By-elections to the 3rd Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1874 federal election and the 1878 federal election. The Liberal Party of Canada led a majority government for the 3rd Canadian Parliament.
The number of by-elections is notable and so is the number that were of successfully contested, mainly because courts in Canada began to take a more objective view of petitions at that time, following legal reforms on election procedure.Despite many new elections being called, many politicians were nonetheless reelected a second time.
The following list includes Ministerial by-elections which occurred due to the requirement that Members of Parliament recontest their seats upon being appointed to Cabinet. These by-elections were almost always uncontested. This requirement was abolished in 1931.
|New Westminster||March 25, 1878||James Cunningham||Liberal||Thomas Robert McInnes||Independent||Resignation||No|
|Northumberland||February 5, 1878||Peter Mitchell||Independent||Peter Mitchell||Independent||Resignation to re-contest after being accused of violating the Independence of Parliament Act by leasing a building to the government while he was a senator.||Yes|
|Halifax||January 29, 1878||Alfred Gilpin Jones||Independent||Alfred Gilpin Jones||Independent||Resignation to re-contest because of an alleged breach of the Independence of Parliament Act.||Yes|
|Digby||January 19, 1878||William Berrian Vail||Liberal||John Chipman Wade||Conservative||Resignation to re-contest due to conflict of interest allegations.||No|
|Restigouche||January 12, 1878||George Moffat Sr.||Conservative||George Haddow||Independent||Resignation||No|
|Nicolet||December 18, 1877||Joseph Gaudet||Conservative||François-Xavier-Ovide Méthot||Independent Conservative||Appointed to the Legislative Council of Quebec||No|
|Quebec East||November 28, 1877||Isidore Thibaudeau||Liberal||Wilfrid Laurier||Liberal||Resignation to provide a seat for Laurier.||Yes|
|Quebec-Centre||November 3, 1877||Joseph-Édouard Cauchon||Conservative||Jacques Malouin||Independent||Appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba.||No|
|Drummond—Arthabaska||October 27, 1877||Wilfrid Laurier||Liberal||Désiré Olivier Bourbeau||Conservative||Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Inland Revenue.||No|
|Gloucester||July 2, 1877||Timothy Anglin||Liberal||Timothy Anglin||Liberal||Resignation to re-contest after being found in violation of the Independence of Parliament Act for accepting government printing contracts, and being censured by the House of Commons Committee on Privilege.||Yes|
|Ottawa (City of)||May 9, 1877||Joseph Merrill Currier||Liberal-Conservative||Joseph Merrill Currier||Liberal-Conservative||Resignation to re-contest for having infringed the Independence of Parliament Act by conducting business dealings with the government while still a member.||Yes|
|Lincoln||May 9, 1877||James Norris||Liberal||James Norris||Liberal||Resigns in order to re-contest after acquiring a government contract.||Yes|
|Charlevoix||March 23, 1877||Hector-Louis Langevin||Conservative||Hector-Louis Langevin||Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Kamouraska||February 19, 1877||Charles Alphonse Pantaléon Pelletier||Liberal||Charles-François Roy||Conservative||Called to the Senate.||No|
|Jacques Cartier||December 28, 1876||Rodolphe Laflamme||Liberal||Rodolphe Laflamme||Liberal||Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Inland Revenue.||Yes|
|Cardwell||December 14, 1876||John Hillyard Cameron||Conservative||Dalton McCarthy||Conservative||Death||Yes|
|Queen's County||November 22, 1876||David Laird||Liberal||James Colledge Pope||Conservative||Appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the North West Territories.||No|
|Bothwell||November 15, 1876||David Mills||Liberal||David Mills||Liberal||Recontested upon appointment as Minister of the Interior and Superintendent General of Indian Affairs.||Yes|
|Beauce||October 18, 1876||Christian Henry Pozer||Liberal||Joseph Bolduc||Conservative||Called to the Senate.||No|
|Victoria||September 21, 1876||Barclay Edmund Tremaine||Liberal||Charles James Campbell||Conservative||Appointed a County Court judge.||No|
|Glengarry||July 31, 1876||Archibald McNab||Liberal||Archibald McNab||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Ontario South||July 5, 1876||Malcolm Cameron||Liberal||Thomas Nicholson Gibbs||Liberal-Conservative||Death||No|
|Ontario North||July 5, 1876||Adam Gordon||Liberal||William Henry Gibbs||Conservative||Death||No|
|Wellington South||July 5, 1876||David Stirton||Liberal||Donald Guthrie||Liberal||Appointed Postmaster of Guelph.||Yes|
|Middlesex North||June 7, 1876||Thomas Scatcherd||Liberal||Robert Colin Scatcherd||Liberal||Death||Yes.|
|Two Mountains||March 11, 1876||Charles Auguste Maximilien Globensky||Independent||Jean-Baptiste Daoust||Conservative||Resignation||No|
|Charlevoix||January 22, 1876||Pierre-Alexis Tremblay||Liberal||Hector-Louis Langevin||Conservative||Election declared void.||No|
|Renfrew North||January 21, 1876||William Murray||Liberal||Peter White||Conservative||Election declared void.||No|
|Chambly||January 7, 1876||Amable Jodoin||Liberal||Pierre Basile Benoit||Conservative||Election declared void.||No|
|Argenteuil||December 31, 1875||Lemuel Cushing, Jr.||Liberal||Thomas Christie||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Quebec-Centre||December 27, 1875||Joseph-Édouard Cauchon||Conservative||Joseph-Édouard Cauchon||Conservative||Recontested upon appointment as President of the Privy Council.||Yes|
|Dorchester||December 14, 1875||François Fortunat Rouleau||Liberal-Conservative||François Fortunat Rouleau||Liberal-Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Montreal Centre||November 26, 1875||Bernard Devlin||Liberal||Bernard Devlin||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Bellechasse||November 23, 1875||Télesphore Fournier||Liberal||Joseph Goderic Blanchet||Conservative||Appointed to the Supreme Court of Canada.||No|
|West Toronto||November 6, 1875||Thomas Moss||Liberal||John Beverly Robinson||Conservative||Appointed to the Court of Appeal of Ontario||No|
|Montreal West||October 30, 1875||Frederick Mackenzie||Liberal||Thomas Workman||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Victoria North||September 17, 1875||James Maclennan||Liberal||Hector Cameron||Conservative||Court overturns result of 1874 by-election and declared Cameron seated.||No|
|Gaspé||July 10, 1875||Louis George Harper||Conservative||John Short||Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Glengarry||July 7, 1875||Donald Alexander Macdonald||Liberal||Archibald McNab||Liberal||Appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario.||Yes|
|Perth North||July 7, 1875||Andrew Monteith||Conservative||Andrew Monteith||Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|York North||June 29, 1875||Alfred Hutchinson Dymond||Liberal||Alfred Hutchinson Dymond||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Monck||June 22, 1875||Lachlin McCallum||Liberal-Conservative||Lachlin McCallum||Liberal-Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Napierville||June 19, 1875||Sixte Coupal dit la Reine||Liberal||Sixte Coupal dit la Reine||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Bruce South||June 2, 1875||Edward Blake||Liberal||Edward Blake||Liberal||Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Justice.||Yes|
|Toronto Centre||May 21, 1875||Robert Wilkes||Liberal||John Macdonald||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Hamilton||May 20, 1875||Andrew Trew Wood and Aemilius Irving||Liberal||Aemilius Irving and Andrew Trew Wood||Liberal||Double member constituency - elections declared void.||Yes|
|Victoria||April 28, 1875||Charles James Campbell||Conservative||Barclay Edmund Tremaine||Liberal||Campbell unseated by decision of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia., 28 February 1875; Tremaine declared duly elected by decision of Election Court, 28 April 1875||No|
|Provencher||March 31, 1875||Louis Riel||Independent||Andrew Bannatyne||Liberal||Unseated from the House of Commons and declared an outlaw, 25 February 1875||No|
|Wellington North||March 18, 1875||Nathaniel Higinbotham||Liberal||Nathaniel Higinbotham||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Berthier||February 27, 1875||Anselme-Homère Pâquet||Liberal||Edward Octavian Cuthbert||Conservative||Called to the Senate.||No|
|Two Mountains||February 26, 1875||Wilfrid Prévost||Liberal||Charles Auguste Maximilien Globensky||Independent||Election declared void||No|
|Renfrew South||February 20, 1875||John Lorn McDougall||Liberal||John Lorn McDougall||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|London||February 18, 1875||John Walker||Liberal||James Harshaw Fraser||Liberal-Conservative||Election declared void||No|
|Huron South||February 11, 1875||Malcolm Colin Cameron||Liberal||Thomas Greenway||Independent||Election declared void.||No|
|Middlesex East||January 28, 1875||Crowell Willson||Liberal-Conservative||Duncan Macmillan||Liberal-Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Halton||January 25, 1875||Daniel Black Chisholm||Liberal-Conservative||William McCraney||Liberal||Election declared void.||No|
|Toronto East||January 18, 1875||John O'Donohoe||Liberal-Conservative||Samuel Platt||Independent||Election declared void.||No|
|L'Assomption||January 16, 1875||Hilaire Hurteau||Liberal-Conservative||Hilaire Hurteau||Liberal-Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Montreal Centre||January 12, 1875||Michael Patrick Ryan||Liberal-Conservative||Bernard Devlin||Liberal||Election declared void.||No|
|Chambly||December 30, 1874||Pierre Basile Benoit||Conservative||Amable Jodoin||Liberal||Election declared void.||No|
|Kingston||December 29, 1874||John A. Macdonald||Liberal-Conservative||John A. Macdonald||Liberal-Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Simcoe North||December 26, 1874||Herman Henry Cook||Liberal||Herman Henry Cook||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Victoria North||December 22, 1874||James Maclennan||Liberal||James Maclennan||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Niagara||December 22, 1874||Josiah Burr Plumb||Conservative||Josiah Burr Plumb||Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Victoria||December 17, 1874||William Ross||Liberal||Charles James Campbell||Conservative||Appointed to Collector of Customs at Halifax.||No|
|Colchester||December 17, 1874||Thomas McKay||Liberal-Conservative||Thomas McKay||Liberal-Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Leeds North and Grenville North||December 16, 1874||Charles Frederick Ferguson||Liberal-Conservative||Charles Frederick Ferguson||Liberal-Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Norfolk South||December 16, 1874||John Stuart||Liberal||William Wallace||Conservative||Election declared void.||No|
|Wellington Centre||December 13, 1874||George Turner Orton||Liberal-Conservative||George Turner Orton||Liberal-Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Northumberland East||December 12, 1874||James Lyons Biggar||Independent Liberal||James Lyons Biggar||Independent Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Joliette||December 10, 1874||Louis François Georges Baby||Conservative||Louis François Georges Baby||Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Montreal West||December 10, 1874||Frederick Mackenzie||Liberal||Frederick Mackenzie||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Richmond—Wolfe||December 4, 1874||Henry Aylmer||Liberal||Henry Aylmer||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Northumberland West||November 17, 1874||William Kerr||Liberal||William Kerr||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Lincoln||November 17, 1874||James Norris||Liberal||James Norris||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Argenteuil||November 4, 1874||John Abbott||Liberal-Conservative||Lemuel Cushing, Jr.||Liberal||Election declared void.||No|
|Renfrew North||November 4, 1874||Peter White||Conservative||William Murray||Liberal||Election declared void.||No|
|Addington||October 28, 1874||Schuyler Shibley||Conservative||Schuyler Shibley||Liberal-Conservative||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Digby||October 26, 1874||Edwin Randolph Oakes||Liberal-Conservative||William Berrian Vail||Liberal||Appointed to the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia.||No|
|Renfrew South||October 24, 1874||John Lorn McDougall||Liberal||John Lorn McDougall||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Essex||October 22, 1874||William McGregor||Liberal||William McGregor||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Cornwall||October 20, 1874||Alexander Francis Macdonald||Liberal||Alexander Francis Macdonald||Liberal||Election declared void.||Yes|
|Provencher||September 3, 1874||Louis Riel||Independent||Louis Riel||Independent||Expelled from the House of Commons||Yes|
|Marquette||August 25, 1874||Robert Cunningham||Liberal||Joseph O'Connell Ryan||Liberal||Death, Ryan awarded seat upon re-examination of votes cast.||Yes|
|Elgin East||August 11, 1874||William Harvey||Liberal||Colin MacDougall||Liberal||Death||Yes|
|Napierville||August 4, 1874||Antoine-Aimé Dorion||Liberal||Sixte Coupal dit la Reine||Liberal||Appointed Chief Justice of Quebec.||Yes|
|Verchères||July 25, 1874||Félix Geoffrion||Liberal||Félix Geoffrion||Liberal||Recontested upon appointment as Minister of Inland Revenue.||Yes|
|Oxford South||May 23, 1874||Ebenezer Vining Bodwell||Liberal||James Atchison Skinner||Liberal||Appointed Superintendent of the Welland Canal.||Yes|
|Durham West||April 7, 1874||Edmund B. Wood||Liberal||Harvey William Burk||Liberal||Appointed Chief Justice of Manitoba.||Yes|
The 1867 Canadian federal election was held from August 7 to September 20, 1867, and was the first election for the new country of Canada. It was held to elect members representing electoral districts in the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec to the House of Commons of the 1st Canadian Parliament. The provinces of Manitoba (1870) and British Columbia (1871) were created during the term of the 1st Parliament of Canada and were not part of this election.
Canada holds elections for legislatures or governments in several jurisdictions: for the federal (national) government, provincial and territorial governments, and municipal governments. Elections are also held for self-governing First Nations and for many other public and private organizations including corporations and trade unions. Municipal elections can also be held for both upper-tier and lower-tier governments.
By-elections to the 17th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1930 federal election and the 1935 federal election. The Conservative Party of Canada led a majority government for the 17th Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 16th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1926 federal election and the 1930 federal election. The Liberal Party of Canada led a minority government for the 16th Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 15th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1925 federal election and the 1926 federal election. Initially the Liberal Party of Canada and the Progressive Party of Canada formed a coalition government for the 15th Canadian Parliament, following the King–Byng Affair the Conservative Party of Canada was given a minority government, which dissolved quickly.
By-elections to the 14th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1921 federal election and the 1925 federal election. The Liberal Party of Canada led the government, which fluctuated between a minority and majority, for the 14th Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 13th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1917 federal election and the 1921 federal election. Prime Minister Robert Borden, then Arthur Meighen, led a majority government consisting members collectively known as the Unionist Party, during the 13th Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 12th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1911 federal election and the 1917 federal election. The Conservative Party of Canada led a majority government for the 12th Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 11th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1908 federal election and the 1911 federal election. The Liberal Party of Canada led a majority government for the 11th Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 10th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1904 federal election and the 1908 federal election. The Liberal Party of Canada led a majority government for the 10th Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 9th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1900 federal election and the 1904 federal election. The Liberal Party of Canada led a majority government for the 9th Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 8th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1896 federal election and the 1900 federal election. The Liberal Party of Canada led a majority government for the 8th Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 7th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1891 federal election and the 1896 federal election. The Conservative Party of Canada led a majority government for the 7th Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 6th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1887 federal election and the 1891 federal election. The Conservative Party of Canada led a majority government for the 6th Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 5th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1882 federal election and the 1887 federal election. The Conservative Party of Canada led a majority government for the 5th Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 4th Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1878 federal election and the 1882 federal election. The Conservative Party of Canada led a majority government for the 4th Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 2nd Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1872 federal election and the 1874 federal election. The Conservative Party of Canada led a majority government for most of the 2nd Canadian Parliament.
By-elections to the 1st Canadian Parliament were held to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada between the 1867 federal election and the 1872 federal election. The Conservative Party of Canada led a majority government for the 1st Canadian Parliament.
The 43rd Canadian Parliament once again set a record number of female Members of Parliament, with 98 women elected to the 338-member House of Commons of Canada (28.9%) in the 2019 election. Of those 98 women, 31 were elected for the first time in the 2019 election. 2 more women were elected in by-elections in October 2020, reaching the historic milestone of 100 women in the House of Commons for the first time. This represents a gain of twelve seats over the previous record of 88 women in the 42nd Canadian Parliament. By contrast, the 116th United States Congress had 102 women sitting in the 435-seat United States House of Representatives (23.4%).
The 44th Canadian Parliament includes a record number of female Members of Parliament, with 103 women elected to the 338-member House of Commons of Canada (30.5%) in the 2021 election. Of those 103 women, 22 were elected for the first time in the 2021 election. This represents a gain of five seats over the previous record of 98 women elected at the beginning of the 43rd Canadian Parliament, and a gain of three seats from the record high of 100 women during the previous parliamentary session following by-elections.