This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification . (May 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Leader of the Pauper Party|
September 14, 2011
|Preceded by||Position created|
|Leader of the Abolitionist Party|
|Preceded by||Position created|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
|Leader of the Christian Credit Party|
|Preceded by||Position created|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
|Born||February 22, 1951|
Rouyn, Quebec, Canada
|Political party|| Independent (federal)|
| Abolitionist (1993–1996)|
Christian Credit (1982–1983)
Social Credit (1980–1982)
|Known for||Guinness World Records holder for most elections contested and most elections lost|
John C. Turmel (born February 22, 1951)is a perennial candidate for election in Canada, and according to the Guinness World Records holds the records for the most elections contested and for the most elections lost, having contested 101 elections and lost 100. The other contest was a by-election that was pre-empted by a general election call.
Turmel, who describes himself as a "Libertarian Socred",believes in Louis Even's Quebec social credit theory of monetary reform and has also campaigned for the legalization of gambling, the adoption of "Local Employment Trading Systems" (LETS) which are interest-free barter arrangements, and for the legalization of marijuana. He describes his platform as "I want no cops in gambling, sex or drugs or rock and roll, I want no usury on loans, pay cash or time, no dole."
He has participated in several protests outside of Canada's major banking institutions, saying that bank interest promotes poverty and starvation in the third world.
Turmel, an electrical engineering graduate, who lists his occupation as "professional gambler" [ citation needed ]was active in the Social Credit Party of Canada and the Social Credit Party of Ontario in the 1980s, and founded the Christian Credit Party in the 1980s, the Abolitionist Party of Canada in the 1990s, and the Pauper Party of Ontario in 2011. He wears a white construction helmet, when campaigning, and calls himself "The Engineer". The colour of his helmet is said to not only refer to the white construction helmets worn by engineers and architects on construction sites, but also to the berets blanc (white berets), the nickname of the Pilgrims of Saint Michael, a radical monetarist faction within the Quebec social credit movement.
Turmel's grandfather, Adelard Turmel, supported the Social Credit Party of Canada from its inception in 1935, and he passed on a belief in social credit monetary theories to his descendants. [ citation needed ]His brother, Raymond Turmel, has also campaigned for public office on several occasions.
Turmel spent most of his life in Ottawa but has made Brantford, Ontario, his home since 2003 after running in a by-election there and finding he liked the area where he could play high-stakes Holdem Poker professionally at the Brantford Charity Casino.
This section needs additional citations for verification . (March 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Turmel received a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from Carleton University in Ottawa in 1976 with a specialization in the mathematics of gambling [ dubious ][ citation needed ] and became Teaching Assistant to Walter Schneider in the course until 1978 when he was fired for running a highly publicized Blackjack "21" game in the Faculty Club.[ citation needed ] The next year he received his first conviction for keeping a common gaming house for running Blackjack games at home.[ citation needed ] In 1981, Turmel was convicted and jailed for 21 days for keeping a gaming house and playing 21, he lost the appeal but had the sentence converted to 100 hours community service playing accordion in old-age homes.[ citation needed ] In 1991, Turmel was convicted in Gatineau, Quebec, of running a common gaming house and sentenced to 4 months in jail.[ citation needed ] Before getting out after one month, Turmel ran for Chair of Ottawa-Carleton Regional Municipality while in jail, collecting approximately 3,500 votes. In 1993, as a part of Project Robin Hood, Ottawa and Ontario Provincial Police raided the private 28-table Casino Turmel, the largest gaming house raid in Canadian history. Turmel was convicted and sentenced to 200 hours community service playing accordion in retirement homes.[ citation needed ]
His campaign to legalize gambling and the notoriety he received as a result, combined with his family's background in social credit ideology, led Turmel to seek election at the federal level for the first time at the age of 28, as an independent candidate in Ottawa West in the May 1979 federal election in which he ran as the self-described "champion of hookers, gamblers and dope smokers" [ citation needed ]in a campaign in which he argued interest on money, usury, was the evil instability in financial affairs and swore to "abolish interest rates". He won 193 votes.
He ran again as an independent in the February 1980 federal election in Ottawa Centre. His application to run as a Social Credit Party of Canada candidate was rejected by party leader Fabien Roy. He won 64 votes.[ citation needed ] The Social Credit Party lost its remaining seats in the election.
Because of the death of the Social Credit candidate in Frontenac riding in Quebec during the election, a by-election was held in March. When Fabien Roy accepted the nomination without a convention, Turmel ran again as an independent against the Social Credit candidate. He ran as an independent candidate in the April 13 federal by-election in London West, claiming to be interim leader of the Ontario Social Credit Party. Turmel won 77 votes as an "independent Social Credit" candidate in a September 8 by-election in Hamilton West.[ citation needed ]
He also sought the Social Credit Party of Canada’s interim national leadership unsuccessfully at a convention in November in Calgary. Turmel opposed the appointment of Martin Hattersley as interim leader of the federal Social Credit party as being undemocratic. The party executive claimed that the party did not have sufficient funds to hold a convention.[ citation needed ]
While running in the Hamilton West federal byelection, Turmel registered for Mayor of Ottawa in November, collecting 1,928 votes.[ citation needed ] At the same time, he ran as the Social Credit candidate in a provincial by-election in Carleton riding, coming in last.[ citation needed ] Registered in a hat-trick.
With grandfather Adelard, mother Therese, and brother Ray Turmel in support, Turmel started picketing the Bank of Canada on every Thursday when the interest rate was set and then picketing Parliament too. This continued for five years until the retirement of Governor Gerald Bouey.[ citation needed ]
In the March 1981 provincial election, Turmel ran as a Social Credit candidate in Ottawa Centre, while his brother Raymond ran for the party in Ottawa South and Serge Girard, Dale Alkerton and Andrew Dynowski ran in neighbouring ridings. It was reported that he became interim leader of the Ontario Social Credit Party in early March, although it is not clear if other members of the party agreed.[ citation needed ]
In September, Turmel was a candidate in the federal by-election in Spadina riding in Toronto, collecting 98 votes.[ citation needed ] The national Social Credit party president Carl O’Malley refused to endorse a candidate on the basis that the Liberal candidate, Jim Coutts, a former adviser to Pierre Trudeau, was a personal friend. Raymond Turmel ran as an independent against O’Malley in the by-election held in Joliette, Quebec on the same day, claiming to be the "real Social Credit" candidate.
In October, the Ontario Social Credit Party conducted a leadership vote. The eleven delegates, who represented about 100 party members throughout the province, elected former Toronto mayoral candidate Anne McBride as their new interim leader in a vote of 7 to 1 with 3 spoiled ballots. One vote was cast for Bruce Arnold. Turmel, his brother Ray and their mother, Therese, wrote the word "unconstitutional" across the ballots. Turmel argued that the party was violating its constitution by holding a vote without providing four months' notice to its members. McBride was a Christian fundamentalist minister who vowed to run the party "on Christian principles".[ citation needed ]
In September, Turmel was reported to be fighting his expulsion from the federal Social Credit Party, and seeking its leadership. Further, he was reported to be seeking to replace Joe Clark as leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. Turmel denied the report, but the journalist stood by her story.[ citation needed ]
In June 1982, Turmel returned to Hamilton West to run in a provincial by-election as a candidate of the Christian Credit Party that he had recently founded. He won 173 votes.[ citation needed ]
The Christian Credit Party was formed after the Social Credit Party refused to renew the memberships of Turmel and his brother Raymond. The Turmel brothers said that they left the party because it had compromised its principles on interest rates.[ citation needed ]
He also ran for the Christian Credit Party in the September federal by-election in Broadview—Greenwood (in Toronto), winning an all-time low 16 votes.[ citation needed ] Raymond ran for the party in Leeds—Grenville in eastern Ontario.[ citation needed ]
In July, Turmel attempted to recruit members for his new party at the Social Credit national convention in Regina. In September, the party claimed to have 75 members.[ citation needed ]
In November 1982, Turmel ran for alderman in the Ottawa suburb of Gloucester, and appears to have abandoned an attempt to run in a provincial by-election in Toronto-York South though list #13 shows it was not abandoned. His brother, Raymond, ran for mayor of Gloucester, while their colleague Marc Gauvin ran for mayor of Ottawa.[ citation needed ]
By 1983, the Christian Credit Party appears to have died. Turmel said he disbanded his party because he realized voters would not give it a chance. "People won't vote for a new party. They've been voting for one colour all their lives. The only way to do anything is to get into a recognized party."[ citation needed ]
Turmel, with Therese and Ray, Marc and Emi Gauvin and Serge Girard picketed the 1983 Bilderberger conference held at Chateau Montebello.[ citation needed ]
Turmel ran as an independent candidate in the Central Nova (Nova Scotia) riding by-election in September 1983 against Progressive Conservative leader Brian Mulroney. He claimed to be a "member of the Abolitionist wing of the PC party".[ citation needed ]
Turmel won 97 votes as a candidate in a provincial by-election in Stormont—Dundas—South Glengarry, Ontario.[ citation needed ]
In the months before the 1984 federal election, Turmel attempted to take over the Ottawa branch of the fledgling Green Party of Canada by signing up new members and seeking the party’s nomination in Ottawa Centre. After the party had appointed a candidate in Ottawa Centre rather than hold nominations, Turmel claimed that it was undemocratic and called a meeting at which all Greens were invited to elect candidates to run in various Ottawa area ridings under the Green Party banner. The party rejected those nominations, and then held its own meeting to nominate new candidates.
In the election, Turmel ran as an independent against Green Party leader Trevor Hancock in Toronto—Beaches, Marc Gauvin ran in Ottawa Centre, supporter Serge Girard in Ottawa—Vanier, and John and Ray’s mother, Therese Turmel ran in Ottawa West, and Ray Turmel ran as an "independent Green" in Nepean—Carleton.
Turmel ran as an independent candidate in the December 13, 1984, provincial by-election in Ottawa Centre, and Serge Girard ran in Ottawa East. Turmel also ran for mayor of Ottawa.[ citation needed ]
In 1985, the Executive of the Ontario Branch of the Green Party expelled Ontario member John Turmel and Quebec member Ray Turmel.[ citation needed ]
Also in 1985, Turmel appears to have founded the "Social Credit Party of Ontario", which was not affiliated with other social credit parties. Turmel led a campaign against the practice of cheque cashing agencies that cashed social assistance (SA, or welfare) cheques at a discount to the face value. Turmel issued ID card to SA recipients and recruited local retailers to cash the cheques at no discount. The Social Credit Party of Ontario guaranteed these cheques.[ citation needed ] In November, Turmel supporter Walter McPhee ran for Ottawa mayor and Turmel for Nepean mayor. This proved to be Turmel's best performance by percentage of the vote, as he collected 7.25% of the vote, as he was the only other candidate against mayor Ben Franklin.Turmel ran in an April 1986 provincial by-election in Toronto-York East and an August 14 provincial by-election in Cochrane, Ontario, apparently under the "Social Credit Party of Ontario" banner.[ citation needed ]
In September, he ran as an "independent créditiste" claiming to be the heir of Réal Caouette in a federal by-election in St.-Maurice, Quebec when Liberal MP Jean Chrétien resigned.[ citation needed ]
In June 1987, Turmel ran in a federal by-election in Hamilton Mountain. He was reported to be "attempting to form" an Ontario Social Credit Party.[ citation needed ]
In the autumn of 1988, Turmel ran for mayor of Ottawa, Member of Parliament for Ottawa Centre and Member of Provincial Parliament for Welland—Thorold in the Niagara peninsula in a November 3 provincial by-election.[ citation needed ]
Turmel founded the Abolitionist Party of Canada, which nominated 80 candidates in the 1993 federal election, one more than the Green Party of Canada.[ citation needed ]
In 1994, Turmel won over 4,500 votes running for Chair of Ottawa-Carleton Regional Municipality, the largest number of votes in his career.[ citation needed ]
He won 46 votes as the Abolitionist Party candidate in the February 13, 1995, Ottawa—Vanier federal by-election.[ citation needed ]
In June 1996, Turmel ran under the Abolitionist Party banner in a Hamilton East federal by-election and lost.[ citation needed ]
Turmel won 4,126 votes (2.5% of the total) running for Chair of Ottawa-Carleton Regional Municipality in 1997, in which Bob Chiarelli defeated Peter Clark by 2,798 votes. Turmel won 214 votes as an independent candidate in Ottawa West—Nepean in the 1997 federal election. In September, Turmel won 201 votes as an independent candidate in Ottawa West in a provincial by-election.[ citation needed ]
Turmel ran for the board of the National Capital FreeNet after the previous board reduced the number of seats from 7 to 5. He came 6th, and argues he was cheated out of the only election he ever won.[ citation needed ]
Turmel first appeared in the 1997 Guinness Book of World Records for most elections contested at 41.[ citation needed ]
He ran as an "independent Abolitionist" in a September 14, 1998, federal by-election in Sherbrooke, Quebec.[ citation needed ]
In 1999, he won 106 votes as an Abolitionist Party candidate in a March federal by-election in Windsor—St. Clair, Ontario, which was more than the margin by which Liberal candidate Rick Limoges defeated Joe Comartin of the New Democratic Party.[ citation needed ]
In 2000, Turmel ran as an independent candidate in the September Kings—Hants (Nova Scotia) federal by-election against Progressive Conservative leader Joe Clark. He won 89 votes as an independent candidate in Ottawa West—Nepean in the November federal election.[ citation needed ]
In the same year, he made a presentation to the United Nations on the interest-free UNILETS resulting in Millennium Declaration Resolution C6 to governments to use an alternative time-based currency to restructure the global financial architecture.[ citation needed ]
In 2002, Turmel attempted to run for the leadership of the Marijuana Party but the leadership election was called off after Turmel showed up to contest the election.[ citation needed ]
Turmel won 295 votes as an independent candidate in Brant riding in the 2003 October provincial election.[ citation needed ] His 56th campaign was for Mayor of Ottawa in the November 2003 municipal election, when he collected 1,166 votes.[ citation needed ]
He also tried to resurrect the Libertarian Party of Canada, but was prevented from doing so when former members re-registered the name first.[ citation needed ]
Turmel ran as an independent candidate and placed fifth with 120 votes in a May 13, 2004, provincial by-election in Hamilton East.[ citation needed ] He placed last of eight candidates as an independent candidate in the March 17, 2005, provincial by-election in Dufferin—Peel—Wellington—Grey and placed last in Brant riding with 213 votes in the 2006 federal election.[ citation needed ]
Turmel was convicted of drug possession in March 2006, resulting from a one-man protest on Parliament Hill in Ottawa three years earlier. Turmel had taken three kilograms of marijuana to the hill, and openly smoked a joint in front of politicians and security officials. He announced plans to appeal. [ citation needed ]The conviction was rendered on the same day as a provincial by-election in Nepean—Carleton, in which Turmel was a candidate.
In 2003, Turmel acted as a party to Hitzig v Canada, [ citation needed ]a civil suit instrumental in reforming the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations and the status of medical cannabis in Canada generally.
Turmel ran as an independent candidate in a 2008 by-election in the riding of Guelph.On Monday, August 25, he disrupted a televised debate involving candidates from the four major political parties to which the other four candidates had not been invited to participate. He yelled out his objections so loudly that the moderator of the debate could not be heard. He was eventually removed from the venue, the River Run Centre, by the Guelph police. The by-election was pre-empted by a federal election call in which Turmel re-filed his candidacy for the same riding – he came in tenth out of eleven candidates receiving 58 votes.
On September 10, 2009, police were called after Turmel lost control and disrupted an all-candidates meeting during the provincial by-election in Ontario's St. Paul's riding. Angry at a moderator's rule which forced residents to direct their questions at 4 of 8 candidates, thus effectively limiting his opportunity to speak, Turmel lashed out and ran around the church hall shouting at debate panelists and audience members that he'd go back onstage when he could answer too. At one point, the debate had to pause as a group of attendees attempted a citizen's arrest. Turmel stated that he would "ruin everyone's night" because "mine was ruined".
On January 13, 2010, Turmel appeared on the CBC television show Dragons' Den pitching his Local exchange trading system scheme,asking the panel of entrepreneurs to invest $100,000 for a program which would use poker chips from a local casino as currency at local businesses in Brantford, Ontario. The "dragons" said they didn’t understand Turmel's presentation and mocked him. Kevin O'Leary told Turmel he should "burst into flames" and fellow dragon Jim Treliving told Turmel he was "blowing air up a dead horse's ass". Turmel initiated a lawsuit against the CBC as a result of the program. His complaint was rejected by the Ontario Court of Appeal in July 2011. On December 8, 2011, the Supreme Court of Canada denied Turmel's subsequent request for leave to appeal. He continues to maintain that the show was a "smear job".
After contesting every Canadian general election from 1979 to 2008, Turmel did not contest the 2011 federal election.He indicated, however, that he would be willing to serve as prime minister if offered the role by Canada's elected parliamentarians, as per William Aberhart's rise to the premiership of Alberta in 1935 if the Engineer's Dream Team of chosen other party candidates were elected.
Turmel contested the 2011 Ontario provincial election as founder and leader of the newly formed Pauper Party of Ontario.stating "we want no cops in gambling, sex or drugs or rock and roll, we want no usury on loans, pay cash or time, no dole." Turmel has subsequently run in Ontario by-elections under the "Pauper" banner.
In 2012, Turmel again ran as an independent, this time in the March 19 federal by-election in Toronto—Danforth to choose a successor to Jack Layton. He ran on a campaign pushing for mass production of marijuana to fight cancers he says are coming from the "nuclear fallout that hit us from Fukushima".
On the provincial level, Turmel has continued to carry the banner of the Pauper Party of Ontario and ran in the August 1, 2013 by-election in Ottawa South to choose the successor to Dalton McGuinty placing last with 43 votes. He ran again as a Pauper candidate in the February 13, 2014 provincial by-election in Thornhill placing last with 49 votes. On September 1, 2016, he secured second-to-last place in the Scarborough—Rouge River provincial by-election by one vote over former Trillium Party candidate Ania Krosinska.[ citation needed ]
Turmel placed 6th out of 6 candidates in the 2020 York Centre federal by-election, earning just under 0.6% of the vote.
On June 6, 2018, Turmel appeared as a witness before the Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Procedure and House Affairs regarding the Trudeau Government's proposed changes to the Canada Elections Act.
During his appearance Turmel argued for free and equal broadcasting time for all candidates and fair auditing rules for candidates with only minor campaign expenses.
He also discussed the time banking software "LETS", being arrested, and being invited to give speeches at the United Nations.
This section needs additional citations for verification . (March 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|1.||May 22, 1979||Federal||Ottawa West||Independent||193||0.35|
|2.||February 20, 1980||Federal||Ottawa Centre||Independent||62||0.13|
|3.||March 24, 1980||Federal by-election||Frontenac||Independent||101||0.31|
|4.||September 8, 1980||Federal by-election||Hamilton West||Independent Social Credit||88||0.28|
|5.||November 10, 1980||Municipal/Mayor||Ottawa||N/A||1,928||2.21|
|6.||November 20, 1980||Provincial by-election||Carleton||Social Credit||95||0.39|
|7.||March 19, 1981||Provincial||Ottawa Centre||Social Credit||376||1.48|
|8.||April 12, 1981||Federal by-election||London West||Independent||37||0.08|
|9.||May 4, 1981||Federal by-election||Lévis||Independent||172||0.51|
|10.||August 17, 1981||Federal by-election||Spadina||Independent||69||0.31|
|11.||June 17, 1982||Provincial by-election||Hamilton West||Christian Credit Party||173||0.75|
|12.||October 12, 1982||Federal by-election||Broadview—Greenwood||Christian Credit Party||19||0.07|
|13.||November 4, 1982||Provincial by-election||York South||Independent||66||0.27|
|14.||November 8, 1982||Municipal/Alderman||Gloucester||N/A||1,193||1.27|
|15.||August 29, 1983||Federal by-election||Central Nova||Independent||46||0.15|
|16.||December 15, 1983||Provincial by-election||Stormont—Dundas—South Glengarry||Independent||97||0.46|
|17.||September 4, 1984||Federal||Beaches||Independent||112||0.31|
|18.||December 13, 1984||Provincial by-election||Ottawa Centre||Independent||90||0.46|
|19.||May 2, 1985||Provincial||Ottawa Centre||Independent||364||1.33|
|20.||November 12, 1985||Municipal/Mayor||Nepean||N/A||1,405||7.25|
|21.||April 17, 1986||Provincial by-election||York East||Social Credit Party of Ontario||44||0.17|
|22.||August 14, 1986||Provincial by-election||Cochrane North||Social Credit Party of Ontario||75||0.74|
|23.||September 29, 1986||Federal by-election||Saint-Maurice||Independent creditiste||104||0.31|
|24.||July 20, 1987||Federal by-election||Hamilton Mountain||Independent||166||0.50|
|25.||September 10, 1987||Provincial||Ottawa Centre||Independent||598||2.03|
|26.||March 31, 1988||Provincial by-election||London North||Independent||115||0.35|
|27.||November 3, 1988||Provincial by-election||Welland—Thorold||Independent||187||0.65|
|28.||November 14, 1988||Municipal/Mayor||Ottawa||N/A||3,123||3.88|
|29.||November 21, 1988||Federal||Ottawa Centre||Independent||152||0.31|
|30.||August 13, 1990||Federal by-election||Oshawa||Independent||50||0.20|
|31.||September 6, 1990||Provincial||Ottawa Centre||Independent||160||0.53|
|32.||December 10, 1990||Federal by-election||York North||Independent||97||0.23|
|33.||November 12, 1991||Municipal/Regional Chair||Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton||N/A||3,574||1.81|
|34.||October 23, 1993||Federal||Frontenac||Abolitionist||195||0.63|
|35.||December 2, 1993||Provincial by-election||Essex South||Independent||84||0.46|
|36.||March 17, 1994||Provincial by-election||Victoria—Haliburton||Independent||123||0.52|
|37.||November 14, 1994||Municipal/Regional Chair||Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton||N/A||4,563||2.35|
|38.||February 13, 1995||Federal by-election||Ottawa—Vanier||Abolitionist Party||46||0.23|
|39.||June 8, 1995||Provincial||Ottawa Centre||Independent||173||0.61|
|40.||March 25, 1996||Federal by-election||Etobicoke North||Abolitionist Party||75||0.28|
|41.||June 17, 1996||Federal by-election||Hamilton East||Abolitionist Party||21||0.08|
|42.||June 2, 1997||Federal||Ottawa West—Nepean||Independent||211||0.39|
|43.||September 4, 1997||Provincial by-election||Ottawa West||Independent||201||0.93|
|44.||November 10, 1997||Municipal/Regional Chair||Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton||N/A||4,126||2.50|
|45.||September 14, 1998||Federal by-election||Sherbrooke||Independent Abolitionist||97||0.27|
|46.||April 12, 1999||Federal by-election||Windsor—St. Clair||Abolitionist Party||106||0.33|
|47.||June 3, 1999||Provincial||Ottawa West—Nepean||Independent||94||0.20|
|48.||November 15, 1999||Federal by-election||Hull—Aylmer||Independent||51||0.29|
|49.||September 7, 2000||Provincial by-election||Ancaster—Dundas—Flamborough—Aldershot||Independent||80||0.24|
|50.||September 11, 2000||Federal by-election||Kings—Hants||Independent||221||0.81|
|51.||November 13, 2000||Municipal/Mayor||Ottawa||N/A||677||0.27|
|52.||November 27, 2000||Federal||Ottawa West—Nepean||Independent||89||0.17|
|53.||March 22, 2001||Provincial by-election||Parry Sound—Muskoka||Independent||61||0.23|
|54.||May 2, 2002||Provincial by-election||Dufferin—Peel—Wellington—Grey||Independent||120||0.37|
|55.||October 2, 2003||Provincial||Brant||Independent||295||0.66|
|56.||November 10, 2003||Municipal/Mayor||Ottawa||N/A||1,166||0.63|
|57.||May 13, 2004||Provincial by-election||Hamilton East||Independent Abolitionist||120||0.50|
|58.||June 28, 2004||Federal||Brant||Independent||371||0.69|
|59.||March 17, 2005||Provincial by-election||Dufferin—Peel—Wellington—Grey||Independent Abolitionist||85||0.31|
|60.||January 23, 2006||Federal||Brant||Independent||219||0.36|
|61.||March 30, 2006||Provincial by-election||Nepean—Carleton||Independent||112||0.37|
|62.||September 14, 2006||Provincial by-election||Parkdale—High Park||Independent||77||0.27|
|63.||November 13, 2006||Municipal/Mayor||Brantford||N/A||226||0.84|
|64.||February 8, 2007||Provincial by-election||Burlington||Independent||90||0.40|
|65.||September 17, 2007||Federal by-election||Outremont||Independent||30||0.13|
|66.||October 10, 2007||Provincial||Brant||Independent||272||0.57|
|67.*||September 8, 2008||Federal by-election||Guelph||Independent||N/A||N/A|
|68.||October 14, 2008||Federal||Guelph||Independent||58||0.10|
|69.||March 5, 2009||Provincial by-election||Haliburton—Kawartha Lakes—Brock||Independent||92||0.26|
|70.||September 17, 2009||Provincial by-election||St. Paul's||Independent||51||0.19|
|71.||November 9, 2009||Federal by-election||Hochelaga||Independent||71||0.39|
|72.||February 4, 2010||Provincial by-election||Toronto Centre||Independent||67||0.25|
|73.||March 4, 2010||Provincial by-election||Ottawa West—Nepean||Independent||230||0.81|
|74.||October 25, 2010||Municipal/Mayor||Brantford||N/A||61||0.22|
|75.||October 6, 2011||Provincial||Brant||Pauper Party||87||0.20|
|76.||March 19, 2012||Federal by-election||Toronto—Danforth||Independent||57||0.20|
|77.||September 6, 2012||Provincial by-election||Kitchener—Waterloo||Independent||23||0.05|
|78.||August 1, 2013||Provincial by-election||Ottawa South||Pauper Party||64||0.20|
|79.||November 25, 2013||Federal by-election||Toronto Centre||Independent||75||0.22|
|80.||February 13, 2014||Provincial by-election||Thornhill||Pauper Party||49||0.18|
|81.||June 12, 2014||Provincial||Brant||Pauper Party||61||0.12|
|82.||June 30, 2014||Federal by-election||Trinity—Spadina||Independent||141||0.41|
|83.||October 27, 2014||Municipal/Mayor||Brantford||N/A||133||0.55|
|84.||November 17, 2014||Federal by-election||Whitby—Oshawa||Independent||107||0.30|
|85.||February 5, 2015||Provincial by-election||Sudbury||Pauper Party||118||0.46|
|86.||September 3, 2015||Provincial by-election||Simcoe North||Pauper Party||46||0.12|
|87.||October 19, 2015||Federal||Brantford—Brant||Independent||164||0.26|
|88.||February 11, 2016||Provincial by-election||Whitby—Oshawa||Pauper Party||11||0.03|
|89.||September 1, 2016||Provincial by-election||Scarborough—Rouge River||Pauper Party||37||0.15|
|90.||November 17, 2016||Provincial by-election||Ottawa—Vanier||Pauper Party||51||0.17|
|91.||April 3, 2017||Federal by-election||Ottawa—Vanier||Independent||153||0.50|
|92.||June 1, 2017||Provincial by-election||Sault Ste. Marie||Pauper Party||47||0.18|
|93.||December 11, 2017||Federal by-election||Scarborough—Agincourt||Independent||145||0.80|
|94.||June 7, 2018||Provincial||Brantford—Brant||Pauper Party||59||0.10|
|95.||June 18, 2018||Federal by-election||Chicoutimi—Le Fjord||Independent||98||0.41|
|96.||October 22, 2018||Municipal/Mayor||Brantford||N/A||128||0.53|
|97.||December 3, 2018||Federal by-election||Leeds—Grenville—Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes||Independent||111||0.38|
|98.||February 25, 2019||Federal by-election||York—Simcoe||Independent||64||0.40|
|99.||October 21, 2019||Federal||Brantford—Brant||Independent||146||0.22|
|100.||February 27, 2020||Provincial by-election||Orléans||Pauper Party||32||0.12|
|101.||October 26, 2020||Federal by-election||York Centre||Independent||104||0.58|
The Green Party of Canada is a federal political party in Canada that was founded in 1983 focused on green politics. Since 3 October 2020, the party has been led by Annamie Paul. The party's parliamentary leader is Elizabeth May, who previously served as party leader from 2006 to 2019.
The Canadian social credit movement is a Canadian political movement originally based on the Social Credit theory of Major C. H. Douglas. Its supporters were colloquially known as Socreds in English and créditistes in French. It gained popularity and its own political party in the 1930s, as a result of the Great Depression.
The Christian Heritage Party of Canada, also referred to as CHP Canada, is a minor social and fiscal conservative federal political party in Canada; it was founded in 1987. CHP advocates for Canada to be governed according to Christian principles. The party's stated principle is that "the purpose of civil government is to ensure security, freedom, and justice for all its citizens from conception till natural death, by upholding just laws". CHP states that, if the party forms government, it hopes to "apply proven Judeo-Christian principles of justice and compassion to Canada's contemporary public policy needs".
The Social Credit Party of Canada, colloquially known as the Socreds, was a populist political party in Canada that promoted social credit theories of monetary reform. It was the federal wing of the Canadian social credit movement.
The Abolitionist Party of Canada was a Canadian political party founded by perennial candidate John Turmel. The party ran on a platform of: monetary reform, including the abolition of interest rates and the income tax, the use of the local employment trading system of banking, and introducing a form of Social Credit with monthly dividends being paid out to each Canadian.
Historically in Quebec, Canada, there were a number of political parties that were part of the Canadian social credit movement. There were various parties at different times with different names at the provincial level, all broadly following the social credit philosophy; at various times they had varying degrees of affiliation with the Social Credit Party of Canada at the federal level.
The Reform Party of Ontario (RPO) was a minor political party in Ontario, Canada. Until the 1999 provincial election, the party ran one candidate each election in order to keep the party's name in the possession of supporters of the Reform Party of Canada.
The 1945 Canadian federal election was the 20th general election in Canadian history. It was held June 11, 1945 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 20th Parliament of Canada. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King's Liberal government was re-elected to its third consecutive government, although this time with a minority government as the Liberals fell five seats short of a majority.
Marcel Proulx is a retired Canadian politician.
The 1995 Ontario general election was held on June 8, 1995, to elect members of the 36th Legislative Assembly of the province of Ontario, Canada. The writs for the election were dropped on April 28, 1995.
Norman William "Norm" Sterling is a Canadian politician, who served in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1977 to 2011.
The Social Credit Party of Ontario (SCPO) was a minor political party at the provincial level in the Canadian province of Ontario from the 1940s to the early 1970s. The party never won any seats in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. It was affiliated with the Social Credit Party of Canada and espoused social credit theories of monetary reform.
Alexander Shaun Cullen is a politician in Ontario, Canada. He is a former Member of Provincial Parliament (MPP) in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario and a former member of Ottawa City Council, representing the Bay Ward in Ottawa's west end. He is currently the President of the Belltown Community Association.
Hans Wolfgang Daigeler was a politician in Ontario, Canada. He served as a Liberal member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1987 to 1995.
The Freedom Party of Ontario is a political party in Ontario, Canada.
Hull—Aylmer is a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that has been represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1917.
Changes to Canadian elections law in 2004 closed "Longley's Loophole". This court decision resulted in the loss of funding for the Parti Marijuana Party and other small parties. The Marijuana Party fielded twenty-three candidates in the 2006 federal election receiving a total of nine-thousand two-hundred and seventy-five votes, averaging (0.82%) across the 23 ridings fielding candidates. In Nunavut, Ed Devries won 7.9% of the vote finishing in fourth place, ahead of the Green Party candidate. Party leader Blair Longley received 332 votes (0.72%) finishing fifth out of six candidates in the Montreal riding of Hochelaga.
John H. Long is a Canadian political figure. He has sought election to the House of Commons of Canada and the Legislative Assembly of Ontario on five occasions and has run for the leadership of the Social Credit Party of Canada, the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, and the Canadian Alliance. He is strongly influenced by social credit economic theories and has often called for reform of the Bank of Canada.
The Pauper Party of Ontario is a libertarian-populist political party in the Canadian province of Ontario based on the principles of social credit. Registered in 2011, the party is led by perennial candidate John Turmel.
The Trillium Party of Ontario is a right-wing populist, social conservative political party in the Canadian province of Ontario. Founded in 2014, the party is led by Bob Yaciuk.