bear Rides 2000Operating
Hurjakuru Linnanmäki Flag of Finland.svg Finland Intamin 1998Operating
Hydro Surge Myrtle Beach Pavilion Flag of the United States.svg United States Hopkins Rides 1993Removed
Infinity Falls SeaWorld Orlando Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 2018Operating
I segreti dell acqua Felifonte Flag of Italy.svg Italy Hafema 2003Operating
Jungle Adventure Lotte World Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea Intamin UnknownOperating
Jungle Adventure Energylandia Flag of Poland.svg Poland Intamin 2017Operating
Jungle Rapids Gardaland Flag of Italy.svg Italy Intamin 1999Operating
Jurassic Park Rapids Adventure Universal Studios Singapore Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore Hafema 2010Operating
Kali River Rapids Disney's Animal Kingdom Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1999Operating
Kållerado Liseberg Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden Intamin 1997Operating
Kaskade Festyland Flag of France.svg France Zamperla 2015Operating
Koskiseikkailu Särkänniemi Flag of Finland.svg Finland Intamin 1999Operating
Lost River of the Ozarks Silver Dollar City Flag of the United States.svg United States Barr Engineering 1985Removed
La Descente du Colorado Le Pal Flag of France.svg France Soquet 1988Operating
Le Raft Bagatelle Flag of France.svg France Hafema 2001Operating
Le Rapidé
Also known as Drakkar
Rainbow Magicland Flag of Italy.svg Italy Intamin 2011Operating
Los Rápidos Parque Aventura d'Or Flag of Spain.svg Spain Zamperla UnknownOperating
Los Rápidos Parque de Atracciones de Madrid Flag of Spain.svg Spain Hopkins Rides 1996Operating
Lost World Erse-Park Flag of Germany.svg Germany ABC Rides 2004Operating
L'Oxygénarium Parc Astérix Flag of France.svg France WhiteWater West 1999Operating
Mangiabiglie Miragica Flag of Italy.svg Italy Zamperla 2009Operating
Mountain Rafting Heide Park Flag of Germany.svg Germany Intamin 1992Operating
Mystic River Falls Silver Dollar City Flag of the United States.svg United StatesBarr Engineering2020Operating
Nagashimasuka Fuji-Q Highland Flag of Japan.svg Japan Hafema 2008Operating
Niagara La Récré des 3 Curés Flag of France.svg France Van Egdom 2009Operating
North Pole 1 Terra Park Flag of Romania.svg Romania ABC Rides 2012Operating
Périple d'Hanon Carthageland Flag of Tunisia.svg TunisiaUnknown2003Operating
Piraña Efteling Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Intamin 1983Operating
Pixie River Rainbow Magicland Flag of Italy.svg Italy SBF Visa Group 2011Operating
Planet AQA Space World Flag of Japan.svg Japan Hafema 1992Removed
Popeye and Bluto's Bilge-Rat Barges Universal's Islands of Adventure Flag of the United States.svg United States Barr Engineering 1999Operating
Radja River Walibi Belgium Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium Intamin 1988Operating
Radja River Walibi Rhône-Alpes Flag of France.svg France Soquet 1989Operating
Radja River Walibi Sud-Ouest Flag of France.svg France Intamin 1989Operating
Rafting Didi'Land Flag of France.svg France Soquet 2009Operating
Rafting Africano Badoca Safari Park Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal Hafema 2008Operating
Rafting-Bahn Rasti-Land Flag of Germany.svg Germany Hafema 2002Operating
Raging Rapids Kennywood Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1985Operating
Raging Rapids in Boulder Canyon Holiday World Flag of the United States.svg United States Hopkins Rides 1990Operating
Raging Rapids River Ride Kentucky Kingdom Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1999Operating
Raging River Adventureland Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1983Operating
Raging River Great Escape Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1986Operating
Raging River Rapids Gold Reef City Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa Intamin UnknownOperating
Ragnarok Tusenfryd Flag of Norway.svg Norway Hafema 2016Operating
Rampaging Rapids Hunt's Pier Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1985Removed
Rapid River Fantasilandia Flag of Chile.svg Chile WhiteWater West 2003Operating
Rapid River Zoomarine Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal Preston & Barbieri 2008Operating
Rapid River Zoosafari Fasanolandia Flag of Italy.svg Italy Fabbri Group 2008Operating
Rapid River Ride Dream Park Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt Intamin 1998Operating
Rapide di Leonardo Leolandia Flag of Italy.svg Italy Zamperla 2009Operating
Rapidos de Argos Terra Mítica Flag of Spain.svg Spain Intamin 2000Operating
Rápidos del Orinoco Isla Mágica Flag of Spain.svg Spain Intamin 1997Operating
Rapids Raft Ride Gyeongju World Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea Hopkins Rides UnknownOperating
Rapids Raft Ride Happy Valley Shenzhen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China Hopkins Rides 1998Operating
Rattlesnake Rapids Lagoon Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1997Operating
Rattlesnake River Wonderland Amusement Park Flag of the United States.svg United States Hopkins Rides UnknownOperating
Renegade Rapids Six Flags America Flag of the United States.svg United States Hopkins Rides 1995Operating
Renegade Rapids Frontier City Flag of the United States.svg United States Hopkins Rides 1990Operating
Rescate de Ulises Terra Mítica Flag of Spain.svg Spain Hafema 2000Operating
Rio Bravo Europark Flag of France.svg France Interlink UnknownOperating
Rio Bravo Hopi Hari Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil Intamin 1999Operating
Rio Bravo Mirabilandia Flag of Italy.svg Italy Intamin 1992Operating
Rio Dorado Hansa-Park Flag of Germany.svg Germany WhiteWater West 2000Operating
Rio Grande Fort Fun Abenteuerland Flag of Germany.svg Germany Bear Rides 1997Operating
Rio Grande Rafting Djurs Sommerland Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark Interlink 1997Operating
Rio Grande Rapids Enchanted Kingdom Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines Hopkins Rides 1996Operating
Rio Loco SeaWorld San Antonio Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1993Operating
Río Navajo Parque de Atracciones de Zaragoza Flag of Spain.svg Spain Intamin 2003Operating
Río Rápido Bosque Magico Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico Hopkins Rides 1995Operating
Río Rápido Parque Bicentenario Querétaro Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico Hafema UnknownOperating
Río Salvaje Six Flags México Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico Intamin 1992Operating
Rip Roarin' Rapids Carowinds Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1982Removed
Rip Roarin' Rapids California's Great America Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1988Operating
River Quest Phantasialand Flag of Germany.svg Germany Hafema 2002Operating
River Raft Hainan Tropical Sea World Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China Hopkins Rides UnknownRemoved
River Rafting Ride Wonderland Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates Hopkins Rides 1998Removed
River Splash Steinwasen Park Flag of Germany.svg Germany ABC Rides 2007Operating
River Splash Ride Hello Kitty Park Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China ABC Rides 2015Operating
Rivière Sauvage Mer de Sable Flag of France.svg France Soquet 1988Operating
Roaring Rapids Six Flags Great America Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1984Operating
Roaring Rapids Six Flags Magic Mountain Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1981Operating
Roaring Rapids Six Flags Over Texas Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1983Operating
Roaring Rapids Shanghai Disneyland Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China Sansei Technologies 2016Operating
Rocky Mountain Rapids American Adventure Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Interlink 1989Removed
Roman Rapids Busch Gardens Williamsburg Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1988Operating
Romus et Rapidus Parc Astérix Flag of France.svg France Intamin 1989Operating
Rumba Rapids Thorpe Park Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Intamin 1987Operating
Saw Mill Splash Adventureland Flag of the United States.svg United States WhiteWater West 2002Operating
Shipwreck Rapids SeaWorld San Diego Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1999Operating
Sky Rafting Skyline Park Flag of Germany.svg Germany ABC Rides 2010Operating
Smoky Mountain River Rampage Dollywood Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1986Operating
Snowy River Rampage Wonderland Sydney Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia Intamin 1985Removed
Splash Water Falls Six Flags New England Flag of the United States.svg United States WhiteWater West 2006Operating
Storm Surge Thorpe Park Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom WhiteWater West 2011Operating
Sungai Kalimantan Avonturenpark Hellendoorn Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Bear Rides 1997Operating
Tasmanian River Rapids Wild Adventures Flag of the United States.svg United States Hafema 2000Operating
The Gully Washer Six Flags Fiesta Texas Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1992Operating
The Penguin's Blizzard River Six Flags America Flag of the United States.svg United States WhiteWater West 2003Operating
The Rapids Ocean Park Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong
Intamin 2011Operating
Thunder Canyon Cedar Point Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1986Operating
Thunder Canyon Dorney Park Flag of the United States.svg United States Barr Engineering 1995Operating
Thunder Canyon Silverwood Theme Park Flag of the United States.svg United States Hopkins Rides 1993Operating
Thunder Canyon Valleyfair Flag of the United States.svg United States Barr Engineering 1987Operating
Thunder Rapids Lake Compounce Flag of the United States.svg United States Hopkins Rides 1997Operating
Thunder River Six Flags AstroWorld Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1980Removed
Thunder River Six Flags Over Georgia Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1982Operating
Thunder River Six Flags St. Louis Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1983Operating
Thunder River Rapids Ride Dreamworld Flag of Australia (converted).svg AustraliaUnknown1986Removed
Vikings' River Splash Legoland Windsor Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom ABC Rides 2007Operating
Vikings' River Splash Legoland Billund Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark Intamin 2006Operating
Waschgzuber Rafting Erlebnispark Tripsdrill Flag of Germany.svg Germany Hafema 1996Operating
Wildalpenbahn Wiener Prater Flag of Austria.svg Austria ABC Rides 2007Operating
Wild Raft Familienland Pillersee Flag of Austria.svg Austria Reverchon Industries 2007Operating
Wild River Canyon Lihpao Land Flag of the Republic of China.svg Taiwan Hopkins Rides 1998Operating
Wild River GorgeAlabama Splash Adventure Flag of the United States.svg United States FAB 1999Closed
Wild River Rafting West Midland Safari Park Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Fabbri Group 2006Operating
Wild River Rapids Lightwater Valley Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Reverchon Industries 2009Operating
Wildwasser Rafting Bayern Park Flag of Germany.svg Germany ABC Rides 2007Operating
White Water Canyon Canada's Wonderland Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada Intamin 1984Operating
White Water Canyon Kings Dominion Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1983Operating
White Water Canyon Kings Island Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1985Operating
White Water Safari Six Flags Discovery Kingdom Flag of the United States.svg United States Intamin 1999Operating
Unknown Qingdao International Beer City Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China Hopkins Rides 1998Removed

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References

  1. "Dreamworld: Four people killed on Thunder River Rapids ride at Gold Coast theme park". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 25 October 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  2. "Dreamworld deaths: Four fatalities in horror Thunder River Rapids accident". Brisbane Times. 25 October 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  3. "River Rapids Rides - Accident Reports". www.rideaccidents.com. Retrieved 29 October 2016. (Up to 15 September 2003)