1935 Canadian federal election

Last updated
1935 Canadian federal election
Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg
  1930 October 14, 1935 1940  

245 seats in the House of Commons
123 seats needed for a majority
Turnout74.2% [1] (Increase2.svg0.7pp)
 First partySecond partyThird party
  King1936.jpg Richard Bedford Bennett.jpg John Horne Blackmore2.jpg
Leader W. L. Mackenzie King R. B. Bennett J. H. Blackmore
Party Liberal Conservative Social Credit
Leader since 1919 1927 1935
Leader's seat Prince Albert Calgary West Lethbridge
Last election90134pre-creation
Seats won1713917
Seat changeIncrease2.svg83Decrease2.svg95Increase2.svg17
Popular vote1,967,8391,290,671180,679
Percentage44.68%29.84%4.10%
SwingIncrease2.svg0.65pp Decrease2.svg18.48pp Increase2.svg4.10pp

 Fourth partyFifth party
  Ac.woodsworth.jpg Henry Herbert Stevens.jpg
Leader J. S. Woodsworth H. H. Stevens
Party Co-operative Commonwealth Reconstruction
Leader since19321935
Leader's seat Winnipeg North Centre Kootenay East
Last electionpre-creationpre-creation
Seats won71
Seat changeIncrease2.svg7Increase2.svg1
Popular vote410,125384,462
Percentage9.31%8.73%
SwingIncrease2.svg9.31pp Increase2.svg8.73pp

Canada 1935 Federal Election.svg

Prime Minister before election

R. B. Bennett
Conservative

Prime Minister after election

William Lyon Mackenzie King
Liberal

The 1935 Canadian federal election was held on October 14, 1935. to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 18th Parliament of Canada. The Liberal Party of William Lyon Mackenzie King won a majority government, defeating Prime Minister R. B. Bennett's Conservatives.

House of Commons of Canada Lower house of the Canadian Parliament

The House of Commons of Canada is the lower chamber of the bicameral Parliament of Canada, along with the sovereign and the Senate of Canada. The House of Commons currently meets in a temporary Commons chamber in the West Block of the parliament buildings on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, while the Centre Block, which houses the traditional Commons chamber, undergoes a ten-year renovation.

18th Canadian Parliament

The 18th Canadian Parliament was in session from February 6, 1936, until January 25, 1940. The membership was set by the 1935 federal election on October 14, 1935, and it changed only somewhat due to resignations and by-elections until it was dissolved prior to the 1940 election.

Canada Country in North America

Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern border with the United States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Contents

The central issue was the economy, which was still in the depths of the Great Depression. Bennett, in office since the 1930 election, had done little to stimulate the economy during his first few years, believing that a policy of high tariffs and trade within the British Empire would correct the depression. In the last months of his time in office, he reversed his position, however, copying the popular New Deal of Franklin Roosevelt in the United States. Upset about high unemployment and inaction by the federal government, voters were unwilling to allow the Conservatives to continue to govern, despite their change of policy.

1930 Canadian federal election

The 1930 Canadian federal election was held on July 28, 1930, to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 17th Parliament of Canada. Richard Bedford Bennett's Conservative Party won a majority government, defeating the Liberal Party led by Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King.

British Empire States and dominions ruled by the United Kingdom

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.

New Deal Economic programs of U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt

The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1936. It responded to needs for relief, reform, and recovery from the Great Depression. Major federal programs and agencies included the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), the Civil Works Administration (CWA), the Farm Security Administration (FSA), the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 (NIRA) and the Social Security Administration (SSA). They provided support for farmers, the unemployed, youth and the elderly. The New Deal included new constraints and safeguards on the banking industry and efforts to re-inflate the economy after prices had fallen sharply. New Deal programs included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

The Conservatives were also suffering severe internal divisions. During his first years in office, Bennett had alienated those in his party who supported intervention in the economy. His last minute conversion to interventionism alienated the rest of the party. Former cabinet minister H.H. Stevens left to form the Reconstruction Party. Senior minister Sir Joseph Flavelle announced he would be supporting the Liberals.

The Reconstruction Party was a Canadian political party founded by Henry Herbert Stevens, a long-time Conservative Member of Parliament (MP). Stevens served as Minister of Trade in the Arthur Meighen government of 1921, and as Minister of Trade and Commerce from 1930 to 1934 in the Depression-era government of R. B. Bennett.

Joseph Flavelle Canadian businessman and baronet

Sir Joseph Wesley Flavelle, 1st Baronet was a Canadian businessman.

Voters opted for Mackenzie King's promise of mild reforms to restore economic health. The Liberals crushed the Tories, winning 171 [2] seats to the Conservatives' 39, the worst ever performance by the Tories until their collapse in 1993. The Liberal Party would continue to hold power until 1957.

1993 Canadian federal election

The 1993 Canadian federal election was held on October 25 of that year to elect members to the House of Commons of Canada of the 35th Parliament of Canada. Fourteen parties competed for the 295 seats in the House at that time. It was one of the most eventful elections in Canada's history, with more than half of the electorate switching parties from the 1988 election. The Liberals, led by Jean Chrétien, won a strong majority in the House and formed the next government of Canada.

The 1935 election was also important in it saw the final demise of the Progressive Party and the United Farmers of Alberta. Two new movements rose out of the west, however. The new Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, a social democratic party, first competed in this election and won seven seats, promising social reform. The Social Credit Party of Canada was even more successful, capturing seventeen seats on its platform of monetary reform despite winning less of the popular vote than the former.

The Progressive Party of Canada was a federal-level political party in Canada in the 1920s until 1930. It was linked with the provincial United Farmers parties in several provinces, and it spawned the Progressive Party of Saskatchewan, and the Progressive Party of Manitoba, which formed the government of that province. The Progressive Party was part of the farmers' political movement that included federal and provincial Progressive and United Farmers' parties.

United Farmers of Alberta association of Alberta farmers

The United Farmers of Alberta (UFA) is an association of Alberta farmers that has served different roles in its 100-year history – as a lobby group, a successful political party, and as a farm-supply retail chain. As a political party, it formed the government of Alberta from 1921 to 1935.

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation former political party in Canada

The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a social-democratic and democratic socialist political party in Canada. The CCF was founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, agrarian, co-operative, and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. In 1944, the CCF formed the first social-democratic government in North America when it was elected to form the provincial government in Saskatchewan. In 1961, the CCF was succeeded by the New Democratic Party (NDP). The full, but little used, name of the party was Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (Farmer-Labour-Socialist).

The Canadian parliament after the 1935 election Chambre des Communes 1935.png
The Canadian parliament after the 1935 election

National results

173391779
LiberalConservativeSCCCO
PartyParty leader# of
candidates
SeatsPopular vote
1930 Elected% Change#% pp Change
  Liberal W. L. Mackenzie King 24590173+92.2%1,967,83944.68%+0.65
  Conservative R. B. Bennett 22813439-70.9%1,290,67129.30%-18.48
Social Credit J. H. Blackmore 46*17*180,6794.10%*
     Co-operative Commonwealth J. S. Woodsworth 121*7*410,1259.31%*
Liberal–Progressive  534+33.3%29,5690.67%-0.48
Reconstruction H.H. Stevens 172*1*384,4628.73%*
 Independent Liberal24-1 54,2391.23%+0.86
 Independent1321-50.0%17,2070.39%-0.16
  United Farmers of Ontario-Labour  1-1 7,2100.16%+0.16
 Independent Conservative4-1 1,0780.02%-0.24
Communist Tim Buck 12---20,1400.46%+0.34
Labour  52--100%14,4230.33%-0.35
  Progressive-Conservative  21--100%12,2200.28%-0.13
  Verdun  1*-*4,2140.10%*
  Anti-Communist  1*-*3,9610.09%*
 Unknown3---3,4070.08%-0.11
 Independent Reconstructionist 1*0*8650.02%*
 Technocrat 1*0*7330.02%*
  Liberal-Labour  3---7080.02%-0.17
Socialist  1*-*2510.01%*
 Independent Labour 1---2210.01%-0.41
  Veteran  1*-*79x*
Total891245245-4,404,301100% 
Sources: http://www.elections.ca -- History of Federal Ridings since 1867

Notes:

* The party did not nominate candidates in the previous election.

x - less than 0.005% of the popular vote

Vote and seat summaries

Popular vote
Liberal
44.68%
Conservative
29.84%
CCF
9.31%
Social Credit
4.10%
Others
12.07%
Seat totals
Liberal
70.61%
Conservative
15.92%
Social Credit
6.94%
CCF
2.86%
Others
3.67%

Results by province

Party name BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE YK Total
  Liberal Seats won by party:61161056599124-173
 Popular Vote (%):31.821.640.831.742.256.057.252.758.344.444.7
  Conservative Seats:51112551--39
 Vote:24.917.618.027.935.827.531.934.538.429.8
     Co-operative Commonwealth Seats:3-22--   7
    Vote:32.712.021.319.48.00.6  8.8
  Social Credit Seats:-152-      17
 Vote:0.646.617.82.0      4.1
  Liberal-Progressive Seats:   4     4
 Vote:   10.5     0.7
  Reconstruction Seats:1-------- 1
 Vote:7.30.71.35.911.49.39.712.73.4 8.7
 Independent LiberalSeats:   --1--  1
 Vote:  0.20.63.80.43  1.2
 IndependentSeats:1  ----   1
 Vote:1.80.10.20.70.8  0.4
  UFO-Labour Seats:    1     1
 Vote:    0.5     0.2
 Independent ConservativeSeats:    -   11
 Vote:    xx   55.6xx
Total Seats161721178265101241245
Parties that won no seats:
Communist Vote:0.51.10.80.70.50.3    0.5
 Farmer-Labour Vote:0.3   0.50.5    0.3
  Progressive-Conservative Vote:   0.5 0.7    0.1
  Verdun Vote:     0.4    0.1
  Anti-Communist Vote:    0.2     0.1
 UnknownVote:    0.x0.x    0.1
 Independent Reconstruction Vote:     0.1    xx
 TechnocratVote: 0.3        xx
  Liberal-Labour Vote:     0.1    xx
Socialist Vote:0.1         xx
 Independent LabourVote:     0.x    xx
  Veteran Vote:     0.x    xx

See also

Further reading

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References

  1. "Voter Turnout at Federal Elections and Referendums". Elections Canada. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  2. "1935 Election". www.canadahistory.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-06.