Independence Day (Bangladesh)

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Independence Day
Flag of Bangladesh (1971).svg
The first flag of the independent Bangladesh, which was subsequently replaced by the current version.
Official nameIndependence Day of Bangladesh
Observed by Bangladesh
TypeNational holiday
CelebrationsFlag hoisting, parades, award ceremonies, singing patriotic songs and the national anthem, speeches by the President and Prime Minister, entertainment and cultural programs.
Date 26 March
FrequencyAnnual
National Martyrs' Memorial at Savar, a tribute to the martyrs of the Bangladesh Independence War National Martyrs' Memorial 08.jpg
National Martyrs’ Memorial at Savar, a tribute to the martyrs of the Bangladesh Independence War

The Independence Day of Bangladesh (Bengali : স্বাধীনতা দিবসShadhinôta Dibôs), taking place on 26 March, is a national holiday. It commemorates the country's declaration of independence from Pakistan in the early hours of 26 March 1971 by the leader of the Nation Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.

Contents

History

In the 1970 Pakistani general election under the military government of President Yahya Khan, the largest political party Awami League led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman won a clear majority. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto conspired with Yahya Khan and changed their position, refusing to hand over power to Sheikh Mujib. [1] Negotiations began but Sheikh Mujib was not trusted by the ruling Punjabi leadership let alone the Pakistan establishment, in spite of Mujib's efforts. When it became clear that promises given earlier were not going to followed through, the whole nation of Bangla-speaking Muslims and Hindus of East Pakistan began a spirited struggle for independence. On 7 March 1971 Sheikh Mujib gave his famous speech at the Ramna Race course where he called for a non-cooperation movement. [2]

Pakistan Urdu- and Punjabi-speaking personnel rounded up Bangla-speaking armed forces officers, NCOs, and enlisted personnel. Forced disappearances went rampant. On the evening of 25 March in an interview with David Frost, Sheikh Mujib still called out openly for negotiation and a united Pakistan. That night the Pakistan Army spilled out to the streets killing and started Operation Searchlight. [3] It was official, they were not ready for a peaceful transfer of political power to the Awami League led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. [4]

The Independence of Bangladesh was declared on 26 March 1971 by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Another declaration was read out on 27 March 1971, by Major Ziaur Rahman,on behalf of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. [10] Major Zia (who was also a BDF Sector Commander of Sector 1 and later of Sector 11) raised an independent Z Force brigade., [11] Chittagong and the guerilla struggle officially began. [2] The people of Bangladesh then took part in a war to get independence from Pakistan. Independence of Bangladesh was gained through a nine-month guerilla war against the Pakistan Army, and their collaborators including paramilitary Razakars which resulted in the death of about 3 million people in the Bangladesh War of Independence and Bangladesh Genocide. [12] The BDF, later with military support from India defeated the Pakistan Army ending the war on 16 December 1971 after the Surrender of Pakistan. [13]

Celebrations

Bengali parliament building in Dhaka illuminated by decorative lighting National Assembly of Bangladesh on Independence Day 2015 (16761162098).jpg
Bengali parliament building in Dhaka illuminated by decorative lighting
Celebration with Bangladeshi Flag Happy Independence Day of Bangladesh.jpg
Celebration with Bangladeshi Flag

Independence Day is commonly associated with parades, political speeches, fairs, concerts, ceremonies and various other public and private events celebrating the history and traditions of Bangladesh. TV and radio stations broadcast special programs and patriotic songs in honor of the Independence Day. Generally, a thirty-one gun salute is conducted in the morning. [14] The main streets are decorated with national flags. Different political parties and socioeconomic organizations undertake programs to mark the day in a befitting manner, including paying respects at National Martyrs’ Memorial at Savar near Dhaka. [14]

Google displayed a doodle commemorating the Independence Day of Bangladesh on 26 March 2017 on their bd domain. [15] The same year celebrations were organised in Tripura, India by Bangladesh deputy high commissioner stationed there. [16]

Independence Award

The Independence Day Award, which is bestowed upon Bangladesh citizens or organizations on the eve of the Independence Day, is the highest state award given by the Government of Bangladesh. [17] [18] This annual award, instituted in 1977, is given for substantial contribution in Independence War, the Language Movement, education, literature, journalism, public service, science-technology, medical science, social science, music, games and sports, fine arts, rural development, and other fields. [19]

See also

Related Research Articles

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Bengali revolutionary, founding father of Bangladesh

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, shortened as Sheikh Mujib or just Mujib, was a Bangladeshi politician and statesman. He is called the father of Nation in Bangladesh. He served as the first President of Bangladesh and later as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 17 April 1971 until his assassination on 15 August 1975. He is considered to be the driving force behind the independence of Bangladesh. He is popularly dubbed with the title of "Bangabandhu" by the people of Bangladesh. He became a leading figure in and eventually the leader of the Awami League, founded in 1949 as an East Pakistan-based political party in Pakistan. Mujib is credited as an important figure in efforts to gain political autonomy for East Pakistan and later as the central figure behind the Bangladesh Liberation Movement and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. Thus, he is regarded "Jatir Janak" or "Jatir Pita" of Bangladesh. His daughter Sheikh Hasina is the current leader of the Awami League and also the Prime Minister of Bangladesh.

Ziaur Rahman Former President of Bangladesh

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Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad Bangladeshi politician who served as the President of Bangladesh from 15 August to 6 November 1975

Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad was a politician who served as the President of Bangladesh from 15 August to 6 November 1975, after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.

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The Agartala Conspiracy Case was a sedition case in Pakistan during the Ayub Regime against Awami League, brought by the government of Pakistan in 1968 against Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the then leader of the Awami League and East Pakistan, and 34 other persons.

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Abul Hasnat Muhammad Kamaruzzaman was a Bangladeshi politician, government minister and a leading member of the Awami League. A member of the Mujibnagar Government, Kamaruzzaman was murdered along with Syed Nazrul Islam, Muhammad Mansur Ali and Tajuddin Ahmed in the jail killings in Dhaka Central Jail on 3 November 1975.

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Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra was the radio broadcasting centre of Bengali nationalist forces during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. This station played a vital role in liberation struggle, broadcasting the Declaration of Independence and increasing mental state of Bangladeshis during the war. In 1971, radio was the only media reaching to the far ends of Bangladesh. It ran a propaganda campaign through the war. Mr Sufi barkat-e-khoda was one of the artist in this show.

Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence

The independence of Bangladesh was declared on 26 March 1971 at the onset of the Bangladesh Liberation War by Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Later on March 27, the declaration was broadcast by Major Ziaur Rahman over radio,. On 10 April, the Provisional Government of Bangladesh issued a proclamation on the basis of the previous declaration and established an interim constitution for the independence movement.

7 March Speech of Bangabandhu speech given by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman

The 7 March Speech of Bangabandhu was a speech given by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of Bangladesh on 7 March 1971 at the Ramna Race Course in Dhaka to a gathering of over two million people. It was delivered during a period of escalating tensions between East Pakistan and the powerful political and military establishment of West Pakistan. In the speech, Rahman proclaimed: "This time the struggle is for our freedom. This time the struggle is for our independence." He announced a civil disobedience movement in the province, calling for "every house to turn into a fortress". The speech inspired the Bengali people to prepare for a war of independence amid widespread reports of armed mobilisation by West Pakistan. The Bangladesh Liberation War began 18 days later, when the Pakistan Army launched Operation Searchlight against Bengali civilians, intelligentsia, students, politicians, and armed personnel. On 30 October 2017, UNESCO added the speech in the Memory of the World Register as a documentary heritage.

Joy Bangla War cry and Slogan used by Muktibahini and Bangladeshis

Joy Bangla is a salutation, slogan, and war cry most commonly used in People's Republic of Bangladesh and West Bengal to indicate nationalism towards the geopolitical, cultural and historical region of Bengal and Bangamata . It translates roughly to "Victory to Bengal" or "Hail Bengal".

15 August 1975 Bangladesh coup d'état was a military coup launched by mid ranking army officers in Bangladesh on 15 August 1975. The officers planned to remove the secular government of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman with an Islamic government led by Khandaker Mushtaque Ahmed. Sheikh Mujib and most of his family members were killed in the coup.

Bhupati Bhushan Chowdhury was a Bangladesh Politician and businessman. He was awarded Independence Day Award in 2018 posthumously by the Government of Bangladesh.

1970s in Bangladesh

The 1970s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1970, and ended on December 31, 1979. It was a very significant decade in the history of Bangladesh, because this is the decade in which Bangladesh emerged as a sovereign state. The decade began with a devastating cyclone that ravaged the southern part of the country. The next year the country went into Liberation war and achieved independence from Pakistan. The government of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman administered the newly formed country between 1972–1975, but their rule soon came to an end through a series of coups and counter coups in the later part of the decade. Economically the country struggled because of the war (1971) and famine (1974) throughout the decade and was highly dependent on foreign aids. Culturally, in this decade Bangladesh started to establish its own identity as an independent nation.

References

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  9. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  11. "Radio Interview". YouTube. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  12. "Bangladesh remembers martyrs on 46th Independence Day". Canindia News. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
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  14. 1 2 "Bangladesh Air Force, 15 individuals win Independence Award 2017". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  15. "Google Doodle celebrates Bangladesh's Independence Day". Dhaka Tribune. 26 March 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  16. "Bangladesh's Independence Day observed in Tripura". The Daily Star. 1 April 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  17. "Bangladesh Air Force, 15 individuals win Independence Award 2017". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  18. "Air Force, 15 personalities get Independence Award". Dhaka Tribune. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  19. "National Awards". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 16 April 2017.