|Type||Limited liability company|
|Headquarters||Solvay, New York, a suburb of Syracuse|
|James D. Beckman, |
|Products||Specialty steels: |
CPM High Speed Steel
CPM Stainless Tool Steel
CPM Tool Steel
Number of employees
Crucible Industries, commonly known as Crucible, is an American company which develops and manufactures specialty steels, and is the sole producer of Crucible Particle Metallurgy (CPM) steels. The company produces high speed, stainless and tool steels for the automotive, cutlery, aerospace, and machine tool industries.
Crucible's history spans over 100 years, and the company inherited some of its ability to produce high-grade steel from England beginning in the late 1800s. Thirteen crucible-steel companies merged in 1900 to become the largest producer of crucible steel in the United States, and this company evolved into a corporation with 1,400 employees in several states.
Crucible declined in tandem with the automotive industry during the 1980s, recovering over the next decade. Although the company entered bankruptcy in 2009, a Cleveland corporation revived it as Crucible Specialty Metals Division to continue producing specialty steels at its original site.
Some of Crucible's products are manufactured using a powder metallurgy process (their CPM process), resulting in steels with superior mechanical properties. These steels find specialized scientific and industrial applications and are also favoured by knife makers for the production of blades which are tough, hard and corrosion resistant.
The Crucible Steel Company of America was formed from the merger of thirteen crucible-steel companies in 1900. This, known as "the great consolidation of 1900", inspired other steel companies to form U.S. Steel a year later.From 1900 through the 20th century, Crucible developed and patented new steels, and brought new steel-production methods to the United States. C. H. Halcomb, Jr. was Crucible's first president and general manager. Two years later, he left Crucible, building the Halcomb Steel mill next door (where he installed the first electric-arc melting furnace in the U.S.).
In 1911 Crucible acquired Halcomb Steel, merging the Halcomb plant with the new Sanderson plant to form the Sanderson-Halcomb Works. In 1955, it began producing vacuum-arc-remelted steels, becoming the first company to use this process commercially. By 1939, Crucible was the largest producer of tool steel in the United States, making over 400 products (more than any other steel company). It had nine mills in four states, two coal mines, a water company and a half-interest in a Mesabi ore mine.
From 1968 to 1984, Crucible was owned by Colt Industries. In 1985, its salaried employees bought it back. By then, the company was known as Crucible Materials Corporation. Fourteen hundred employees worldwide worked for a number of companies, including Crucible Specialty Metals in Solvay, New York; Trent Tube in East Troy, Wisconsin; Crucible Magnetics in Elizabethtown, Kentucky; Crucible Compaction Metals Operations in Oakdale, Pennsylvania; the Cancer Research Center in Pittsburgh, and Crucible Limited in Sheffield, England. In 1989, the number of employees was reduced to 600 after a strike.
The 1980s saw layoffs and plant closures across the U.S.; more than 200,000 workers lost their jobs, and more than 400 mills and divisions of plants (including Crucible's Midland plant) closed.In 1984, Crucible made the titanium alloy used in the artificial heart implanted by Robert Jarvik, and donated corrosive-resistant steel used to help renovate the Statue of Liberty.
During the 1990s, Crucible expanded its operations to Canada, working with General Motors, and building a 35,000-square-foot (3,300 m2) facility with newly patented smelting and processing equipment costing $25 million. Although the number of employees increased to about 1,400, from 2001 to 2003, 200 were laid off.
In 2004, Crucible entered the knife market,and in May 2009, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. That October, JP Industries (a private equity group) purchased the operating assets of the Crucible Specialty Metals Division, formed Crucible Industries, and restarted the Geddes steel mill.
A number of steel companies have operated in Syracuse, maintaining Crucible's intellectual property and patents.In 1870, William A. Sweet founded the Sweet Iron Works. Sanderson Brothers of Sheffield, England, bought the Sweet Iron Works for U.S. production in 1876, renaming the steelworks Sanderson. In 1900, Sanderson's Syracuse steelworks merged into the Crucible Steel Company of America. In 1946, the Sanderson and Halcomb steelworks were renamed the Sanderson-Halcomb Works, later becoming the Syracuse Works of Crucible Steel. In 1968, Crucible became Colt's Crucible Specialty Metals Division. Colt consolidated its basic-materials group into the Crucible Materials Corporation in 1983.
According to ExplorePAHistory.com, "By 1877, the region's fourteen medium-scale crucible steel factories produced nearly three-fourths of the nation's output. Metal-shaping factories across the country depended on cutting tools made of crucible steel through the 1920s, when electric steel furnaces gained prominence."Three companies which merged to form Crucible into the largest U.S. crucible-steel-producing company were:
The other companies which formed Crucible were:
The following timeline provides references and events in the context of Crucible's history. Its primary source is the Syracuse Post-Standard archives, with other sources noted.
1776: The Naylor and Sanderson Steel Mill was established in Sheffield, England, and began producing tool steel with the crucible method.By 1873 it was trading as Sanderson Brothers and Company, and using a gas-fired-crucible melting furnace.
In 1876 Sanderson Brothers and Company bought Sweet Iron Works, which had been established in 1870 in Syracuse.Sheffield was known for its hard, durable steel, and Syracuse was known for its hard steel. Contemporary U.S. tariffs gave Sanderson an incentive for a U.S. operation. In 1878, Sanderson had $450,000 in capital and the following officers: Robert B. Campbell of New York, president; Samuel William Johnson of New York, secretary and William A. Sweet of Syracuse, general manager.
In 1900, thirteen crucible-steel manufacturing companies formed the Crucible Steel Company of America. Sanderson divested itself of its American operation, offering 500,000 shares of stock for $50 million. Crucible's fifth annual report (published in 1905) showed debts of $3.6 million, $2.4 million less than the year before.
In 1902 C. H. Halcomb Jr., Sanderson's president and general manager, left the company and built the Halcomb Steel mill next to the Sanderson mill. Halcomb installed the first electric arc furnace (EAF) in the United States in 1906.In 1911 the company was acquired by Crucible, which doubled the size of its western branch warehouse (now in Chicago) in 1913.
By 1913, Thatcher Hoyt and Paul E. Noe formed the Hoyt-Noe Steel Company in Chicago. Hoyt had been representing crucible steels for twenty years; his previous companies included the Braeburn Steel Company, Singer, Nimick and Company and the Sanderson Brothers Steel Company.
Crucible patented the first formally classified high-speed steel, AISI T1 (German 18-0-1), in 1910, and its basic formula was used for the next forty years. After other high-speed steels were produced, T1 remained one of the most commonly used commercial high-speed steels for the next century. 423-acre (171 ha) site from Midland Steel on the Ohio River near Pittsburgh for $7.5 million to build a new plant. Midland, Pennsylvania became Crucible's planned town.The next year Crucible formed the Pittsburg Crucible Steel Company, purchasing a
During the 1920s and 1930s, World War I financier Horace S. Wilkinson oversaw Crucible president Frederick B. Hufnagel, refusing to modernize and controlling the company's finances as he pleased. This ended with the creation of the Security and Exchange Commission in 1934 and Wilkinson's death in 1937. million and earnings of $4 million in 1937. The following year, Crucible lost $2 million as its sales halved during the recession of 1937–38.At the beginning of World War II Crucible was the largest producer of tool steels in the United States, manufacturing more types of steel than any other company. The company used thirty metals to make 400 commonly used alloy steels. It had nine mills in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Ohio, two coal mines, a water company and a half-interest in a Mesabi Range iron ore mine. Now the company's chairman, Hufnagel brought in Raoul Eugene Desvernine as president. With a legal background, Desvernine focused on improving sales. The company had about 15,000 customers, net sales of $60
When Crucible sought to borrow money in 1940, the Mellon Security Corporation insisted on a full audit. This resulted in a $40 million revaluation of the company's property and plants (down to $81 million) and the loss of its fiscal surplus. On December 7, 1941, when the U.S. entered World War II, Syracuse was considered the Porretta Terme (Italy's gear-producing center)[ citation needed ] of America.
In 1945 William P. Snyder Jr., president of Snyder Mining Company of Pittsburgh and a Crucible stockholder, brought in president William H. Colvin Jr. With the board's approval, Colvin closed four of the company's eleven operations and began a $46 million modernization. The Syracuse plants were consolidated in 1946 into the Sanderson-Halcomb Works. In 1949, Crucible began operations in an $18 million sheet and strip mill at the Midland works, becoming the first steel mill to use hot and cold rolling of stainless and high-alloy sheet and strip. Iron Age, manufacturer of the hot reversing mill, called this a transition from a curiosity to standard production practice; ovens on both sides of the rolls could better control the steel's temperature.
When Crucible removed escape clauses from its employee contracts after the war, the company received approval from the United Steelworkers.During the 1950s, shortages of tungsten and vanadium caused by the wartime drive for cheaper alloying metals resulted in the development of AISI M2 high-speed steel. Colt Industries bought Crucible Steel Corporation of America in 1968, and the Syracuse works become Colt's Crucible Specialty Metals Division. In 1975, Crucible began marketing its products in the Soviet Union.
During the 1980s the AISI reported that more than 200,000 steelworkers in the U.S. had lost their jobs, and more than 400 mills and plant divisions were closing (including Crucible's Midland plant near Pittsburgh). Jones & Laughlin Steel bought the Midland plant and merged with Republic Steel to form the LTV Steel Corporation, which went bankrupt.
In 1981 Colt moved the Crucible and Trent Tube Divisions to Syracuse from Pittsburgh, and the following year it began closing its Crucible Steel Plant (laying off 400 workers).In 1983 Colt Industries consolidated its basic-materials group into the Crucible Materials Corporation, with its headquarters in New York City. This was the last year that Crucible Specialty Metals negotiated union contracts without a strike.
In 1984 Crucible manufactured the titanium alloy used in the artificial heart implanted by Robert Jarvik, and donated corrosion-resistant steel for the renovation of the Statue of Liberty. The following year, Crucible Materials Corporation's salaried employees purchased the corporation’s stock in a leveraged buyout and moved its headquarters to Syracuse. The purchase price ($135 million) included the 1,400-employee Crucible Specialty Metals plant in Solvay; Trent Tube in East Troy, Wisconsin; Crucible Magnetics in Elizabethtown, Kentucky; Crucible Compaction Metals Operations in Oakdale, Pennsylvania; Crucible Research Center in Pittsburgh, and Crucible Limited in Sheffield, England.
In 1988, Crucible Specialty Metals modernized its plant and the division employed 1,425 people worldwide. The Crucible Service Centers Division opened its Camillus, New York headquarters in 1989, marketing specialty steel products worldwide. That year, the workers struck; when a contract was signed, only 600 of 1,100 workers were called back to work.
In 1991 Crucible Materials and General Motors' Central Foundry Division begin three years of joint research and development in die casting, tooling and machine elements, and Crucible Materials Corporation purchased Sanderson Specialty Steels of Canada. Two years later union workers rejected a company contract offer, continuing to work. At this time, Crucible employed about 700 union workers. By 1998 CMC employed 820 workers and invested $25 million in a new, 35,000 sq ft (3,300 m2) facility for manufacturing newly patented smelting and processing equipment.
In 2000, the U.S. Department of Labor sued Crucible Materials Corporation over its pension plan for salaried employees. From 2001 to 2003, the corporation laid off 186 salaried and hourly workers on a rotating basis. CMC employed 1,209 workers, 722 union workers and 487 salaried workers in Geddes and its distribution center in Camillus. In 2004 Crucible Specialty Metals entered the knife market, moving its Camillus operation to the Geddes plant.
The corporation filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in May 2009,and in October JP Industries (a private equity group in Cleveland) purchased the operating assets of the Crucible Specialty Metals Division and formed Crucible Industries. A month later, the Geddes steel mill was restarted.
In 2010, Crucible partnered with Latrobe Specialty Steel Distribution to market its steels. According to Crucible president James Beckman, "Latrobe Distribution offers everything we wanted in a partner for our CPM grades of steel".[ citation needed ] Latrobe, with eight locations in North America, is a division of Latrobe Specialty Steel of Latrobe, Pennsylvania. That year Crucible partnered with Robert Zapp Werkstofftechnik, a division of the Zapp Group, to sell Crucible Particle Metallurgy products worldwide except for North America and Japan.
Many production and custom knife manufacturers use Crucible steels. [ citation needed ] and Mike Snody uses A2, S35V, 154CM and 440C steels. Phill Hartsfield's katana-style blades are hand-ground from A2 tool steel and differentially edge-hardened. Ken Onion's Kershaw's Blur uses CPM S30V steel.Chris Reeve collaborated with Dick Barber of Crucible to develop the S30V and S35VN steel alloys, and Chris Reeve Knives uses these and other steels. Bob Loveless introduced 154CM stainless-steel knives in 1972. A founder and president of the Knifemakers' Guild, Loveless has designed for Gerber Knives, Lone Wolf Knives and Beretta. Schrade Cutlery and Spyderco use 154CM, 440C, D2, S30V, S60V and S90V steel, and Ernest Emerson's knives are hard-ground from differentially heat-treated A2 tool steel. Emerson Knives machines blades from 154CM steel,
Crucible Particle Metallurgy (CPM) steels are used in the automotive, aerospace and tool industries.The list of blade materials describes several CPM products, and the company's website has data sheets for all of them. The following table includes trademarks of Crucible users.
|CPM® High Speed Steel||M4 HC (HS), REX 20® (HS), REX 45® (HS), REX 54® HS, REX 66® (HS), REX 76® (HS), REX 86® HS, REX 121®, T15 (HS)|
|CPM® Stainless Tool Steel||154, S110V®, S125V®, S30V®, S35VN®, S90V®|
|CPM® Tool Steel||1V®, 3V®, 4V®, 9V®, 10V®, 15V®|
|High Speed||M2, M4, M50|
|Stainless 300 Series||303, 303 SE, 304L, 316L, 321, 347, Alloy 20, UNS 21800, XM-19|
|Stainless 400 Series||154CM, 410, 416, 416R, 420, 422, 430, 430F, 431, 440A, 440C|
|Stainless Precipitation Hardness Grades||17-4, 17-4 SUPER X, VAR 15-5|
|Tool||A2, CRUWEAR, D2, H13, WR95 (H10 Mod)|
Although the following metals add general characteristics to an alloy, its actual characteristics are determined by a number of factors. Metallurgy for the non-Metallurgistis an introduction to the field.
|Chromium||Hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance|
|Cobalt||Electrical, hot hardness when used with molybdenum and tungsten|
|Nickel||Hardness, tensile strength, ductility|
|Molybdenum||Depth of hardness, toughness, strength at higher temperatures, machineability, weldability|
|Vanadium||Very fine grain, fatigue resistance, abrasion resistance at average and higher temperatures|
|Tungsten||Hardness at red heat|
Conventional and CPM steel-making smelts ore into steel with an electric arc furnace, refines it by removing some carbon, reducing it by removing the sulphur.Further refining may use argon oxygen decarburization, an implementation of powder metallurgy. The conventional process teems (distributes and pours) the steel into ingot molds. The steel slowly solidifies, allowing the elements to segregate into non-uniform patterns at the microscopic level.
The CPM process pours molten steel through a small nozzle. High-pressure gas atomizes the liquid stream into a spray which rapidly cools the steel into a uniform powder. The powder then goes into high-pressure containers and is heated at forge temperatures to press the powder into ingots; this is known as hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and the resulting metal is uniform.Both processes then use hot or cold rolling to toughen the steel and mill it into finished products.
Damascus steel was the forged steel of the blades of swords smithed in the Near East from ingots of Wootz steel either imported from Southern India or made in production centres in Sri Lanka, or Khorasan. These swords are characterized by distinctive patterns of banding and mottling reminiscent of flowing water, sometimes in a "ladder" or "rose" pattern. Such blades were reputed to be tough, resistant to shattering, and capable of being honed to a sharp, resilient edge.
Paul (Louis-Toussaint) Héroult was a French scientist. He was the inventor of the aluminium electrolysis and developed the first successful commercial electric arc furnace. He lived in Thury-Harcourt, Normandy.
Steel is an alloy of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength and fracture resistance compared to iron. Many other elements may be present or added. Stainless steels that are corrosion- and oxidation-resistant need typically an additional 11% chromium. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, steel is used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, trains, cars, machines, electrical appliances, and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Depending on the temperature, it can take two crystalline forms : body-centred cubic and face-centred cubic. The interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties.
Pig iron, also known as crude iron, is an intermediate product of the iron industry in the production of steel which is obtained by smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically 3.8–4.7%, along with silica and other constituents of dross, which makes it very brittle and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications.
Steelmaking is the process of producing steel from iron ore and/or scrap. In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and excess carbon are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, chromium, carbon and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel. Limiting dissolved gases such as nitrogen and oxygen and entrained impurities in the steel is also important to ensure the quality of the products cast from the liquid steel.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.
Spyderco is an American cutlery company based in Golden, Colorado, producing knives and knife sharpeners. Spyderco pioneered many features that are now common in folding knives, including the pocket clip, serrations, and the opening hole. Spyderco has collaborated with 30 custom knife makers, athletes, and self-defense instructors for designs and innovated the usage of 20 different blade materials.
Knife making is the process of manufacturing a knife by any one or a combination of processes: stock removal, forging to shape, welded lamination or investment cast. Typical metals used come from the carbon steel, tool, or stainless steel families. Primitive knives have been made from bronze, copper, brass, iron, obsidian, and flint.
Ferrous metallurgy, the metallurgy of iron and its alloys, began in prehistory. The earliest surviving iron artifacts, from the 4th millennium BC in Egypt, were made from meteoritic iron-nickel. It is not known when or where the smelting of iron from ores began, but by the end of the 2nd millennium BC iron was being produced from iron ores from at least Greece to India, and in Sub-Saharan Africa. The use of wrought iron was known by the 1st millennium BC, and its spread defined the Iron Age. During the medieval period, smiths in Europe found a way of producing wrought iron from cast iron using finery forges. All these processes required charcoal as fuel.
Vacuum arc remelting (VAR) is a secondary melting process for production of metal ingots with elevated chemical and mechanical homogeneity for highly demanding applications. The VAR process has revolutionized the specialty traditional metallurgical techniques industry, and has made possible incredibly controlled materials used in the biomedical, aviation, and aerospace fields.
CPM S30V is a martensitic (hardened) powder-made (sintered) wear and corrosion resistant stainless steel developed by Dick Barber of Crucible Industries in collaboration with knifemaker Chris Reeve. Its chemistry promotes the formation and even distribution of vanadium carbides, which are harder and more effective at cutting than chromium carbides. These vanadium carbides give the steel a very refined grain, further improving the sharpness and toughness. Despite some difficulties with a consistent heat-treat, knifemakers use CPM S30V because its composition makes it easier to grind than other powder steels although the carbides still wear down the grinder belts considerably. It contains: Carbon 1.45%, Chromium 14.00%, Vanadium 4.00%, Molybdenum 2.00%. Barber received feedback from a number of other knife users and knifemakers such as Sal Glesser, Ernest Emerson, Tony Marfione, Phil Wilson, William Harsey Jr., Tom Mayo, Jerry Hossom, and Paul Bos in the development of CPM S30V.
Glenn Canfield Jr. was an American metallurgist and businessman.
Electrotherm (India) Limited was founded in 1983 to cater to the needs of all segments of steel industry, foundries and heat treatment industry. Today, Electrotherm is a diversified conglomerate having businesses in the field of Engineering & Projects catering to steel and foundry industry; transformer manufacturing; steel making; ductile iron pipe making; manufacturing of battery operated vehicles; renewable energy; transmission line tower and education.
Uddeholms AB is a multinational producer of high alloyed tool steel with production in Hagfors, Sweden. Since 1991, the company is part of the Austrian Böhler-Uddeholm group which in turn is part of the voestalpine AG group since 2007. Uddeholms AB has 800 employees in Sweden. Globally, the Uddeholm group employs 3000 people.
The metallurgy branch of Russian industry involves about 5% of Russia's GDP, about 18% of industrial production and about 14% of exports. The volume of metallurgical production was 1.87 trillion rubles (2009). Investments in fixed assets in metallurgy were 280 billion rubles (2008). The average salary in the metallurgical industry was 23,258 rubles / month.
Primetals Technologies Limited, is an engineering and plant construction company located in London, the United Kingdom. It serves clients in the metals industry, both the ferrous and the nonferrous metals sector. It was established as a joint venture by merging Siemens VAI Metals Technologies and Mitsubishi-Hitachi Metals Machinery in 2015. Now Primetals Technologies is a joint venture of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and partners.
In 2014, the United States was the world’s third-largest producer of raw steel, and the sixth-largest producer of pig iron. The industry produced 29 million metric tons of pig iron and 88 million tons of steel. Most iron and steel in the United States is now made from iron and steel scrap, rather than iron ore. The United States is also a major importer of iron and steel, as well as iron and steel products.
Medford Knife and Tool is an American custom and production knifemaking and tactical tool making facility founded by Greg Medford in 2010 in Arizona United States.
The iron and steel industries are among the most important industries in India. India replaces Japan as second top steel producer in January,2019. As per worldsteel, India's crude steel production in 2018 was at 106.5 MT, 4.9% increase from 101.5 MT in 2017, means that India has replaced Japan as world second largest steel production country. Japan produced 104.3 MT in year 2018, decrease of 0.3% compared to year 2017. Industry produced 82.68 million tons of total finished steel and 9.7 million tons of raw iron. Most iron and steel in India is produced from iron ore.