By-elections to the 3rd Canadian Parliament

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Editorial cartoon from Quebec's L'opinion publique in 1874: "A Country's Remorse". The accompanying text says, "Canada mourns her sins; she is right, remorse is healthy; all these electoral court challenges have revealed a series of facts which, in the eyes of the foreigner, demeans and humiliates Canada. Hope for a better future." Les remords de la patrie.jpg
Editorial cartoon from Quebec's L'opinion publique in 1874: "A Country's Remorse". The accompanying text says, "Canada mourns her sins; she is right, remorse is healthy; all these electoral court challenges have revealed a series of facts which, in the eyes of the foreigner, demeans and humiliates Canada. Hope for a better future."

By-elections to the 3rd Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1874 federal election and the 1878 federal election. The Liberal Party of Canada led a majority government for the 3rd Canadian Parliament.

The number of by-elections is notable and so is the number that were of successfully contested, mainly because courts in Canada began to take a more objective view of petitions at that time, following legal reforms on election procedure. [1] Despite many new elections being called, many politicians were nonetheless reelected a second time.

The following list includes Ministerial by-elections which occurred due to the requirement that Members of Parliament recontest their seats upon being appointed to Cabinet. These by-elections were almost always uncontested. This requirement was abolished in 1931.

By-electionDateIncumbentPartyWinnerPartyCauseRetained
New Westminster March 25, 1878 James Cunningham      Liberal Thomas Robert McInnes      Independent ResignationNo
Northumberland February 5, 1878 Peter Mitchell      Independent Peter Mitchell      Independent Resignation to re-contest after being accused of violating the Independence of Parliament Act by leasing a building to the government while he was a senator.Yes
Halifax January 29, 1878 Alfred Gilpin Jones      Independent Alfred Gilpin Jones      Independent Resignation to re-contest because of an alleged breach of the Independence of Parliament Act.Yes
Digby January 19, 1878 William Berrian Vail      Liberal John Chipman Wade      Conservative Resignation to re-contest due to conflict of interest allegations.No
Restigouche January 12, 1878 George Moffat Sr.      Conservative George Haddow      Independent ResignationNo
Nicolet December 18, 1877 Joseph Gaudet      Conservative François-Xavier-Ovide Méthot      Independent Conservative Appointed to the Legislative Council of QuebecNo
Quebec East November 28, 1877 Isidore Thibaudeau      Liberal Wilfrid Laurier      Liberal Resignation to provide a seat for Laurier.Yes
Quebec-Centre November 3, 1877 Joseph-Édouard Cauchon      Conservative Jacques Malouin      Independent Appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba.No
Drummond—Arthabaska October 27, 1877 Wilfrid Laurier      Liberal Désiré Olivier Bourbeau      Conservative Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Inland Revenue.No
Gloucester July 2, 1877 Timothy Anglin      Liberal Timothy Anglin      Liberal Resignation to re-contest after being found in violation of the Independence of Parliament Act for accepting government printing contracts, and being censured by the House of Commons Committee on Privilege.Yes
Ottawa (City of) May 9, 1877 Joseph Merrill Currier      Liberal-Conservative Joseph Merrill Currier      Liberal-Conservative Resignation to re-contest for having infringed the Independence of Parliament Act by conducting business dealings with the government while still a member.Yes
Lincoln May 9, 1877 James Norris      Liberal James Norris      Liberal Resigns in order to re-contest after acquiring a government contract. [2] Yes
Charlevoix March 23, 1877 Hector-Louis Langevin      Conservative Hector-Louis Langevin      Conservative Election declared void.Yes
Kamouraska February 19, 1877 Charles Alphonse Pantaléon Pelletier      Liberal Charles-François Roy      Conservative Called to the Senate.No
Jacques Cartier December 28, 1876 Rodolphe Laflamme      Liberal Rodolphe Laflamme      Liberal Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Inland Revenue.Yes
Cardwell December 14, 1876 John Hillyard Cameron      Conservative Dalton McCarthy      Conservative DeathYes
Queen's County November 22, 1876 David Laird      Liberal James Colledge Pope      Conservative Appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the North West Territories.No
Bothwell November 15, 1876 David Mills      Liberal David Mills      Liberal Recontested upon appointment as Minister of the Interior and Superintendent General of Indian Affairs.Yes
Beauce October 18, 1876 Christian Henry Pozer      Liberal Joseph Bolduc      Conservative Called to the Senate.No
Victoria September 21, 1876 Barclay Edmund Tremaine      Liberal Charles James Campbell      Conservative Appointed a County Court judge.No
Glengarry July 31, 1876 Archibald McNab      Liberal Archibald McNab      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Ontario South July 5, 1876 Malcolm Cameron      Liberal Thomas Nicholson Gibbs      Liberal-Conservative DeathNo
Ontario North July 5, 1876 Adam Gordon      Liberal William Henry Gibbs      Conservative DeathNo
Wellington South July 5, 1876 David Stirton      Liberal Donald Guthrie      Liberal Appointed Postmaster of Guelph.Yes
Middlesex North June 7, 1876 Thomas Scatcherd      Liberal Robert Colin Scatcherd      Liberal DeathYes.
Two Mountains March 11, 1876 Charles Auguste Maximilien Globensky      Independent Jean-Baptiste Daoust      Conservative ResignationNo
Charlevoix January 22, 1876 Pierre-Alexis Tremblay      Liberal Hector-Louis Langevin      Conservative Election declared void.No
Renfrew North January 21, 1876 William Murray      Liberal Peter White      Conservative Election declared void.No
Chambly January 7, 1876 Amable Jodoin      Liberal Pierre Basile Benoit      Conservative Election declared void.No
Argenteuil December 31, 1875 Lemuel Cushing, Jr.      Liberal Thomas Christie      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Quebec-Centre December 27, 1875 Joseph-Édouard Cauchon      Conservative Joseph-Édouard Cauchon      Conservative Recontested upon appointment as President of the Privy Council.Yes
Dorchester December 14, 1875 François Fortunat Rouleau      Liberal-Conservative François Fortunat Rouleau      Liberal-Conservative Election declared void.Yes
Montreal Centre November 26, 1875 Bernard Devlin      Liberal Bernard Devlin      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Bellechasse November 23, 1875 Télesphore Fournier      Liberal Joseph Goderic Blanchet      Conservative Appointed to the Supreme Court of Canada.No
West Toronto November 6, 1875 Thomas Moss      Liberal John Beverly Robinson      Conservative Appointed to the Court of Appeal of OntarioNo
Montreal West October 30, 1875 Frederick Mackenzie      Liberal Thomas Workman      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Victoria North September 17, 1875 James Maclennan      Liberal Hector Cameron      Conservative Court overturns result of 1874 by-election and declared Cameron seated.No
Gaspé July 10, 1875 Louis George Harper      Conservative John Short      Conservative Election declared void.Yes
Glengarry July 7, 1875 Donald Alexander Macdonald      Liberal Archibald McNab      Liberal Appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario.Yes
Perth North July 7, 1875 Andrew Monteith      Conservative Andrew Monteith      Conservative Election declared void.Yes
York North June 29, 1875 Alfred Hutchinson Dymond      Liberal Alfred Hutchinson Dymond      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Monck June 22, 1875 Lachlin McCallum      Liberal-Conservative Lachlin McCallum      Liberal-Conservative Election declared void.Yes
Napierville June 19, 1875 Sixte Coupal dit la Reine      Liberal Sixte Coupal dit la Reine      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Bruce South June 2, 1875 Edward Blake      Liberal Edward Blake      Liberal Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Justice.Yes
Toronto Centre May 21, 1875 Robert Wilkes      Liberal John Macdonald      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Hamilton May 20, 1875 Andrew Trew Wood and Aemilius Irving      Liberal Aemilius Irving and Andrew Trew Wood      Liberal Double member constituency - elections declared void.Yes
Victoria April 28, 1875 Charles James Campbell      Conservative Barclay Edmund Tremaine      Liberal Campbell unseated by decision of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia., 28 February 1875; Tremaine declared duly elected by decision of Election Court, 28 April 1875No
Provencher March 31, 1875 Louis Riel      Independent Andrew Bannatyne      Liberal Unseated from the House of Commons and declared an outlaw, 25 February 1875No
Wellington North March 18, 1875 Nathaniel Higinbotham      Liberal Nathaniel Higinbotham      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Berthier February 27, 1875 Anselme-Homère Pâquet      Liberal Edward Octavian Cuthbert      Conservative Called to the Senate.No
Two Mountains February 26, 1875 Wilfrid Prévost      Liberal Charles Auguste Maximilien Globensky      Independent Election declared voidNo
Renfrew South February 20, 1875 John Lorn McDougall      Liberal John Lorn McDougall      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
London February 18, 1875 John Walker      Liberal James Harshaw Fraser      Liberal-Conservative Election declared voidNo
Huron South February 11, 1875 Malcolm Colin Cameron      Liberal Thomas Greenway      Independent Election declared void.No
Middlesex East January 28, 1875 Crowell Willson      Liberal-Conservative Duncan Macmillan      Liberal-Conservative Election declared void.Yes
Halton January 25, 1875 Daniel Black Chisholm      Liberal-Conservative William McCraney      Liberal Election declared void.No
Toronto East January 18, 1875 John O'Donohoe      Liberal-Conservative Samuel Platt      Independent Election declared void.No
L'Assomption January 16, 1875 Hilaire Hurteau      Liberal-Conservative Hilaire Hurteau      Liberal-Conservative Election declared void.Yes
Montreal Centre January 12, 1875 Michael Patrick Ryan      Liberal-Conservative Bernard Devlin      Liberal Election declared void.No
Chambly December 30, 1874 Pierre Basile Benoit      Conservative Amable Jodoin      Liberal Election declared void.No
Kingston December 29, 1874 John A. Macdonald      Liberal-Conservative John A. Macdonald      Liberal-Conservative Election declared void.Yes
Simcoe North December 26, 1874 Herman Henry Cook      Liberal Herman Henry Cook      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Victoria North December 22, 1874 James Maclennan      Liberal James Maclennan      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Niagara December 22, 1874 Josiah Burr Plumb      Conservative Josiah Burr Plumb      Conservative Election declared void.Yes
Victoria December 17, 1874 William Ross      Liberal Charles James Campbell      Conservative Appointed to Collector of Customs at Halifax.No
Colchester December 17, 1874 Thomas McKay      Liberal-Conservative Thomas McKay      Liberal-Conservative Election declared void.Yes
Leeds North and Grenville North December 16, 1874 Charles Frederick Ferguson      Liberal-Conservative Charles Frederick Ferguson      Liberal-Conservative Election declared void.Yes
Norfolk South December 16, 1874 John Stuart      Liberal William Wallace      Conservative Election declared void.No
Wellington Centre December 13, 1874 George Turner Orton      Liberal-Conservative George Turner Orton      Liberal-Conservative Election declared void.Yes
Northumberland East December 12, 1874 James Lyons Biggar      Independent Liberal James Lyons Biggar      Independent Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Joliette December 10, 1874 Louis François Georges Baby      Conservative Louis François Georges Baby      Conservative Election declared void.Yes
Montreal West December 10, 1874 Frederick Mackenzie      Liberal Frederick Mackenzie      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Richmond—Wolfe December 4, 1874 Henry Aylmer      Liberal Henry Aylmer      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Northumberland West November 17, 1874 William Kerr      Liberal William Kerr      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Lincoln November 17, 1874 James Norris      Liberal James Norris      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Argenteuil November 4, 1874 John Abbott      Liberal-Conservative Lemuel Cushing, Jr.      Liberal Election declared void.No
Renfrew North November 4, 1874 Peter White      Conservative William Murray      Liberal Election declared void.No
Addington October 28, 1874 Schuyler Shibley      Conservative Schuyler Shibley      Liberal-Conservative Election declared void.Yes
Digby October 26, 1874 Edwin Randolph Oakes      Liberal-Conservative William Berrian Vail      Liberal Appointed to the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia.No
Renfrew South October 24, 1874 John Lorn McDougall      Liberal John Lorn McDougall      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Essex October 22, 1874 William McGregor      Liberal William McGregor      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Cornwall October 20, 1874 Alexander Francis Macdonald      Liberal Alexander Francis Macdonald      Liberal Election declared void.Yes
Provencher September 3, 1874 Louis Riel      Independent Louis Riel      Independent Expelled from the House of CommonsYes
Marquette August 25, 1874 Robert Cunningham      Liberal Joseph O'Connell Ryan      Liberal Death, Ryan awarded seat upon re-examination of votes cast.Yes
Elgin East August 11, 1874 William Harvey      Liberal Colin MacDougall      Liberal DeathYes
Napierville August 4, 1874 Antoine-Aimé Dorion      Liberal Sixte Coupal dit la Reine      Liberal Appointed Chief Justice of Quebec.Yes
Verchères July 25, 1874 Félix Geoffrion      Liberal Félix Geoffrion      Liberal Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Inland Revenue.Yes
Oxford South May 23, 1874 Ebenezer Vining Bodwell      Liberal James Atchison Skinner      Liberal Appointed Superintendent of the Welland Canal.Yes
Durham West April 7, 1874 Edmund B. Wood      Liberal Harvey William Burk      Liberal Appointed Chief Justice of Manitoba.Yes

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Women in the 44th Canadian Parliament</span>

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References

  1. Elections Canada, A History of the Vote in Canada , Chapter 2: From a Privilege to a Right 1867–1919, n.d. Retrieved 2016-08-07.
  2. Canada. Parliament. House of Commons (1877). Journals of the House of Commons of the Dominion of Canada. Vol. 11. p. 264. Retrieved 2015-06-24.

See also