Harpy eagle

Last updated

Harpy eagle
Harpia harpyja 001 800.jpg
At the Parque das Aves in the Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Accipitriformes
Family: Accipitridae
Subfamily: Harpiinae
Genus: Harpia
Vieillot, 1816
H. harpyja
Binomial name
Harpia harpyja
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Harpy Eagle Range.svg
The harpy eagle is rare throughout its range, which extends from Mexico to Brazil (throughout its territory) [2] and Argentina (Only the north).

Vultur harpyjaLinnaeus, 1758

The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) is a neotropical species of eagle. It is also called the American harpy eagle to distinguish it from the Papuan eagle, which is sometimes known as the New Guinea harpy eagle or Papuan harpy eagle. [3] It is the largest and most powerful raptor found in the rainforest, [4] and among the largest extant species of eagles in the world. It usually inhabits tropical lowland rainforests in the upper (emergent) canopy layer. Destruction of its natural habitat has caused it to vanish from many parts of its former range, and it is nearly extirpated in Central America. In Brazil, the harpy eagle is also known as royal-hawk (in Portuguese : gavião-real). [5] The genus Harpia, together with Harpyopsis and Morphnus form the subfamily Harpiinae .



The harpy eagle was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae in 1758 as Vultur harpyja, [6] after the mythological beast harpy. The only member of the genus Harpia, the harpy eagle is most closely related to the crested eagle (Morphnus guianensis) and the New Guinea harpy eagle (Harpyopsis novaeguineae), the three composing the subfamily Harpiinae within the large family Accipitridae. Previously thought to be closely related, the Philippine eagle has been shown by DNA analysis to belong elsewhere in the raptor family, as it is related to the Circaetinae. [7]

The species name harpyja and the word harpy in the common name harpy eagle both come from Ancient Greek harpyia ( ἅρπυια ). They refer to the Harpies of Ancient Greek mythology. These were wind spirits that took the dead to Hades or Tartarus, and were said to have a body like a vulture and the face of a woman. [8]


A skull exhibited at the Museum fur Naturkunde, Berlin Harpia harpyja stuffed specimens Berlin 33.jpg
A skull exhibited at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

The upper side of the harpy eagle is covered with slate-black feathers, and the underside is mostly white, except for the feathered tarsi, which are striped black. A broad black band across the upper breast separates the gray head from the white belly. The head is pale grey, and is crowned with a double crest. The upper side of the tail is black with three gray bands, while the underside of it is black with three white bands. The iris is gray or brown or red, the cere and bill are black or blackish and the tarsi and toes are yellow. The plumage of males and females are identical. The tarsus is up to 13 cm (5.1 in) long. [9] [10]

Female harpy eagles typically weigh 6 to 9 kg (13 to 20 lb). [9] [11] One source states that adult females can weigh up to 10 kg (22 lb). [12] An exceptionally large captive female, "Jezebel", weighed 12.3 kg (27 lb). [13] Being captive, this large female may not be representative of the weight possible in wild harpy eagles due to differences in the food availability. [14] [15] The male, in comparison, is much smaller and may range in weight from 4 to 5.95 kg (8.8 to 13.1 lb). [9] [11] [16] The average weight of adult males has been reported as 4.4 to 4.8 kg (9.7 to 10.6 lb) against an average of 7.35 to 8.3 kg (16.2 to 18.3 lb) for adult females, a 35% or higher difference in mean body mass. [16] [17] [18] Harpy eagles may measure from 86.5 to 107 cm (2 ft 10 in to 3 ft 6 in) in total length [10] [11] and have a wingspan of 176 to 224 cm (5 ft 9 in to 7 ft 4 in). [9] [10] Among the standard measurements, the wing chord measures 54–63 cm (1 ft 9 in–2 ft 1 in), the tail measures 37–42 cm (1 ft 3 in–1 ft 5 in), the tarsus is 11.4–13 cm (4.5–5.1 in) long, and the exposed culmen from the cere is 4.2 to 6.5 cm (1.7 to 2.6 in). [9] [19] [20]

It is sometimes cited as the largest eagle alongside the Philippine eagle, which is somewhat longer on average (between sexes averaging 100 cm (3 ft 3 in)) but weighs slightly less, and the Steller's sea eagle, which is perhaps slightly heavier on average (mean of 3 unsexed birds was 7.75 kg (17.1 lb)). [8] [18] [21] The harpy eagle may be the largest bird species to reside in Central America, though large water birds such as American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) and jabirus (Jabiru mycteria) have scarcely lower mean body masses. [18] The wingspan of the harpy eagle is relatively small though the wings are quite broad, an adaptation that increases maneuverability in forested habitats and is shared by other raptors in similar habitats. The wingspan of the harpy eagle is surpassed by several large eagles who live in more open habitats, such as those in the Haliaeetus and Aquila genera. [9] The extinct Haast's eagle was significantly larger than all extant eagles, including the harpy. [22]

This species is largely silent away from the nest. There, the adults give a penetrating, weak, melancholy scream, with the incubating males' call described as "whispy screaming or wailing". [23] The females' calls while incubating are similar, but are lower-pitched. While approaching the nest with food, the male calls out "rapid chirps, goose-like calls, and occasional sharp screams". Vocalization in both parents decreases as the nestlings age, while the nestlings become more vocal. The nestlings call chi-chi-chi...chi-chi-chi-chi, seemingly in alarm in response to rain or direct sunlight. When humans approach the nest, the nestlings have been described as uttering croaks, quacks, and whistles. [24]

Distribution and habitat

Rare throughout its range, the harpy eagle is found from Mexico (almost extinct), through Central America and into South America to as far south as Argentina. In rainforests, they live in the emergent layer. The eagle is most common in Brazil, where it is found across the entire national territory. [25] With the exception of some areas of Panama, the species is almost extinct in Central America, subsequent to the logging of much of the rainforest there. [26] The harpy eagle inhabits tropical lowland rainforests and may occur within such areas from the canopy to the emergent vegetation. They typically occur below an elevation of 900 m (3,000 ft), but have been recorded at elevations up to 2,000 m (6,600 ft). [1] Within the rainforest, they hunt in the canopy or sometimes on the ground, and perch on emergent trees looking for prey. They do not generally occur in disturbed areas, but regularly visit semiopen forest/pasture mosaic, mainly in hunting forays. [27] Harpies, however, can be found flying over forest borders in a variety of habitats, such as cerrados, caatingas, buriti palm stands, cultivated fields, and cities. [28] They have been found in areas where high-grade forestry is practiced.



Feeding at Zoo Miami in Florida, USA Harpia harpyja -Miami MetroZoo -feeding-8a.jpg
Feeding at Zoo Miami in Florida, USA
A stuffed specimen of a Harpy eagle preying on a macaw at the Museum fur Naturkunde, Berlin Ara and Harpia stuffed specimens Berlin 21.jpg
A stuffed specimen of a Harpy eagle preying on a macaw at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

Harpy adults are near or even at the top of a food chain and are rarely preyed on. [29] However, two young eagles that were being released into the wild as part of a reintroduction program were caught by a jaguar and the much smaller ocelot. [30] Its main prey are tree-dwelling mammals and a majority of the diet has been shown to focus on sloths [31] and monkeys.

Research conducted by Aguiar-Silva between 2003 and 2005 in a nesting site in Parintins, Amazonas, Brazil, collected remains from prey offered to the nestling by its parents. The researchers found that 79% of the harpy's prey was accounted for by sloths from two species: 39% Brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus), and 40% Linnaeus's two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus). [32] Similar research in Panama, where two captive-bred subadults were released, found that 52% of the male's captures and 54% of the female's were of two sloth species (Brown-throated sloth and Hoffmann's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni). [33]

Along with sloth, monkeys such as tufted capuchin (Cebus appella), are one of main prey of Harpy eagle. Cebus appella.jpg
Along with sloth, monkeys such as tufted capuchin (Cebus appella), are one of main prey of Harpy eagle.

Monkeys regularly taken can include capuchin monkeys, saki monkeys, howler monkeys, titi monkeys, squirrel monkeys, and spider monkeys. Smaller monkeys, such as tamarins and marmosets, are seemingly ignored as prey by this species. [9] At several nests in Guyana, monkeys made up about 37% of the prey remains found at the nests. [34] Similarly, cebid monkeys made up 35% of the remains found at 10 nests in Amazonian Ecuador. [35] Other partially arboreal and even land mammals are also preyed on given the opportunity, including porcupines, squirrels, opossums, anteaters, armadillos, and even relatively large carnivores such as kinkajous, coatis, and tayras. [9] In the Pantanal, a pair of nesting eagles preyed largely on the porcupine ( Coendou prehensilis ) and the agouti ( Dasyprocta azarae ). [36]

The eagle may also attack bird species such as macaws: At the Parintins research site, the red-and-green macaw made up for 0.4% of the prey base, with other birds amounting to 4.6%. [32] [37] Other parrots have also been preyed on, as well as cracids such as curassows and other birds like seriemas. [9] Additional prey items reported include reptiles such as iguanas, tegus, and snakes. [9] [11] A recent literature review lists a total of 102 prey species. [38]

The eagle has been recorded as taking domestic livestock, including chickens, lambs, goats, and young pigs, but this is extremely rare under normal circumstances. [9] They control the population of mesopredators such as capuchin monkeys which prey extensively on bird's eggs and which (if not naturally controlled) may cause local extinctions of sensitive species. [39]

Harpy eagle in flight

Harpy eagles possess the largest talons of any living eagle, and have been recorded as lifting prey up to equal their own body weight. [9] This allows them to snatch a live sloth from tree branches, as well as other proportionately huge prey items.

Males usually take relatively smaller prey, with a typical range of 0.5 to 2.5 kg (1.1 to 5.5 lb) or about half their own weight. [9] The larger females take larger prey, with a minimum recorded prey weight of around 2.7 kg (6.0 lb). Adult female harpies regularly grab large male howler or spider monkeys or mature sloths weighing 6 to 9 kg (13 to 20 lb) in flight and fly off without landing, an enormous feat of strength. [9] [40] [41]

Prey items taken to the nest by the parents are normally medium-sized, having been recorded from 1 to 4 kg (2.2 to 8.8 lb). [9] The prey brought to the nest by males averaged 1.5 kg (3.3 lb), while the prey brought to the nest by females averaged 3.2 kg (7.1 lb). [24] In another study, floaters (i.e. birds not engaging in breeding at that time) were found to take larger prey, averaging 4.24 kg (9.3 lb), than those that were nesting, for which prey averaged 3.64 kg (8.0 lb), with prey species estimated to weigh a mean of 1.08 kg (2.4 lb) (for common opossum) to 10.1 kg (22 lb) (for adult crab-eating raccoon). [16] Overall, Harpy eagle prey weigh between 0.3 kg to 6.5 kg, with the mean prey size equaling 2.6 ± 0.8 kg [42]

Most commonly, harpy eagles use perch-hunting, in which they scan for prey activity while briefly perched between short flights from tree to tree. [9] Upon spotting prey, the eagle quickly dives and grabs it. [9] Sometimes, harpy eagles are "sit-and-wait" predators (common in forest-dwelling raptors), [9] perching for long periods on a high point near an opening, a river, or a salt-lick where many mammals go to feed for nutrients. [9] On occasion, they may also hunt by flying within or above the canopy. [9] They have also been observed tail-chasing: pursuing another bird in flight, rapidly dodging among trees and branches, a predation style common to hawks (genus Accipiter [9] ) that hunt birds.


In ideal habitats, nests would be fairly close together. In some parts of Panama and Guyana, active nests were located 3 km (1.9 mi) away from one another, while they are within 5 km (3.1 mi) of each other in Venezuela. In Peru, the average distance between nests was 7.4 km (4.6 mi) and the average area occupied by each breeding pairs was estimated at 4,300 ha (11,000 acres). In less ideal areas, with fragmented forest, breeding territories were estimated at 25 km (16 mi). [11] The female harpy eagle lays two white eggs in a large stick nest, which commonly measures 1.2 m (3.9 ft) deep and 1.5 m (4.9 ft) across and may be used over several years. Nests are located high up in a tree, usually in the main fork, at 16 to 43 m (52 to 141 ft), depending on the stature of the local trees. The harpy often builds its nest in the crown of the kapok tree, one of the tallest trees in South America. In many South American cultures, it is considered bad luck to cut down the kapok tree, which may help safeguard the habitat of this stately eagle. [43] The bird also uses other huge trees on which to build its nest, such as the Brazil nut tree. [44] A nesting site found in the Brazilian Pantanal was built on a cambará tree ( Vochysia divergens ). [45]

No display is known between pairs of eagles, and they are believed to mate for life. A pair of harpy eagles usually only raises one chick every 2–3 years. After the first chick hatches, the second egg is ignored and normally fails to hatch unless the first egg perishes. The egg is incubated around 56 days. When the chick is 36 days old, it can stand and walk awkwardly. The chick fledges at the age of 6 months, but the parents continue to feed it for another 6 to 10 months. The male captures much of the food for the incubating female and later the eaglet, but also takes an incubating shift while the female forages and also brings prey back to the nest. Breeding maturity is not reached until birds are 4 to 6 years of age. [9] [24] [27] Adults can be aggressive toward humans who disturb the nesting site or appear to be a threat to its young. [46]

Status and conservation

Subadult, "Panama", in Belize Zoo Harpia harpyja -Belize Zoo-8-3c.jpg
Subadult, "Panama", in Belize Zoo

Although the harpy eagle still occurs over a considerable range, its distribution and populations have dwindled considerably. It is threatened primarily by habitat loss due to the expansion of logging, cattle ranching, agriculture, and prospecting. Secondarily, it is threatened by being hunted as an actual threat to livestock and/or a supposed one to human life, due to its great size. [47] Although not actually known to prey on humans and only rarely on domestic stock, the species' large size and nearly fearless behavior around humans reportedly make it an "irresistible target" for hunters. [11] Such threats apply throughout its range, in large parts of which the bird has become a transient sight only; in Brazil, it was all but wiped out from the Atlantic rainforest and is only found in appreciable numbers in the most remote parts of the Amazon basin; a Brazilian journalistic account of the mid-1990s already complained that at the time it was only found in significant numbers in Brazilian territory on the northern side of the Equator. [48] Scientific 1990s records, however, suggest that the harpy Atlantic Forest population may be migratory. [49] Subsequent research in Brazil has established that, as of 2009, the harpy eagle, outside the Brazilian Amazon, is critically endangered in Espírito Santo, [50] São Paulo and Paraná, endangered in Rio de Janeiro, and probably extirpated in Rio Grande do Sul (where there is a recent (March 2015) record for the Parque Estadual do Turvo) and Minas Gerais [51] – the actual size of their total population in Brazil is unknown. [52]

Globally, the harpy eagle is considered Near Threatened by IUCN [1] and threatened with extinction by CITES (appendix I). The Peregrine Fund until recently considered it a "conservation-dependent species", meaning it depends on a dedicated effort for captive breeding and release to the wild, as well as habitat protection, to prevent it from reaching endangered status, but now has accepted the Near Threatened status. The harpy eagle is considered critically endangered in Mexico and Central America, where it has been extirpated in most of its former range; in Mexico, it used to be found as far north as Veracruz, but today probably occurs only in Chiapas in the Selva Zoque. It is considered as Near Threatened or Vulnerable in most of the South American portion of its range; at the southern extreme of its range, in Argentina, it is found only in the Parana Valley forests at the province of Misiones. [53] [54] It has disappeared from El Salvador, and almost so from Costa Rica. [26]

National initiatives

Various initiatives for restoration of the species are in place in various countries. Since 2002, Peregrine Fund initiated a conservation and research program for the harpy eagle in the Darién Province. [55] A similar—and grander, given the dimensions of the countries involved—research project is occurring in Brazil, at the National Institute of Amazonian Research, through which 45 known nesting locations (updated to 62, only three outside the Amazonian basin and all three inactive) are being monitored by researchers and volunteers from local communities. A harpy eagle chick has been fitted with a radio transmitter that allows it to be tracked for more than three years via a satellite signal sent to the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research. [56] Also, a photographic recording of a nest site in the Carajás National Forest was made for the Brazilian edition of National Geographic Magazine . [57]

Adult at Sao Paulo Zoo, Brazil Harpia harpyja -Sao Paulo Zoo, Brasil -adult-8a.jpg
Adult at São Paulo Zoo, Brazil

In Belize, the Belize Harpy Eagle Restoration Project began in 2003 with the collaboration of Sharon Matola, founder and director of the Belize Zoo and the Peregrine Fund. The goal of this project was the re-establishment of the harpy eagle within Belize. The population of the eagle declined as a result of forest fragmentation, shooting, and nest destruction, resulting in near extirpation of the species. Captive-bred harpy eagles were released in the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area in Belize, chosen for its quality forest habitat and linkages with Guatemala and Mexico. Habitat linkage with Guatemala and Mexico were important for conservation of quality habitat and the harpy eagle on a regional level. As of November 2009, 14 harpy eagles have been released and are monitored by the Peregrine Fund, through satellite telemetry. [58]

In January 2009, a chick from the all-but-extirpated population in the Brazilian state of Paraná was hatched in captivity at the preserve kept in the vicinity of the Itaipu Dam by the Brazilian/Paraguayan state-owned company Itaipu Binacional. [59] In September 2009, an adult female, after being kept captive for 12 years in a private reservation, was fitted with a radio transmitter before being restored to the wild in the vicinity of the Pau Brasil National Park (formerly Monte Pascoal NP), in the state of Bahia. [60]

In December 2009, a 15th harpy eagle was released into the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area in Belize. The release was set to tie in with the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009, in Copenhagen. The 15th eagle, nicknamed "Hope" by the Peregrine officials in Panama, was the "poster child" for forest conservation in Belize, a developing country, and the importance of these activities in relation to climate change. The event received coverage from Belize's major media entities, and was supported and attended by the U.S. Ambassador to Belize, Vinai Thummalapally, and British High Commissioner to Belize, Pat Ashworth. [61]

In Colombia, as of 2007, an adult male and a subadult female confiscated from wildlife trafficking were restored to the wild and monitored in Paramillo National Park in Córdoba, and another couple was being kept in captivity at a research center for breeding and eventual release. [62] A monitoring effort with the help of volunteers from local Native American communities is also being made in Ecuador, including the joint sponsorship of various Spanish universities [63] —this effort being similar to another one going on since 1996 in Peru, centered around a native community in the Tambopata Province, Madre de Dios Region. [64] Another monitoring project, begun in 1992, was operating as of 2005 in the state of Bolívar, Venezuela. [65]

The harpy eagle is the national bird of Panama and is depicted on the coat of arms of Panama. [66] The 15th harpy eagle released in Belize, named "Hope", was dubbed "Ambassador for Climate Change", in light of the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009. [67] [68]

The bird appeared on the reverse side of the Venezuelan 2,000 bolívares fuertes note.

The harpy eagle was the inspiration behind the design of Fawkes the Phoenix in the Harry Potter film series. [69] A live harpy eagle was used to portray the now-extinct Haast's eagle in BBC's Monsters We Met . [70]

References and notes

  1. 1 2 3 BirdLife International. (2017). Harpia harpyja. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22695998A110872388.en
  2. "Aves de Rapina BR | Gavião-Real (Harpia harpyja)". avesderapinabrasil.com. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  3. Tingay, Ruth E.; Katzner, Todd E. (23 February 2011). Rt-Eagle Watchers Z. Cornell University Press. pp. 167–. ISBN   978-0-8014-5814-9.
  4. The illustrated atlas of wildlife . University of California Press. 2009. p.  115. ISBN   978-0-520-25785-6.
  5. "Programa de Conservação do Gavião-real". gaviaoreal.inpa.gov.br. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  6. Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata (in Latin). Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). p. 86. V. occipite subcristato.
  7. Lerner, Heather R. L.; Mindell, David P. (November 2005). "Phylogeny of eagles, Old World vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (2): 327–346. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.04.010. PMID   15925523 . Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  8. 1 2 Piper, Ross (2007). Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals . Greenwood Publishing Group. p.  89. ISBN   978-0-313-33922-6.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, David A. (2001). Raptors of the world. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 717–19. ISBN   978-0-618-12762-7.
  10. 1 2 3 Howell, Steve N. G. (30 March 1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America . Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-854012-0.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thiollay, J. M. (1994). Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja). p. 191 in: del Hoy, J, A. Elliott, & J. Sargatal, eds. (1994). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 2. New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN   84-87334-15-6
  12. Trinca, C.T.; Ferrari, S.F. & Lees, A.C. "Curiosity killed the bird: arbitrary hunting of Harpy Eagles Harpia harpyja on an agricultural frontier in southern Brazilian Amazonia" (PDF). Cotinga. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-23. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
  13. Wood, Gerald (1983). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats . ISBN   978-0-85112-235-9.
  14. O'Connor, R. J. (1984). The Growth and Development of Birds, Wiley, ISBN   0-471-90345-0
  15. Arent, L. A. (2007). Raptors in Captivity. Hancock House, Washington. ISBN   978-0-88839-613-6
  16. 1 2 3 Miranda, Everton B. P.; Campbell-Thompson, Edwin; Muela, Angel; Vargas, Félix Hernán (2018). "Sex and breeding status affect prey composition of Harpy Eagles Harpia harpyja". Journal of Ornithology. 159 (1): 141–150. doi:10.1007/s10336-017-1482-3.
  17. Whitacre, D. F., & Jenny, J. P. (2013). Neotropical birds of prey: biology and ecology of a forest raptor community. Cornell University Press.
  18. 1 2 3 Dunning, John B. Jr., ed. (2008). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN   978-1-4200-6444-5.
  19. Sagip Eagle. Gbgm-umc.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  20. Smithsonian miscellaneous collections (1862). Archive.org. Retrieved on 2013-03-09.
  21. Gamauf, A.; Preleuthner, M. & Winkler, H. (1998). "Philippine Birds of Prey: Interrelations among habitat, morphology and behavior" (PDF). The Auk . 115 (3): 713–726. doi:10.2307/4089419. JSTOR   4089419.
  22. Museum of New Zealand (1998). Giant eagle (Aquila moorei), Haast’s eagle, or Pouakai. Accessed 4 June 2011
  23. "Identification – Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) – Neotropical Birds". Neotropical.birds.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2013-05-13.
  24. 1 2 3 Rettig, N. (1978). "Breeding behavior of the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja)". Auk. 95 (4): 629–643. JSTOR   4085350.
  25. "Gavião-real, uma das maiores aves de rapina do mundo – Terra Brasil". noticias.terra.com.br. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  26. 1 2 Weidensaul, Scott (2004). The Raptor Almanac: A Comprehensive Guide to Eagles, Hawks, Falcons, and Vultures. New York, New York: Lyons Press. pp. 280–81. ISBN   978-1-58574-170-0.
  27. 1 2 Rettig, N.; Hayes, K. (1995). "Remote world of the harpy eagle". National Geographic. 187 (2): 40–49.
  28. Sigrist, Tomas (2013) Ornitologia Brasileira. Vinhedo: Avis Brasilis. ISBN   978-85-60120-25-3. p. 192
  29. Muñiz-López, R. (2017). "Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) mortality in Ecuador" (PDF). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 52 (1): 81–85. doi:10.1080/01650521.2016.1276716.
  30. "Harpy Eagle Restoration Reaches New Heights" (PDF). The Peregrine Fund Newsletter 2003.
  31. Santos, D. W. (2011). WA548962, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758). Wiki Aves – A Enciclopédia das Aves do Brasil.. Retrieved August 30, 2013
  32. 1 2 Aguiar-Silva, F. Helena (2014). "Food Habits of the Harpy Eagle, a Top Predator from the Amazonian Rainforest Canopy". Journal of Raptor Research. 48 (1): 24–35. doi:10.3356/JRR-13-00017.1.
  33. Touchton, Janeene M.; Yu-Cheng Hsu; Palleroni, Alberto (2002). "Foraging ecology of reintroduced captive-bred subadult harpy eagles (Harpia harpiya) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama" (PDF). Ornitologia Neotropical. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 9, 2008.
  34. Izor, R. J. (1985). "Sloths and other mammalian prey of the Harpy Eagle". pp. 343–346 in G. G. Montgomery (ed.), The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths, and vermilinguas. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  35. Muñiz-López, R., O. Criollo, and A. Mendúa. (2007). Results of five years of the "Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) Research Program" in the Ecuadorian tropical forest. pp. 23–32 in K. L Bildstein, D. R. Barber, and A. Zimmerman (eds.), Neotropical raptors. Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Orwigsburg, PA.
  36. Aves de Rapina BR | Gavião-Real (Harpia harpyja). Avesderapinabrasil.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  37. Aguiar-Silva (2007). "Dieta do gavião-real Harpia harpyja (Aves: Accipitridae) em florestas de terra firme de Parintins, Amazonas, Brasil". Thesis
  38. Miranda, Everton B. P. (2018). "Prey Composition of Harpy Eagles (Harpia harpyja) in Raleighvallen, Suriname". Tropical Conservation Science. 13: 194008291880078. doi: 10.1177/1940082918800789 .
  39. Shaner, K. (2011). Harpia harpyja (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed August 21, 2012
  40. San Diego Zoo's Animal Bytes: Harpy Eagle. Sandiegozoo.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  41. "Gavião-real". Brasil 500 Pássaros (in Portuguese). Eletronorte. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  42. Aguiar-Silva, F. Helena; Sanaiotti, Tânia M.; Luz, Benjamim B. (2014). "Food Habits of the Harpy Eagle, a Top Predator from the Amazonian Rainforest Canopy". Journal of Raptor Research. 48: 24–35. doi:10.3356/JRR-13-00017.1.
  43. Piper, Ross (2007), Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals, Greenwood Press.
  44. Hughes, Holly (29 January 2009). Frommer's 500 Places to See Before They Disappear. John Wiley & Sons. p. 178. ISBN   978-0-470-43162-7.
  45. Harpia (gavião-real). Avesderapinabrasil.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  46. Vaughan, Adam (July 6, 2010). "Monkey-eating eagle divebombs BBC filmmaker as he fits nest-cam". guardian.co.uk.
  47. Talia Salanotti, researcher for the Brazilian National Institute of Amazonian Research, cf. O Globo, May the 13th. 2009; abridgement available at Maior águia das Américas, gavião-real sofre com destruição das florestas; on the random killing of harpies in frontier regions, see Cristiano Trapé Trinca, Stephen F. Ferrari and Alexander C. Lees Curiosity killed the bird: arbitrary hunting of Harpy Eagles Harpia harpyja on an agricultural frontier in southern Brazilian Amazonia. Cotinga 30 (2008): 12–15
  48. "Senhora dos ares", Globo Rural, ISSN   0102-6178, 11:129, July 1996, pp. 40 and 42
  49. Alluvion of the Lower Schwalm near Borken. Birdlife.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  50. Where an adult male was observed in August 2005 at the preserve kept by mining corporation Vale do Rio Doce at Linhares: cf. Srbek-Araujo, Ana C.; Chiarello, Adriano G. (2006). "Registro recente de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus) (Aves, Accipitridae), na Mata Atlântica da Reserva Natural Vale do Rio Doce, Linhares, Espírito Santo e implicações para a conservação regional da espécie". Revista Brasileira de Zoologia. 23 (4): 1264. doi: 10.1590/S0101-81752006000400040 .
  51. Nevertheless, in 2006, an adult female – probably during migration – was seen and photographed at the vicinity of Tapira, in the Minas Gerais cerrado: cf. Oliveira, Adilson Luiz de; Silva, Robson Silva e (2006). "Registro de Harpia (Harpia harpyja) no cerrado de Tapira, Minas Gerais, Brasil" (PDF). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia. 14 (4): 433–434. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 2, 2010.
  52. Couto, Clarice. "Viva a Rainha". Globo Rural. 25 (288): 65. Archived from the original on 2014-08-19.
  53. The Misiones Green Corridor Archived 2010-06-13 at the Wayback Machine . Redyaguarete.org.ar. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  54. For a map of the species historical and current range, see Fig. 1 in Lerner, Heather R. L.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Lindsay, Alec R.; Kiff, Lloyd F.; Mindell, David P. (2009). Ellegren, Hans (ed.). "It's not too Late for the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja): High Levels of Genetic Diversity and Differentiation Can Fuel Conservation Programs". PLoS ONE. 4 (10): e7336. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.7336L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007336. PMC   2752114 . PMID   19802391.
  55. Harpy Eagle Harpia harpyja. Globalraptors.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  56. Projecto Gavião-real Archived 2014-02-01 at the Wayback Machine INPA; Globo Rural, 25:288, page 62
  57. Rosa, João Marcos (2011-06-22). Mirada alemã: um olhar crítico sobre o seu próprio trabalho. abril.com.br
  59. G1 > Brasil – NOTÍCIAS – Ave rara no Brasil nasce no Refúgio Biológico de Itaipu. G1.globo.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  60. Revista Globo Rural, 24:287, September 2009, 20
  61. "The Importance of Hope, the Harpy Eagle". 7 News Belize. 2009-12-14.
  62. Márquez C., Gast-Harders F., Vanegas V. H., Bechard M. (2006). Harpia harpyja (L., 1758). siac.net.co
  63. "Sponsorship and Exhibition at ATBC OTS" (PDF). International Conference Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation and the Organization for Tropical Studies. 23–27 June 2013, San José, Costa Rica. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 3, 2014.
  64. Piana, Renzo P. "The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) in the Infierno Native Community". inkaways.com
  65. (in Spanish) Programa de conservación del águila arpía. Ecoportal.net (2005-12-15). Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  66. Goldish, Meish (2007). Bald Eagles: A Chemical Nightmare . Bearport Publishing Company, Incorporated. p.  29. ISBN   978-1-59716-505-1.
  67. "Raptor Education Soars in Toledo". The Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Center. 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
  68. "The Importance of Hope, the Harpy Eagle". 7 News Belize. December 14, 2009. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  69. Lederer, Roger J. (2007). Amazing Birds: A Treasury of Facts and Trivia about the Avian World. Barron's Educational Series, Incorporated. p. 106. ISBN   978-0-7641-3593-4.
  70. "Haast's eagle videos, news and facts". BBC. Archived from the original on 2012-01-14. Retrieved 2014-01-25.

Related Research Articles

Bald eagle Bird of prey species of North America

The bald eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two known subspecies and forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States, and northern Mexico. It is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting.

Eagle Large carnivore bird

Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the familia Accipitridae. Eagles belong to several groups of genera, not all of which are closely related. Most of the 60 species of eagle are from Eurasia and Africa. Outside this area, just 14 species can be found—2 in North America, 9 in Central and South America, and 3 in Australia.

Haasts eagle extinct species of eagle

The Haast's eagle is an extinct species of eagle that once lived in the South Island of New Zealand, commonly accepted to be the pouakai of Maori legend. The species was the largest eagle known to have existed. Its massive size is explained as an evolutionary response to the size of its prey, the flightless moa, the largest of which could weigh 230 kg (510 lb). Haast's eagle became extinct around 1400, after the moa were hunted to extinction by the first Māori.

Golden eagle Species of eagle

The golden eagle is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the most widely distributed species of eagle. Like all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae. These birds are dark brown, with lighter golden-brown plumage on their napes. Immature eagles of this species typically have white on the tail and often have white markings on the wings. Golden eagles use their agility and speed combined with powerful feet and massive, sharp talons to snatch up a variety of prey, mainly hares, rabbits, and marmots and other ground squirrels.

Eastern imperial eagle species of bird

The eastern imperial eagle is a large bird of prey that breeds in southeastern Europe and extensively through West and Central Asia. Most populations are migratory and winter in northeastern Africa, the Middle East and South and East Asia. Like all eagles, the eastern imperial eagle is a member of the family Accipitridae. Furthermore, its well feathered legs mark it as a member of the subfamily Aquilinae. It is a large dark colored eagle, with a resemblance to other members of the genus Aquila but it is usually the darkest species in its range. This is an opportunistic predator that mostly selects smallish mammals as prey but also a fairly large proportion of birds, reptile and other prey types, including carrion. Compared to other Aquila eagles, it has a strong preference for the interface of tall woods with plains and other open, relatively flat habitats. Normally, nests are located in large, mature trees and the parents raise around one or two fledglings. The global population is small and declining due to persecution, loss of habitat and prey. It has therefore been IUCN Red Listed as Vulnerable since 1994.

Philippine eagle The largest living eagle in the world

The Philippine eagle, also known as the monkey-eating eagle or great Philippine eagle, is an endangered species of eagle of the family Accipitridae which is endemic to forests in the Philippines. It has brown and white-coloured plumage, a shaggy crest, and generally measures 86 to 102 cm in length and weighs 4.04 to 8.0 kg.

White-tailed eagle Species of bird

The white-tailed eagle is a very large species of sea eagle widely distributed across temperate Eurasia. As are all eagles, it is a member of the family Accipitridae which includes other diurnal raptors such as hawks, kites, and harriers. One of up to eleven members in the genus Haliaeetus, which are commonly called sea eagles, it is also referred to as the white-tailed sea-eagle. Sometimes, it is known as the ern or erne, gray sea eagle and Eurasian sea eagle

Changeable hawk-eagle species of bird

The changeable hawk-eagle or crested hawk-eagle(Nisaetus cirrhatus) is a large bird of prey species of the family Accipitridae. More informal or antiquated English common names include the marsh hawk-eagle or Indian crested hawk-eagle. It is a member of the booted eagle subfamily, with signature feathers, absent in tropical raptors from outside this subfamily, covering the tarsus. It was formerly placed in the genus Spizaetus, but studies pointed to the group being paraphyletic resulting in the Old World members being placed in Nisaetus and separated from the New World species. It is a typical “hawk-eagle” in that it is an agile forest-dwelling predator and like many such eagles readily varies its prey selection between birds, mammals or reptiles as well as other vertebrates. Among the members of its genus, the changeable hawk-eagle stands out as the most widely distributed, adaptable and abundant species.

Mountain hawk-eagle species of bird

The mountain hawk-eagle or Hodgson's hawk-eagle, is a large bird of prey native to Asia. The latter name is in reference to the naturalist, Brian Houghton Hodgson, who described the species after collecting one himself in the Himalayas. A less widely recognized common English name is the feather-toed eagle. Like all eagles, it is in the family Accipitridae. Its feathered tarsus marks this species as a member of the subfamily Aquilinae. It is a confirmed breeding species in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, from India, Nepal through Bangladesh to Thailand, Taiwan and Japan, although its distribution could be wider still as breeding species. Like other Asian hawk-eagles, this species was earlier treated under the genera of Spizaetus but genetic studies have shown this group to be paraphyletic, resulting in the Old World members being placed in Nisaetus and separated from the New World species. As is typical of hawk-eagles, the mountain hawk-eagle is a forest dwelling opportunistic predator who readily varies its prey selection between birds, mammals and reptiles along with other vertebrates. Although classified currently as a least-concern species due its persistence over a rather wide distribution, this species is often quite rare and scarce and seems to be decreasing, especially in response to large-scale habitat degradation and deforestation.

Verreauxs eagle species of bird

Verreaux's eagle is a large, mostly African, bird of prey. It is also called the black eagle, especially in Southern Africa, leading to potential confusion with the Indian black eagle, which lives far to the east in Asia. Verreaux's eagle lives in hilly and mountainous regions of southern and eastern Africa, and very locally in West Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the southern Middle East. It is one of the most specialized species of accipitrid in the world, with its distribution and life history revolving around its favorite prey species, the rock hyraxes. When hyrax populations decline, the species have been shown to survive with mixed success on other prey, such as small antelopes, gamebirds, hares, monkeys and other assorted vertebrates. Despite a high degree of specialization, Verreaux's eagle has, from a conservation standpoint, been faring relatively well in historic times. One population of this species, in the Matobo Hills of Zimbabwe, is arguably the best studied eagle population in the world, having been subject to continuous detailed study since the late 1950s. Like all eagles, this species belongs to the taxonomic order Accipitriformes and the family Accipitridae, which may be referred to colloquially as accipitrids or raptors.

Ornate hawk-eagle species of bird

The ornate hawk-eagle is a fairly large bird of prey from the tropical Americas. Formerly, some authorities referred to this species as the crested hawk-eagle, a name that may cause some confusion as it is more commonly used for an Asian eagle species. Like all eagles, it is in the family Accipitridae. This species has a feathered tarsus that marks it as a member of the Aquilinae or booted eagle subfamily. This species is notable for the vivid colors and bold markings of adults, which differ considerably from the far more whitish plumage of the juvenile bird. The ornate hawk-eagle ranges from central Mexico south through much of Central America and in a somewhat spotty but broad overall range into South America, including in the west apart from the Andes and broadly on the Atlantic side especially Brazil down to as far as Southeast Brazil and northern Argentina. This species is found largely in primary forests with tall trees, although can be found in many forest types. The ornate hawk-eagle female lays almost always a single egg and the species has a fairly prolonged breeding cycle like many tropical raptors, especially due to a lengthy post-fledging stage on which juveniles are dependent on their parents. It a diversified and exceptionally powerful predator which takes a range of prey, usually led by various medium-to-large-sized birds and small-to-medium-sized mammals as well as occasional reptiles. Like many forest-dependent raptors, especially those in the tropical and subtropical regions, this species is likely under the pressing threat of deforestation. The decline of forest habitat in this species range, especially the Amazon rainforest, led the IUCN to uplist the ornate hawk-eagle as Near Threatened in 2016.

Stellers sea eagle species of bird

Steller's sea eagle is a large diurnal bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. It was originally described by Peter Simon Pallas in 1811. No subspecies are recognised. A sturdy eagle, it has dark brown plumage with white wings and tail, and yellow beak and talons. On average, it is the heaviest eagle in the world, at about 5 to 9 kg, but may be below the harpy eagle and Philippine eagle in some standard measurements.

Martial eagle Species of bird

The martial eagle is a large eagle native to sub-Saharan Africa. It is the only member of the genus Polemaetus. A species of the booted eagle subfamily (Aquillinae), it has feathering over its tarsus. One of the largest and most powerful species of booted eagle, it is a fairly opportunistic predator that varies its prey selection between mammals, birds and reptiles. Its hunting technique is unique as it is one of few eagle species known to hunt primarily from a high soar, by stooping on its quarry. An inhabitant of wooded belts of otherwise open savanna, this species has shown a precipitous decline in the last few centuries due to a variety of factors. The martial eagle is one of the most persecuted bird species in the world. Due to its habit of taking livestock and regionally valuable game, local farmers and game wardens frequently seek to eliminate martial eagles, although the effect of eagles on this prey is almost certainly considerably exaggerated. Currently, the martial eagle is classified with the status of Vulnerable to extinction by the IUCN.

Spectacled owl species of bird

The spectacled owl is a large tropical owl native to the neotropics. It is a resident breeder in forests from southern Mexico and Trinidad, through Central America, south to southern Brazil, Paraguay and northwestern Argentina. There are six subspecies. One is occasionally treated as a separate species called the short-browed or brown spectacled owl but the consensus is that it is still merely a race until more detailed analysis can be done.

Verreauxs eagle-owl species of bird

Verreaux's eagle-owl, also commonly known as the milky eagle owl or giant eagle owl, is a member of the family Strigidae. This species is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. A member of the genus Bubo, it is the largest African owl, measuring up to 66 cm (26 in) in total length. This eagle-owl is a resident primarily of dry, wooded savanna. Verreaux's eagle-owl is mainly grey in color and is distinguishable from other large owls by its bright pink eyelids, a feature shared with no other owl species in the world.

Chaco eagle species of bird

The Chaco eagle, or crowned solitary eagle, is an endangered bird of prey from eastern and central South America. Typically it is known simply as the crowned eagle which leads to potential confusion with the African Stephanoaetus coronatus. The Chaco eagle is a large raptor with a length of 73–79 cm (28.5–31 in), a wingspan of 170–183 cm (67–72 in) and an average weight of 2.95 kg (6.5 lb). Adults are almost entirely gray with a large occipital crest and a short, black-and-white-banded tail. The juvenile is gray-brown on the back and pale with gray-brown streaks on the head and underside.

Crested eagle species of bird

The crested eagle is a large Neotropical eagle.

Bicolored hawk species of bird

The bicolored hawk is a species of bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. It is found in forest, woodland, second growth, plantations, and wooded savanna in southeastern Mexico, Central America, and northern and central South America. Though generally uncommon, it is the most common species of Accipiter in most of its range, but it does not occur at altitudes above 2,700 metres (8,900 ft) such as the highest parts of the Andes.

Aquilinae subfamily of birds

The Aquilinae are a subfamily of eagles of the family Accipitridae. The general common name used for members of this subfamily is "booted eagle", although this is also the common name of a member of the subfamily. At one point, this subfamily was considered inclusive with the Buteoninae based probably on some shared morphological characteristics. However, research on the DNA of the booted eagles has shown that they are a monophyletic group that probably have had millions of years of separation from other extant forms of accipitrid.

Crowned eagle large bird of prey

The crowned eagle, also known as the African crowned eagle or the crowned hawk-eagle is a large bird of prey found in sub-Saharan Africa; in Southern Africa it is restricted to eastern areas. Its preferred habitats are principally riparian woodlands and various forests. The crowned eagle is the only extant member of the genus Stephanoaetus. A second species, the Malagasy crowned eagle became extinct after humans settled on Madagascar.