Harpy eagle

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Harpy eagle
Harpia harpyja 001 800.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Accipitriformes
Family: Accipitridae
Subfamily: Harpiinae
Genus: Harpia
Vieillot, 1816
H. harpyja
Binomial name
Harpia harpyja
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Harpy Eagle Range.svg
The harpy eagle is rare throughout its range, which extends from Mexico to Brazil (throughout its territory) [2] and Argentina (Only the north).

Vultur harpyjaLinnaeus, 1758

The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) is a neotropical species of eagle. It is also called the American harpy eagle to distinguish it from the Papuan eagle, which is sometimes known as the New Guinea harpy eagle or Papuan harpy eagle. [3] It is the largest and most powerful raptor found in the rainforest, [4] and among the largest extant species of eagles in the world. It usually inhabits tropical lowland rainforests in the upper (emergent) canopy layer. Destruction of its natural habitat has caused it to vanish from many parts of its former range, and it is nearly extirpated in Central America. In Brazil, the harpy eagle is also known as royal-hawk (in Portuguese : gavião-real). [5]

Eagle large carnivore bird

Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Eagles belong to several groups of genera, not all of which are closely related. Most of the 60 species of eagle are from Eurasia and Africa. Outside this area, just 14 species can be found—2 in North America, 9 in Central and South America, and 3 in Australia.

Papuan eagle species of bird

The Papuan eagle also known as the Papuan harpy eagle, New Guinea eagle, or Kapul eagle, is a large greyish brown raptor with a short full crest, broad three-banded wings, powerful beak, large iris, long rounded tail and white underparts. It has long and powerful unfeathered legs with sharp claws. The sexes are similar, and the female is slightly larger than the male. It is the only member of the genus Harpyopsis.

Bird of prey species of bird that primarily hunt and feed on vertebrates that are large relative to the hunter

Birds of prey, or raptors, include species of bird that primarily hunt and feed on vertebrates that are large relative to the hunter. Additionally, they have keen eyesight for detecting food at a distance or during flight, strong feet equipped with talons for grasping or killing prey, and powerful, curved beaks for tearing flesh. The term raptor is derived from the Latin word rapio, meaning to seize or take by force. In addition to hunting live prey, most also eat carrion, at least occasionally, and vultures and condors eat carrion as their main food source.



The harpy eagle was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae in 1758 as Vultur harpyja, [6] after the mythological beast harpy. The only member of the genus Harpia, the harpy eagle is most closely related to the crested eagle (Morphnus guianensis) and the New Guinea harpy eagle (Harpyopsis novaeguineae), the three composing the subfamily Harpiinae within the large family Accipitridae. Previously thought to be closely related, the Philippine eagle has been shown by DNA analysis to belong elsewhere in the raptor family, as it is related to the Circaetinae. [7]

Carl Linnaeus Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist

Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus.

<i>Systema Naturae</i> major work by Carolus Linnaeus

Systema Naturae is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy. Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was partially developed by the Bauhin brothers, Gaspard and Johann, 200 years earlier, Linnaeus was first to use it consistently throughout his book. The first edition was published in 1735. The full title of the 10th edition (1758), which was the most important one, was Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis or translated: "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with characters, differences, synonyms, places".

Harpy group of harpies in the Greek mythology

In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, a harpy was a half-human and half-bird personification of storm winds, in Homeric poems.

The species name harpyja and the word harpy in the common name harpy eagle both come from Ancient Greek harpyia ( ἅρπυια ). They refer to the Harpies of Ancient Greek mythology. These were wind spirits that took the dead to Hades, and were said to have a body like an eagle and the face of a human. [8]

Ancient Greek Version of the Greek language used from roughly the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, and Hellenistic period. It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek.

Greek mythology body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks

Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities, heroes, and mythological creatures, and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, and to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself.

Hades Greek god of the underworld in Greek mythology

Hades, in the ancient Greek religion and myth, is the god of the dead and the king of the underworld, with which his name became synonymous. Hades was the eldest son of Cronus and Rhea, although the last son regurgitated by his father. He and his brothers, Zeus and Poseidon, defeated their father's generation of gods, the Titans, and claimed rulership over the cosmos. Hades received the underworld, Zeus the sky, and Poseidon the sea, with the solid earth, long the province of Gaia, available to all three concurrently. Hades was often portrayed with his three-headed guard dog Cerberus.


The upper side of the harpy eagle is covered with slate-black feathers, and the underside is mostly white, except for the feathered tarsi, which are striped black. A broad black band across the upper breast separates the gray head from the white belly. The head is pale grey, and is crowned with a double crest. The upper side of the tail is black with three gray bands, while the underside of it is black with three white bands. The iris is gray or brown or red, the cere and bill are black or blackish and the tarsi and toes are yellow. The plumage of males and females are identical. The tarsus is up to 13 cm (5.1 in) long. [9] [10]

Feather body-covering structure of birds

Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on dinosaurs and possibly other archosauromorphs. They are considered the most complex integumentary structures found in vertebrates and a premier example of a complex evolutionary novelty. They are among the characteristics that distinguish the extant birds from other living groups.


The tarsometatarsus is a bone that is only found in the lower leg of birds and some non-avian dinosaurs. It is formed from the fusion of several bones found in other types of animals, and homologous to the mammalian tarsus and metatarsal bones (foot). Despite this, the tarsometatarsus of birds is often referred to as just the tarsus or metatarsus.

Plumage pattern, colour, and arrangement of a birds layer of feathers

Plumage refers both to the layer of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, colour, and arrangement of those feathers. The pattern and colours of plumage differ between species and subspecies and may vary with age classes. Within species, there can be different colour morphs. The placement of feathers on a bird is not haphazard, but rather emerge in organized, overlapping rows and groups, and these feather tracts are known by standardized names.

Female harpy eagles typically weigh 6 to 9 kg (13 to 20 lb). [9] [11] One source states that adult females can weigh up to 10 kg (22 lb). [12] An exceptionally large captive female, "Jezebel", weighed 12.3 kg (27 lb). [13] Being captive, this large female may not be representative of the weight possible in wild harpy eagles due to differences in the food availability. [14] [15] The male, in comparison, is much smaller and weighs only about 4 to 4.8 kg (8.8 to 10.6 lb). [9] [11] Harpy eagles are 86.5–107 cm (2 ft 10 in–3 ft 6 in) long [10] [11] and have a wingspan of 176 to 224 cm (5 ft 9 in to 7 ft 4 in). [9] [10] Among the standard measurements, the wing chord measures 54–63 cm (1 ft 9 in–2 ft 1 in), the tail measures 37–42 cm (1 ft 3 in–1 ft 5 in), the tarsus is 11.4–13 cm (4.5–5.1 in) long, and the exposed culmen from the cere is 4.2 to 6.5 cm (1.7 to 2.6 in). [9] [16] [17]

Upper body of an adult in captivity Harpia harpyja -falconry -head-8a.jpg
Upper body of an adult in captivity

It is sometimes cited as the largest eagle alongside the Philippine eagle, which is somewhat longer on average, and the Steller's sea eagle, which is slightly heavier on average. [8] The wingspan of the harpy eagle is relatively small, an adaptation that increases maneuverability in forested habitats and is shared by other raptors in similar habitats. The wingspan of the harpy eagle is surpassed by several large eagles who live in more open habitats, such as those in the Haliaeetus and Aquila genera. [9] The extinct Haast's eagle was significantly larger than all extant eagles, including the harpy. [18]

Philippine eagle species of bird

The Philippine eagle, also known as the monkey-eating eagle or great Philippine eagle, is an eagle of the family Accipitridae endemic to forests in the Philippines. It has brown and white-coloured plumage, and a shaggy crest, and generally measures 86 to 102 cm in length and weighs 4.04 to 8.0 kg. It is considered the largest of the extant eagles in the world in terms of length and wing surface, with Steller's sea eagle and the harpy eagle being larger in terms of weight and bulk. Among the rarest and most powerful birds in the world, it has been declared the Philippine national bird. It is critically endangered, mainly due to massive loss of habitat resulting from deforestation in most of its range. Killing a Philippine eagle is punishable under Philippine law up to 12 years in prison and heavy fines.

Stellers sea eagle species of bird

Steller's sea eagle is a large diurnal bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. It was originally described by Peter Simon Pallas in 1811. No subspecies are recognised. A sturdy eagle, it has dark brown plumage with white wings and tail, and yellow beak and talons. On average, it is the heaviest eagle in the world, at about 5 to 9 kg, but may be below the harpy eagle and Philippine eagle in some standard measurements.

<i>Aquila</i> (genus) genus of birds

Aquila is the genus of true eagles. The genus name is Latin for "eagle", possibly derived from aquilus, "dark in colour". It is often united with the buteos, sea eagles, and other more heavyset Accipitridae, but more recently they appear to be less distinct from the more slender accipitrine hawks than previously believed. Eagles are not a natural group, but denote essentially any bird of prey large enough to hunt sizeable vertebrate prey.

This species is largely silent away from the nest. There, the adults give a penetrating, weak, melancholy scream, with the incubating males' call described as "whispy screaming or wailing". [19] The females' calls while incubating are similar, but are lower-pitched. While approaching the nest with food, the male calls out "rapid chirps, goose-like calls, and occasional sharp screams". Vocalization in both parents decreases as the nestlings age, while the nestlings become more vocal. The nestlings call chi-chi-chi...chi-chi-chi-chi, seemingly in alarm in response to rain or direct sunlight. When humans approach the nest, the nestlings have been described as uttering croaks, quacks, and whistles. [20]

Distribution and habitat

Rare throughout its range, the harpy eagle is found from Mexico (almost extinct), through Central America and into South America to as far south as Argentina. In rainforests, they live in the emergent layer. The eagle is most common in Brazil, where it is found across the entire national territory. [21] With the exception of some areas of Panama, the species is almost extinct in Central America, subsequent to the logging of much of the rainforest there. [22] The harpy eagle inhabits tropical lowland rainforests and may occur within such areas from the canopy to the emergent vegetation. They typically occur below an elevation of 900 m (3,000 ft), but have been recorded at elevations up to 2,000 m (6,600 ft). [1] Within the rainforest, they hunt in the canopy or sometimes on the ground, and perch on emergent trees looking for prey. They do not generally occur in disturbed areas, but regularly visit semiopen forest/pasture mosaic, mainly in hunting forays. [23] Harpies, however, can be found flying over forest borders in a variety of habitats, such as cerrados, caatingas, buriti palm stands, cultivated fields, and cities. [24] They have been found in areas where high-grade forestry is practiced.



Feeding at Zoo Miami, USA Harpia harpyja -Miami MetroZoo -feeding-8a.jpg
Feeding at Zoo Miami, USA

Adults are near or even at the top of a food chain and are rarely preyed on. [25] However, two adult eagles that were being released into the wild as part of a reintroduction program were taken by a jaguar and the much smaller ocelot [26] Its main prey are tree-dwelling mammals and a majority of the diet has been shown to focus on sloths [27] and monkeys. Research conducted by Aguiar-Silva between 2003 and 2005 in a nesting site in Parintins, Amazonas, Brazil, collected remains from prey offered to the nestling by its parents and after sorting them, concluded, in terms of individuals preyed upon, the harpy's prey basis was composed in 79% by sloths from two species: Bradypus variegatus amounting to 39% of the individual prey base, and Choloepus didactylus to 40%; various monkeys amounted to 11.6% of the same prey base. [28] In a similar research venture in Panama, where a couple of captive-bred subadults was released, 52% of the male's captures and 54% of the female's were of two sloth species ( Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni ). [29] At one Venezuelan nest, the remains comprised sloths. Monkeys regularly taken can include capuchin monkeys, saki monkeys, howler monkeys, titi monkeys, squirrel monkeys, and spider monkeys. Smaller monkeys, such as tamarins and marmosets, are seemingly ignored as prey by this species. [9] At several nest in Guyana, monkeys made up about 37% of the prey remains found at the nests. [30] Similarly, cebid monkeys made up 35% of the remains found at 10 nests in Amazonian Ecuador. [31] Other partially arboreal and even land mammals are also preyed on given the opportunity, including porcupines, squirrels, opossums, anteaters, armadillos, and even relatively large carnivores such as kinkajous, coatis, and tayras. [9] In the Pantanal, a pair of nesting eagles preyed largely on the porcupine ( Coendou prehensilis ) and the agouti ( Dasyprocta azarae ). [32] The eagle may also attack bird species such as macaws: At the Parintins research site, the red-and-green macaw made up for 0.4% of the prey base, with other birds amounting to 4.6%. [28] [33] Other parrots have also been preyed on, as well as cracids such as curassows and other birds like seriemas. [9] Additional prey items reported include reptiles such as iguanas, tegus, and snakes. [9] [11] A recent literature review lists a total of 102 prey species. [34] .

The eagle has been recorded as taking domestic livestock, including chickens, lambs, goats, and young pigs, but this is extremely rare under normal circumstances. [9] They control the population of mesopredators such as capuchin monkeys which prey extensively on bird's eggs and which (if not naturally controlled) may cause local extinctions of sensitive species. [35]

Harpy eagle in flight

All of the Harpy eagle prey weight between 0.3 kg to 6.5 kg, with the mean prey size equaling 2.6 ± 0.8 kg [36] They possess the largest talons of any living eagle. They have been recorded as lifting prey up to equal their own body weight. [9] That allows the birds to snatch a live sloth from tree branches, as well as other huge prey items. Males usually take relatively smaller prey, with a typical range of 0.5 to 2.5 kg (1.1 to 5.5 lb) or about half their own weight. [9] The larger females take larger prey, with a minimum recorded prey weight of around 2.7 kg (6.0 lb). Adult female harpies regularly grab large male howler or spider monkeys or mature sloths weighing 6 to 9 kg (13 to 20 lb) in flight and fly off without landing, an enormous feat of strength. [9] [37] [38] Prey items taken to the nest by the parents are normally medium-sized, having been recorded from 1 to 4 kg (2.2 to 8.8 lb). [9] The prey brought to the nest by males averaged 1.5 kg (3.3 lb), while the prey brought to the nest by females averaged 3.2 kg (7.1 lb). [20]

Sometimes, harpy eagles are "sit-and-wait" predators (common in forest-dwelling raptors). [9] In harpies, this consists of perching and watching for long times from a high perch near an opening, a river, or a salt-lick (where many mammals go to feed for nutrients). [9] The more common hunting technique of the species is perch-hunting, which consists of scanning around for prey activity while briefly perched between short flights from tree to tree. [9] When prey is spotted, the eagle quickly dives and grabs the prey. [9] On occasion, they may also hunt by flying within or above the canopy. [9] They have also been observed tail-chasing, a predation style common to hawks that hunt birds, the genus Accipiter . [9] This comprises the eagle pursuing another bird in flight, rapidly dodging among trees and branches. [9]


In ideal habitats, nests would be fairly close together. In some parts of Panama and Guyana, active nests were located 3 km (1.9 mi) away from one another, while they are within 5 km (3.1 mi) of each other in Venezuela. In Peru, the average distance between nests was 7.4 km (4.6 mi) and the average area occupied by each breeding pairs was estimated at 4,300 ha (11,000 acres). In less ideal areas, with fragmented forest, breeding territories were estimated at 25 km (16 mi). [11] The female harpy eagle lays two white eggs in a large stick nest, which commonly measures 1.2 m (3.9 ft) deep and 1.5 m (4.9 ft) across and may be used over several years. Nests are located high up in a tree, usually in the main fork, at 16 to 43 m (52 to 141 ft), depending on the stature of the local trees. The harpy often builds its nest in the crown of the kapok tree, one of the tallest trees in South America. In many South American cultures, it is considered bad luck to cut down the kapok tree, which may help safeguard the habitat of this stately eagle. [39] The bird also uses other huge trees on which to build its nest, such as the Brazil nut tree. [40] A nesting site found in the Brazilian Pantanal was built on a cambará tree ( Vochysia divergens ). [41]

No display is known between pairs of eagles, and they are believed to mate for life. A pair of harpy eagles usually only raises one chick every 2–3 years. After the first chick hatches, the second egg is ignored and normally fails to hatch unless the first egg perishes. The egg is incubated around 56 days. When the chick is 36 days old, it can stand and walk awkwardly. The chick fledges at the age of 6 months, but the parents continue to feed it for another 6 to 10 months. The male captures much of the food for the incubating female and later the eaglet, but also takes an incubating shift while the female forages and also brings prey back to the nest. Breeding maturity is not reached until birds are 4 to 6 years of age. [9] [20] [23] Adults can be aggressive toward humans who disturb the nesting site or appear to be a threat to its young. [42]

Status and conservation

Subadult, "Panama", in Belize Zoo Harpia harpyja -Belize Zoo-8-3c.jpg
Subadult, "Panama", in Belize Zoo

Although the harpy eagle still occurs over a considerable range, its distribution and populations have dwindled considerably. It is threatened primarily by habitat loss due to the expansion of logging, cattle ranching, agriculture, and prospecting. Secondarily, it is threatened by being hunted as an actual threat to livestock and/or a supposed one to human life, due to its great size. [43] Although not actually known to prey on humans and only rarely on domestic stock, the species' large size and nearly fearless behavior around humans reportedly make it an "irresistible target" for hunters. [11] Such threats apply throughout its range, in large parts of which the bird has become a transient sight only; in Brazil, it was all but wiped out from the Atlantic rainforest and is only found in appreciable numbers in the most remote parts of the Amazon basin; a Brazilian journalistic account of the mid-1990s already complained that at the time it was only found in significant numbers in Brazilian territory on the northern side of the Equator. [44] Scientific 1990s records, however, suggest that the harpy Atlantic Forest population may be migratory. [45] Subsequent research in Brazil has established that, as of 2009, the harpy eagle, outside the Brazilian Amazon, is critically endangered in Espírito Santo, [46] São Paulo and Paraná, endangered in Rio de Janeiro, and probably extirpated in Rio Grande do Sul (where there is a recent (March 2015) record for the Parque Estadual do Turvo) and Minas Gerais [47] – the actual size of their total population in Brazil is unknown. [48]

Globally, the harpy eagle is considered Near Threatened by IUCN [1] and threatened with extinction by CITES (appendix I). The Peregrine Fund until recently considered it a "conservation-dependent species", meaning it depends on a dedicated effort for captive breeding and release to the wild, as well as habitat protection, to prevent it from reaching endangered status, but now has accepted the Near Threatened status. The harpy eagle is considered critically endangered in Mexico and Central America, where it has been extirpated in most of its former range; in Mexico, it used to be found as far north as Veracruz, but today probably occurs only in Chiapas in the Selva Zoque. It is considered as Near Threatened or Vulnerable in most of the South American portion of its range; at the southern extreme of its range, in Argentina, it is found only in the Parana Valley forests at the province of Misiones. [49] [50] It has disappeared from El Salvador, and almost so from Costa Rica. [22]

National initiatives

Adult at Sao Paulo Zoo, Brazil Harpia harpyja -Sao Paulo Zoo, Brasil -adult-8a.jpg
Adult at São Paulo Zoo, Brazil

Various initiatives for restoration of the species are in place in various countries. Since 2002, Peregrine Fund initiated a conservation and research program for the harpy eagle in the Darién Provinceboom . [51] A similar—and grander, given the dimensions of the countries involved—research project is occurring in Brazil, at the National Institute of Amazonian Research, through which 45 known nesting locations (updated to 62, only three outside the Amazonian basin and all three inactive) are being monitored by researchers and volunteers from local communities. A harpy eagle chick has been fitted with a radio transmitter that allows it to be tracked for more than three years via a satellite signal sent to the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research. [52] Also, a photographic recording of a nest site in the Carajás National Forest was made for the Brazilian edition of National Geographic Magazine . [53]

Adult in Belize Harpia harpyja -Belize-8a.jpg
Adult in Belize

In Belize, the Belize Harpy Eagle Restoration Project began in 2003 with the collaboration of Sharon Matola, founder and director of the Belize Zoo and the Peregrine Fund. The goal of this project was the re-establishment of the harpy eagle within Belize. The population of the eagle declined as a result of forest fragmentation, shooting, and nest destruction, resulting in near extirpation of the species. Captive-bred harpy eagles were released in the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area in Belize, chosen for its quality forest habitat and linkages with Guatemala and Mexico. Habitat linkage with Guatemala and Mexico were important for conservation of quality habitat and the harpy eagle on a regional level. As of November 2009, 14 harpy eagles have been released and are monitored by the Peregrine Fund, through satellite telemetry. [54]

In January 2009, a chick from the all-but-extirpated population in the Brazilian state of Paraná was hatched in captivity at the preserve kept in the vicinity of the Itaipu Dam by the Brazilian/Paraguayan state-owned company Itaipu Binacional. [55] In September 2009, an adult female, after being kept captive for 12 years in a private reservation, was fitted with a radio transmitter before being restored to the wild in the vicinity of the Pau Brasil National Park (formerly Monte Pascoal NP), in the state of Bahia. [56]

In December 2009, a 15th harpy eagle was released into the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area in Belize. The release was set to tie in with the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009, in Copenhagen. The 15th eagle, nicknamed "Hope" by the Peregrine officials in Panama, was the "poster child" for forest conservation in Belize, a developing country, and the importance of these activities in relation to climate change. The event received coverage from Belize's major media entities, and was supported and attended by the U.S. Ambassador to Belize, Vinai Thummalapally, and British High Commissioner to Belize, Pat Ashworth. [57]

In Colombia, as of 2007, an adult male and a subadult female confiscated from wildlife trafficking were restored to the wild and monitored in Paramillo National Park in Córdoba, and another couple was being kept in captivity at a research center for breeding and eventual release. [58] A monitoring effort with the help of volunteers from local Native American communities is also being made in Ecuador, including the joint sponsorship of various Spanish universities [59] —this effort being similar to another one going on since 1996 in Peru, centered around a native community in the Tambopata Province, Madre de Dios Region. [60] Another monitoring project, begun in 1992, was operating as of 2005 in the state of Bolívar, Venezuela. [61]

The harpy eagle is the national bird of Panama and is depicted on the coat of arms of Panama. [62] The 15th harpy eagle released in Belize, named "Hope", was dubbed "Ambassador for Climate Change", in light of the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009. [63] [64]

The harpy eagle was the inspiration behind the design of Fawkes the Phoenix in the Harry Potter film series. [65] A live harpy eagle was used to portray the now-extinct Haast's eagle in BBC's Monsters We Met . [66]

References and notes

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  4. The illustrated atlas of wildlife. University of California Press. 2009. p. 115. ISBN   978-0-520-25785-6.
  5. "Programa de Conservação do Gavião-real". gaviaoreal.inpa.gov.br. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  6. Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata (in Latin). Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). p. 86. V. occipite subcristato.
  7. Lerner, Heather R. L.; Mindell, David P. (November 2005). "Phylogeny of eagles, Old World vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (2): 327–346. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.04.010. PMID   15925523 . Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  8. 1 2 Piper, Ross (2007). Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 89. ISBN   978-0-313-33922-6.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, David A. (2001). Raptors of the world. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 717–19. ISBN   978-0-618-12762-7.
  10. 1 2 3 Howell, Steve N. G. (30 March 1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-854012-0.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thiollay, J. M. (1994). Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja). p. 191 in: del Hoy, J, A. Elliott, & J. Sargatal, eds. (1994). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 2. New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN   84-87334-15-6
  12. Trinca, C.T.; Ferrari, S.F. & Lees, A.C. "Curiosity killed the bird: arbitrary hunting of Harpy Eagles Harpia harpyja on an agricultural frontier in southern Brazilian Amazonia" (PDF). Cotinga. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
  13. Wood, The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. Sterling Pub Co Inc. (1983), ISBN   978-0-85112-235-9.
  14. O'Connor, R. J. (1984). The Growth and Development of Birds, Wiley, ISBN   0-471-90345-0
  15. Arent, L. A. (2007). Raptors in Captivity. Hancock House, Washington. ISBN   978-0-88839-613-6
  16. Sagip Eagle. Gbgm-umc.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  17. Smithsonian miscellaneous collections (1862). Archive.org. Retrieved on 2013-03-09.
  18. Museum of New Zealand (1998). Giant eagle (Aquila moorei), Haast’s eagle, or Pouakai. Accessed 4 June 2011
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  20. 1 2 3 Rettig, N. (1978). "Breeding behavior of the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja)". Auk. 95 (4): 629–643. JSTOR   4085350.
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  22. 1 2 Weidensaul, Scott (2004). The Raptor Almanac: A Comprehensive Guide to Eagles, Hawks, Falcons, and Vultures. New York, New York: Lyons Press. pp. 280–81. ISBN   978-1-58574-170-0.
  23. 1 2 Rettig, N., K. Hayes (1995). "Remote world of the harpy eagle". National Geographic, 187(2): 40–49.
  24. Sigrist, Tomas (2013) Ornitologia Brasileira. Vinhedo: Avis Brasilis. ISBN   978-85-60120-25-3. p. 192
  25. Muñiz-López, R. (2017). "Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) mortality in Ecuador" (PDF). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 52 (1): 81–85.
  26. "Harpy Eagle Restoration Reaches New Heights" (PDF). The Peregrine Fund Newsletter 2003.
  27. Santos, D. W. (2011). WA548962, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758). Wiki Aves – A Enciclopédia das Aves do Brasil.. Retrieved August 30, 2013
  28. 1 2 Aguiar-Silva, F. Helena (2014). "Food Habits of the Harpy Eagle, a Top Predator from the Amazonian Rainforest Canopy". Journal of Raptor Research. 48 (1): 24–35. doi:10.3356/JRR-13-00017.1.
  29. Touchton, Janeene M.; Yu-Cheng Hsu; Palleroni, Alberto (2002). "Foraging ecology of reintroduced captive-bred subadult harpy eagles (Harpia harpiya) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama" (PDF). Ornitologia Neotropical. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 9, 2008.
  30. Izor, R. J. (1985). "Sloths and other mammalian prey of the Harpy Eagle". pp. 343–346 in G. G. Montgomery (ed.), The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths, and vermilinguas. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  31. Muñiz-López, R., O. Criollo, and A. Mendúa. (2007). Results of five years of the "Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) Research Program" in the Ecuadorian tropical forest. pp. 23–32 in K. L Bildstein, D. R. Barber, and A. Zimmerman (eds.), Neotropical raptors. Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Orwigsburg, PA.
  32. Aves de Rapina BR | Gavião-Real (Harpia harpyja). Avesderapinabrasil.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  33. Aguiar-Silva (2007). "Dieta do gavião-real Harpia harpyja (Aves: Accipitridae) em florestas de terra firme de Parintins, Amazonas, Brasil". Thesis
  34. Miranda, Everton B. P. (2018). "Prey Composition of Harpy Eagles (Harpia harpyja) in Raleighvallen, Suriname". Tropical Conservation Science. 13: 194008291880078. doi:10.1177/1940082918800789.
  35. Shaner, K. (2011). Harpia harpyja (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed August 21, 2012
  36. Aguiar-Silva, F. Helena; Sanaiotti, Tânia M.; Luz, Benjamim B. (2014). "Food Habits of the Harpy Eagle, a Top Predator from the Amazonian Rainforest Canopy". Journal of Raptor Research. 48: 24–35. doi:10.3356/JRR-13-00017.1.
  37. San Diego Zoo's Animal Bytes: Harpy Eagle. Sandiegozoo.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  38. "Gavião-real". Brasil 500 Pássaros (in Portuguese). Eletronorte. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  39. Piper, Ross (2007), Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals, Greenwood Press.
  40. Hughes, Holly (29 January 2009). Frommer's 500 Places to See Before They Disappear. John Wiley & Sons. p. 178. ISBN   978-0-470-43162-7.
  41. Harpia (gavião-real). Avesderapinabrasil.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  42. Vaughan, Adam (July 6, 2010). "Monkey-eating eagle divebombs BBC filmmaker as he fits nest-cam". guardian.co.uk.
  43. Talia Salanotti, researcher for the Brazilian National Institute of Amazonian Research, cf. O Globo, May the 13th. 2009; abridgement available at Maior águia das Américas, gavião-real sofre com destruição das florestas; on the random killing of harpies in frontier regions, see Cristiano Trapé Trinca, Stephen F. Ferrari and Alexander C. Lees Curiosity killed the bird: arbitrary hunting of Harpy Eagles Harpia harpyja on an agricultural frontier in southern Brazilian Amazonia. Cotinga 30 (2008): 12–15
  44. "Senhora dos ares", Globo Rural, ISSN   0102-6178, 11:129, July 1996, pp. 40 and 42
  45. Alluvion of the Lower Schwalm near Borken. Birdlife.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  46. Where an adult male was observed in August 2005 at the preserve kept by mining corporation Vale do Rio Doce at Linhares: cf. Srbek-Araujo, Ana C.; Chiarello, Adriano G. (2006). "Registro recente de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus) (Aves, Accipitridae), na Mata Atlântica da Reserva Natural Vale do Rio Doce, Linhares, Espírito Santo e implicações para a conservação regional da espécie". Revista Brasileira de Zoologia. 23 (4): 1264. doi:10.1590/S0101-81752006000400040.
  47. Nevertheless, in 2006, an adult female – probably during migration – was seen and photographed at the vicinity of Tapira, in the Minas Gerais cerrado: cf. Oliveira, Adilson Luiz de; Silva, Robson Silva e (2006). "Registro de Harpia (Harpia harpyja) no cerrado de Tapira, Minas Gerais, Brasil" (PDF). Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia. 14 (4): 433–434. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 2, 2010.
  48. Couto, Clarice. "Viva a Rainha". Globo Rural. 25 (288): 65.
  49. The Misiones Green Corridor Archived 2010-06-13 at the Wayback Machine . Redyaguarete.org.ar. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  50. For a map of the species historical and current range, see Fig. 1 in Lerner, Heather R. L.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Lindsay, Alec R.; Kiff, Lloyd F.; Mindell, David P. (2009). Ellegren, Hans (ed.). "It's not too Late for the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja): High Levels of Genetic Diversity and Differentiation Can Fuel Conservation Programs". PLoS ONE. 4 (10): e7336. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.7336L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007336. PMC   2752114 . PMID   19802391.
  51. Harpy Eagle Harpia harpyja. Globalraptors.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  52. Projecto Gavião-real INPA; Globo Rural, 25:288, page 62
  53. Rosa, João Marcos (2011-06-22). Mirada alemã: um olhar crítico sobre o seu próprio trabalho. abril.com.br
  55. G1 > Brasil – NOTÍCIAS – Ave rara no Brasil nasce no Refúgio Biológico de Itaipu. G1.globo.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  56. Revista Globo Rural, 24:287, September 2009, 20
  57. "The Importance of Hope, the Harpy Eagle". 7 News Belize. 2009-12-14.
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  59. "Sponsorship and Exhibition at ATBC OTS" (PDF). International Conference Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation and the Organization for Tropical Studies. 23–27 June 2013, San José, Costa Rica. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 3, 2014.
  60. Piana, Renzo P. "The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) in the Infierno Native Community". inkaways.com
  61. (in Spanish) Programa de conservación del águila arpía. Ecoportal.net (2005-12-15). Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  62. Goldish, Meish (2007). Bald Eagles: A Chemical Nightmare. Bearport Publishing Company, Incorporated. p. 29. ISBN   978-1-59716-505-1.
  63. "Raptor Education Soars in Toledo". The Belize Zoo and Tropical Education Center. 2013. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
  64. "The Importance of Hope, the Harpy Eagle". 7 News Belize. December 14, 2009. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  65. Lederer, Roger J. (2007). Amazing Birds: A Treasury of Facts and Trivia about the Avian World. Barron's Educational Series, Incorporated. p. 106. ISBN   978-0-7641-3593-4.
  66. "Haast's eagle videos, news and facts". BBC. Retrieved 2014-01-25.

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The bald eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two known subspecies and forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States, and northern Mexico. It is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting.

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The Haast's eagle is an extinct species of eagle that once lived in the South Island of New Zealand, commonly accepted to be the Pouakai of Maori legend. The species was the largest eagle known to have existed. Its massive size is explained as an evolutionary response to the size of its prey, the flightless moa, the largest of which could weigh 230 kg (510 lb). Haast's eagle became extinct around 1400, after the moa were hunted to extinction by the first Māori.

White-tailed eagle species of bird

The white-tailed eagle is a very large eagle widely distributed across Eurasia. As are all eagles, it is a member of the family Accipitridae which includes other diurnal raptors such as hawks, kites, and harriers. One of up to eleven members in the genus Haliaeetus, which are commonly called sea eagles, it is not infrequently also referred to as the white-tailed sea-eagle. It is also sometimes known as the ern or erne, gray sea eagle and Eurasian sea eagle

Changeable hawk-eagle species of bird

The changeable hawk-eagle or crested hawk-eagle(Nisaetus cirrhatus) is a large bird of prey species of the family Accipitridae. More informal or antiquated English common names include the marsh hawk-eagle or Indian crested hawk-eagle. It is a member of the booted eagle subfamily, with signature feathers, absent in tropical raptors from outside this subfamily, covering the tarsus. It was formerly placed in the genus Spizaetus, but studies pointed to the group being paraphyletic resulting in the Old World members being placed in Nisaetus and separated from the New World species. The is a typical “hawk-eagle” in that it is an agile forest-dwelling predator and like many such eagles readily varies its prey selection between birds, mammals or reptiles as well as other vertebrates. Among the members of its genus, the changeable hawk-eagle stands out as the most widely distributed, adaptable and abundant species.

Mountain hawk-eagle species of bird

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Ornate hawk-eagle species of bird

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Spectacled owl species of bird

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Crested eagle species of bird

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Bicolored hawk species of bird

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Pau Brasil National Park

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