|Location||Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal, Winnipeg|
|Replaced||Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (merger in 1994)|
|(founded)||December 4, 1914|
Hockey Canada, which merged with the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association in 1994, is the national governing body of ice hockey and ice sledge hockey in Canada. It is a member of the International Ice Hockey Federation and controls the majority of organized ice hockey in Canada.There are some notable exceptions, such as the Canadian Hockey League, U Sports (formerly known as Canadian Interuniversity Sport), and Canada's professional hockey clubs; the former two are partnered with Hockey Canada but are not member organizations. Hockey Canada is based in Calgary, with a secondary office in Ottawa and regional centres in Toronto, Winnipeg and Montreal.
The Canadian Amateur Hockey Association was founded on December 4, 1914, when 21 delegates from across Canada met at the Chateau Laurier in Ottawa. The organization was made to oversee the amateur level of the sport at the national level. The Allan Cup, originally donated in 1908 by Sir H. Montagu Allan, was selected as the championship of amateur hockey in Canada. William Northey, the trustee of the Allan Cup, was named the first ever chairman, while Dr. W. F. Taylor was named the inaugural president. The Memorial Cup was the junior amateur championship of Canada.
In 1920, after the Winnipeg Falcons won the Allan Cup over the University of Toronto, they represented Canada at the 1920 Summer Olympic Games. Canada would go 3-0-0 to win the sport's first ever Olympic gold medal.
The Ottawa and District Amateur Hockey Association joined in 1920, followed by the Maritime Amateur Hockey Association in 1928.
On June 30, 1947, the CAHA, the National Hockey League and the Amateur Hockey Association of the United States makes an agreement that no player under the age of 18 can be signed as a professional player without the permission of their amateur club. That same year, the International Ice Hockey Federation changes the rules on amateur status. The rule change means the 1948 Allan Cup champion Royal Montreal Hockey Club were not eligible for the 1948 Winter Olympics, so the CAHA sent the RCAF Flyers instead and were victorious.
At the 1952 Winter Olympics, the Edmonton Mercuries won their nation's last Olympic gold until 2002.
In 1961, the Trail Smoke Eaters won Canada's 19th and last world championship for 33 years at the 1961 World Ice Hockey Championships. In 1964, Father David Bauer formed the Canada's national team in response to the success of the programs set up by the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Sweden. Three years later, the CAHA opened its first ever national office, located in Winnipeg.
The Newfoundland Amateur Hockey Association, led by association president Don Johnson, entered the CAHA in 1966. Johnson would become CAHA president in 1975. The New Brunswick Amateur Hockey Association left the Maritime AHA brand in 1968 and entered the CAHA as a member.
In 1968, the Hockey Canada organization was founded to oversee Canada's national teams.
In 1970, the CAHA's 13 Junior A league were divided into two tiers. Tier I, the Western Canada Junior Hockey League, the Ontario Hockey Association, and the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League, were eligible to compete for the Memorial Cup. The ten leagues of Tier II, would compete for the Manitoba Centennial Cup, donated by the Manitoba Amateur Hockey Association (See: Canadian Junior Hockey League).
Also in 1970, Canada pulled out of IIHF competition and would not return to the fold until 1977in protest of the IIHF's soft stance on Soviet and Czechoslovakian teams using "professional amateurs" in international competition but not allowing professional players to compete for Canada.
In 1972, Canada and the Soviet Union competed in the 1972 Summit Series. Canada's team was composed of NHL stars, while the Soviet players were from the Red Army. The NHLers won the series 4-3-1.Two years later, the World Hockey Association represented Canada and lost the series 1-4-3. In 1976, the Canada Cup was formed as a best-on-best championship.
In 1974, the Nova Scotia Amateur Hockey Association and Prince Edward Island Amateur Hockey Association are formed out of the dissolution of the Maritime AHA.
The World Junior Ice Hockey Championships was held for the first time. Canada, who sent Memorial Cup champion teams in early years, eventually set up a national team and won their first gold medal at the 1982 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships.
In 1975, the QMJHL, WCJHL, and the renamed Ontario Major Junior Hockey League form an umbrella organization known as the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League. With the creation of the CMJHL, the three league began initiating compensation talks with the NHL and WHA without CAHA input. In 1980, the CMJHL separated from the CAHA, only staying loosely affiliated with the national body. With the separation of the CMJHL, Tier II was promoted to simply Junior A, although the Tier II title still persists in hockey vernacular. To this day, the CMJHL (now Canadian Hockey League) releases its players to Hockey Canada to play at the World Junior Ice Hockey Championships.
In 1983, the first Abby Hoffman Cup was awarded to the Burlington Ladies as the Canadian national senior champions of women's hockey.
In 1990, the forerunner to the Canadian Junior Hockey League was created as an umbrella organization, within the CAHA, to oversee Junior A hockey.
The Canada women's national ice hockey team was formed in 1987 and won the first (unofficial) world championship that year. The 1990 IIHF Women's World Championship was the first official event, also won by Canada.
In 1994, Team Canada would end a 33-year drought by winning the 1994 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships.
In 1996, Hockey Canada replaces the Manitoba Centennial Cup with the Royal Bank Cup as the championship of Junior A hockey.
In 1998, Hockey Canada and the CAHA merge into one organization. Also, the International Olympic Committee elected to allow professional players to compete at the Olympics and creates a women's event at the games. That same year, Hockey North became the 13th branch of Hockey Canada.
In 2002, the Canadian men and women win gold at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. The Canadian men win their first gold medal in fifty years, while the women win their first in two tries.
In 2004, the Canada men's national ice sledge hockey team is welcomed into the Hockey Canada fold,and Mark Aubry was named the Chief Medical Officer of Hockey Canada.
In 2006, the Canadian women would win gold at the 2006 Olympics and the sledge team conquered gold at the 2006 Winter Paralympics.
The Clarkson Cup, donated by the Governor General of Canada Adrienne Clarkson, was created in 2006, and was first awarded in 2009 to the Canadian national senior champions of women's hockey.The Clarkson Cup replaced the Abby Hoffman Cup.
The IOC and COC informed Hockey Canada that its logo would no longer be allowed on Team Canada jerseys as of the 2010 Winter Olympics.Without the Hockey Canada logo jersey, Team Canada's men and women would win gold in both 2010 and 2014.
List of Canadian Amateur Hockey Association presidents (1914–1994), and Hockey Canada presidents (1994–present).Prior to the merger of the two organizations in 1994, Hockey Canada leadership included Max Bell, Charles Hay, Doug Fisher, Lou Lefaive, Bill Hay, and Derek Holmes.
Organizations in cooperation with Hockey Canada
|Association name||Hockey Canada|
|IIHF men's ranking||1|
|IIHF women's ranking||2|
Some junior leagues, like the Greater Metro Junior A Hockey League and formerly the Manitoba Major Junior Hockey League are not sanctioned by Hockey Canada. These leagues usually appear for a variety of reasons, ranging from disagreeing with the new Canadian Development Model implemented in 2005 to disagreeing with various zoning restrictions or anger over player raiding by other leagues. In the summer of 2009, Hockey Canada told players that they would have to choose to play within Hockey Canada or outside of Hockey Canada by September 30 of each playing year. At the end of each playing year the player has the right to apply to reenter Hockey Canada if they played in an independent league.
Summer hockey and recreational senior hockey are not under the auspices of Hockey Canada. To date, summer hockey is a massive market and is untouched by Hockey Canada. Also, in summer hockey tournaments, the Hockey Canada rulebook is not always followed, often replaced by professional league rules.
A result of the slow decline of senior hockey in Ontario is the growth of another independent league, the WOAA Senior AA Hockey League. In existence independent since 1943, the WOAA now has 18 senior hockey teams. The WOAA uses the Hockey Canada rule book, but with stricter import rules. The WOAA is very popular in the northern portions of Southwestern Ontario. Most WOAA teams have deep community roots including the sponsorship of minor hockey tournaments.
Less senior hockey has led to widespread growth in recreational adult hockey. Although Hockey Canada has attempted to make moves into recreational hockey and does offer insurance policies to participants, they have failed to make a dent in a nationwide practice.
The Canada men's national ice hockey team is the ice hockey team representing Canada internationally. The team is overseen by Hockey Canada, a member of the International Ice Hockey Federation. From 1920 until 1963, Canada's international representation was by senior amateur club teams. Canada's national men's team was founded in 1963 by Father David Bauer as a part of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association, playing out of the University of British Columbia. The nickname "Team Canada" was first used for the 1972 Summit Series and has been frequently used to refer to both the Canadian national men's and women's teams ever since.
Earl Phillip Dawson was a Canadian ice hockey administrator, politician and civil servant. He rose to prominence in Canadian hockey when he served as president of the Manitoba Amateur Hockey Association from 1958 to 1963. He established a council to reverse the decline of hockey in rural Manitoba and saw the association continually increase its registrations by spending more per player to develop minor ice hockey than other provinces in Canada. Dawson became chairman of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) rules committee and organized the first nationwide clinic for referee instructors to standardize the interpretation of hockey rules. Dawson became vice-president of the CAHA in 1966 then served as its president from 1969 to 1971. The International Ice Hockey Federation had approved a limited use of professionals at the 1970 Ice Hockey World Championships, but later reversed the decision when the International Olympic Committee objected. Dawson and the CAHA perceived the situation to be a double standard since the Europeans were believed to be state-sponsored professionals labelled as amateurs, and withdrew the Canada men's national ice hockey team from international competitions until it was allowed to use its best players.
James Murray Costello is a Canadian retired ice hockey player, executive and administrator who dedicated a lifetime to the advancement of ice hockey in Canada. He played four seasons in the National Hockey League, and was the younger brother of Les Costello. He was a lawyer by trade, and was president of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association from 1979 to 1994, then and its successor Hockey Canada from 1994 to 1998, when he facilitated the merger of the two organizations.
Donald Stewart Johnson was a Canadian sports executive. He was elected president of the Newfoundland Amateur Hockey Association (NAHA) in 1966, sought to expand minor ice hockey in Newfoundland and negotiated for the NAHA to become a member of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA). He was elected president of the CAHA in 1975, resolved internal disagreement over the jurisdiction of junior ice hockey, avoided the withdrawal of the Western Canada Hockey League and sought a new professional-amateur agreement with the National Hockey League and World Hockey Association. He was part of negotiations to end the Canada men's national ice hockey team hiatus from the Ice Hockey World Championships and the Olympic Games, in exchange for International Ice Hockey Federation approval of the 1976 Canada Cup. He established a long-term sponsorship to improve the National Coaching Certification Program, twice visited China with a Canadian amateur team for instructional tours and arranged an exchange for Chinese players and coaches to attend training camps in Canada. He was chairman of the 1978 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships as the CAHA past-president, and was posthumously credited by Hockey Canada for playing an important role in Canada's return to international competitions and improving Canada's hockey reputation.
Bob Nicholson is a Canadian ice hockey executive, administrator, and businessman. He has worked for the Oilers Entertainment Group since 2016, and was previously the president and chief executive officer of Hockey Canada from 1998 to 2014.
George Samuel Dudley was a Canadian ice hockey administrator. He joined the Ontario Hockey Association (OHA) executive in 1928, served as its president from 1934 to 1936, and as its treasurer from 1936 to 1960. He was elected to Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) executive in 1936, served as its president from 1940 to 1942, as its secretary from 1945 to 1947, and as its secretary-manager from 1947 to 1960. He was secretary of the International Ice Hockey Association from 1945 to 1947, and was later vice-president of the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) from 1957 to 1960. He was expected to become the next president of the IIHF before his death. He graduated from Osgoode Hall Law School in 1917 then practiced law for 43 years as the town solicitor for Midland, Ontario.
Gordon Wainwright Juckes was a Canadian ice hockey administrator. He served as the president and later the executive director of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA), and as a council member of the International Ice Hockey Federation. Juckes became involved in hockey as newspaper publisher and team president, then served as president of the Saskatchewan Amateur Hockey Association. During World War II he was a Major in the Royal Canadian Artillery, and was honoured with the Order of the British Empire.
Allan Wilfrid Pickard was a Canadian ice hockey administrator, who served as president of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) from 1947 to 1950. When Canada opted out of the 1947 Ice Hockey World Championships and decided not to participate in the 1948 Winter Olympics, Pickard felt that Canada was obliged to send a team due to its place as a top hockey nation, and nominated the Ottawa RCAF Flyers who won the gold medal for Canada and lived up to the requirements of the Olympic Oath as amateurs. Despite disagreement with the International Olympic Committee, he sought for the International Ice Hockey Federation to adopt the CAHA definition of amateur in the face of increasing difficulty in selecting the Canada men's national ice hockey team.
Frederick Page was a Canadian ice hockey administrator and ice hockey referee. He originated from Port Arthur, Ontario, where he played junior ice hockey, refereed locally and later at the Memorial Cup and Allan Cup competitions. He was a league executive in Fort William, then served as president of the Thunder Bay Amateur Hockey Association from 1958 to 1962. He was elected second vice president of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) in 1962, and rose up the ranks to be its president from 1966 to 1968. Page wanted the CAHA to gain more control over its affairs, and become less dependent on the National Hockey League (NHL). Under his leadership, the NHL ended direct sponsorship of junior hockey teams. He was instrumental in negotiating the revised agreement for the NHL Amateur Draft in 1967, and later served as co-chairman of the resulting joint player development committee.
Gordon Ralph Renwick was a Canadian ice hockey administrator, who served as president of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA), vice-president of the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF), and was the team president of the Galt Hornets.
William George Hardy was a Canadian professor, writer, and ice hockey administrator. He lectured on the Classics at the University of Alberta from 1922 to 1964, and served as president of the Canadian Authors Association. He was an administrator of Canadian and international ice hockey, and served as president of the Alberta Amateur Hockey Association, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA), the International Ice Hockey Association, and the International Ice Hockey Federation.
Bob Nadin is a Canadian retired ice hockey referee and administrator. He refereed at the 1972 Winter Olympics, and served as a referee supervisor for the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF), the National Hockey League, and the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association. He was involved with the Winter Olympic Games every Olympiad from 1972 until 2012, and was honoured by the International Olympic Committee with the Pierre de Coubertin medal. The IIHF honoured Nadin with the Paul Loicq Award, and inducted him into the IIHF Hall of Fame.
Joseph Julius Kryczka was a Canadian ice hockey administrator, coach and referee, and had a legal career as a lawyer and judge, where he was commonly known as "Justice Joe".
Lloyd Thompson Pollock was a Canadian ice hockey administrator and businessman. After running the Windsor City Hockey League, he assisted in the foundation of the Windsor Softball League, and later started a junior ice hockey league in Windsor, Ontario. He was a cofounder of the International Hockey League in 1945, and founder of the original Windsor Spitfires junior team in 1946. He served as president of the Ontario Hockey Association (OHA) from 1961 to 1963, welcomed the Montreal Junior Canadiens into the OHA when it was divided by the Metro Junior A League, and supported measures to preserve the Northern Ontario Hockey Association.
Clarence Vincent "Tubby" Schmalz was a Canadian ice hockey administrator. He served as vice-president of the Western Ontario Athletic Association from 1940 to 1950, and coached and managed the senior ice hockey team in Walkerton, Ontario. He was elected to the Ontario Hockey Association executive (OHA) in 1956, and served as its president from 1969 to 1972. He was the first commissioner of the Ontario Major Junior Hockey League (OMJHL), serving from 1974 to 1978. He became vice-chairman of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) in 1979, and was elected its chairman in 1981. He was a graduate of St. Jerome's College, and operated the Hartley House hotel in Walkerton. He served on the Walkerton Town Council for 17 years, including three years as reeve from 1979 to 1981.
The Canadian Hockey Association (CHA) was a junior ice hockey governing body in Canada from 1968 to 1970. It was formed when the Western Canada Hockey League (WCHL) broke away from the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA), due to disagreements with the CAHA's agreement with the National Hockey League (NHL) which established the NHL Amateur Draft in 1967. Ron Butlin became president of both the CHA and the WCHL with the objective of the getting a better financial deal for teams in Western Canada which had greater expenses than teams in Eastern Canada, and to fight the age limit on players imposed by the NHL. Butlin was also opposed to the CAHA structure of elected officials who determined hockey policy, rather than representation by team owners and operators of hockey businesses. The CHA added the Western Ontario Junior Hockey League (WOJHL) to its ranks in opposition to how hockey was controlled. The WOJHL was denied the financially desirable junior hockey A-level status by the Ontario Hockey Association despite being based in the industrialized Southwestern Ontario region, and was discontent with losing its best players annually to other leagues in Ontario.
Frank Ernest Sandercock was a Canadian ice hockey administrator. He served as president of both the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association and the Alberta Amateur Hockey Association, and had previously been an executive with the Ontario Hockey Association and founded a hockey organization to operate leagues in Calgary. He was an early proponent of junior ice hockey and senior ice hockey in Alberta, fostered growth in the game, and sought to reinvest profits into minor ice hockey for the younger generation.
William Franklin Taylor was a Canadian ice hockey administrator. He was the founding president of both the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) and the Manitoba Amateur Hockey Association in 1914, and also served as president of the Winnipeg Amateur Hockey League. He sought for the Allan Cup to be symbollic of the amateur hockey championship of Canada, and to establish a national authority to oversee competition for the trophy. He allied the CAHA with the Amateur Athletic Union of Canada against professionalism and to promote amateur sport and expand hockey in Canada. He supported a desire by the players to govern their own affairs, to standardize ice hockey rules and ice hockey rink dimensions, and recognition of the authority and judgment of on-ice officials. Taylor assisted with patriotic fundraising to contribute to the World War I effort in Canada, and served the community in Winnipeg as a leading member of the Elks and the Shriners. He sat on the board of governors for The Children's Hospital of Winnipeg and the local Children's Aid Society, and was posthumously inducted into the Manitoba Hockey Hall of Fame in 1992.
William Bryden George, also known as Baldy George, was a Canadian sports administrator and agriculturalist. He was president of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association from 1952 to 1955, when Canada debated whether it would withdraw from the Ice Hockey World Championships and the Olympic Games. At issue was the perceived financial exploitation of the Canada men's national ice hockey team and abuse from European media on the Canadian style of physical play. He wanted a financial guarantee for the national team when it travelled since its participation increased attendance at events in Europe. Canada did not participate at the World Championships in 1953 and placed second in 1954, which led to heavy criticism by media in Canada for the failure to win. Although Canada won the 1955 Ice Hockey World Championships, George questioned future participation and was concerned that the game in Europe took on political and religious meanings in which Canada did not want to become involved.
Arthur Thomas Potter was a Canadian ice hockey administrator. He was president of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) from 1962 to 1964, and oversaw the establishment of a permanent Canada men's national ice hockey team after he decided that sending the reigning Allan Cup champion to international competitions was no longer the answer. He felt that Canada needed discipline to handle Cold War tactics and propaganda at the Ice Hockey World Championships, sought to give its best players to develop as a team, and supported a plan by Father David Bauer to assemble a team of amateur student athletes to complete at the 1964 Winter Olympics.