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|Catchment area||75×106 m2 (75 km2; 29 sq mi)|
|Basin countries||Sri Lanka|
|Surface area||22.6×106 m2 (22.6 km2; 8.7 sq mi)|
|Average depth||5 m (16 ft)|
|Max. depth||12.7 m (42 ft)|
|Surface elevation||58.5 m (192 ft)|
Parakrama Samudra (or King Parakrama's sea or the Sea of King Parakrama) is a shallow reservoir (wewa), consisting of five separate wewa (reservoirs) (thopa, dumbutulu, erabadu, bhu, kalahagala tanks) connected by narrow channels in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka.
The northernmost reservoir is the oldest and referred to as Topa wewa (Sinhalese wewa is almost equal to English word lake or reservoir, but used unique Sri Lankan technology) built around 386 AD. The middle section Eramudu wewa and the southernmost portion, at the highest elevation, is Dumbutula wewa, both sections were added and the reservoir expanded during the reign of King Parâkramabâhu I.This wewa (reservoir) was built under the quote "do not let even a drop of rain water in this country to go to the sea without use". The wewa (reservoir) was so large it was called samudhraya or ocean but there was another reason it was called that due to the wind we know that waves erupt in tanks, parakrama samudhraya was so large the waves come as big as the ocean waves.
Poḷonnaruwa is the main town of Polonnaruwa District in North Central Province, Sri Lanka. Kaduruwela area is the Polonnaruwa New Town and the other part of Polonnaruwa remains as the royal ancient city of the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa.
The Palk Strait is a strait between the Tamil Nadu state of India and the Jaffna District of the Northern Province of the island nation of Sri Lanka. It connects the Bay of Bengal in the northeast with Palk Bay in the southwest. With a minimum depth of less than 9.1 m, it is 40 to 85 miles wide and 85 miles long. Several rivers flow into it, including the Vaigai River of Tamil Nadu. The strait is named after Robert Palk, who was a governor of Madras (1755–1763) during the Company Raj period.
Kurunegala is a major city in Sri Lanka. It is the capital city of the North Western Province and the Kurunegala District. Kurunegala was an ancient royal capital for 50 years, from the end of the 13th century to the start of the 14th century. It is at the junction of several main roads linking to other important parts of the country. It is about 94 kilometres (58 mi) from Colombo, 42 kilometres (26 mi) from Kandy and 51 kilometres (32 mi) from Matale.
A reservoir is most commonly an enlarged natural or artificial lake created using a dam to store water.
The ancient Sinhalese excelled in the construction of tanks (Wevas) or reservoirs, dagobas and palaces in Sri Lanka, as evident from the ruins which displays a rich variety of architectural forms.
Wasgamuwa National Park is a natural park in Sri Lanka situated in the Matale and Polonnaruwa Districts. It was declared to protect and to make a refuge for the displaced wild animals during the Mahaweli Development Project in 1984 and is one of the four National Parks designated under the Project. Originally it was designated as a nature reserve in 1938, and then in the early 1970s the area was regraded as a strict nature reserve. Wasgamuwa is one of protected areas where Sri Lankan Elephants can be seen in large herds. It is also one of the Important Bird Areas in Sri Lanka. The name of the Wasgamuwa has derived through the words "Walas Gamuwa". "Walasa" is Sinhala for sloth bear and "Gamuwa" means a wood. The park is situated 225 km away from Colombo.
The Kingdom of Polonnaruwa was the Sinhalese kingdom that ruled the island of Sri Lanka and some other territories, from 1070 until 1232. Polonnaruwa as the capital, unified the island following the Kalinga-Arya war which led to the ascension of Parakramabahu I beginning the Polonnaruwa period. It was ruled by the House of Vijayabahu (1070-1186); and the House of Kalinga of Kalinga Lokeshvara.
Kala Wewa, built by the King Datusena in 460 A.D, is a twin reservoir complex which has a capacity of 123 million cubic meters. This reservoir complex has facilitated with a stone made spillway and three main sluices. From the central major sluice, a 40 feet wide central conveys water to feed thousands of acres of paddy lands and ends at the historical capital Anuradhapura city tank Tissa Wewa meandering over 87 km (54 mi) at a slope of 6 inches per mile and is another wonder of primeval hydraulic engineering facility in ancient Ceylon.
Dhatusena was a king of Sri Lanka who ruled from 455 to 473 AD. He was the first king of the Moriyan dynasty. In some records, he is also identified as Dasenkeli. Dhatusena reunited the country under his rule after twenty six years, defeating the South Indian invaders that were ruling the country at that time. Dhatusena made eighteen irrigation tanks, a large irrigation canal known as Yodha Ela, and the Avukana Buddha statue, a large statue of Gautama Buddha.
The irrigation works in ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300 BCE, in the reign of King Pandukabhaya and under continuous development for the next thousand years, were some of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world. In addition to constructing underground canals, the Sinhalese were among the first to build completely artificial reservoirs to store water. The system was extensively restored and further extended during the reign of King Parākramabāhu.
The Anuradhapura Kingdom, named for its capital city, was the first established kingdom in ancient Sri Lanka and Sinhalese people. Founded by King Pandukabhaya in 377 BC, the kingdom's authority extended throughout the country, although several independent areas emerged from time to time, which grew more numerous towards the end of the kingdom. Nonetheless, the king of Anuradhapura was seen as the supreme ruler of the country throughout the Anuradhapura period. Buddhism played a strong role in the Anuradhapura period, influencing its culture, laws, and methods of governance. Society and culture were revolutionized when the faith was introduced during the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa; this cultural change was further strengthened by the arrival of the Tooth Relic of the Buddha in Sri Lanka and the patronage extended by her rulers.
Angammedilla National Park is one of the new national parks in Sri Lanka. The region was designated national park on 6 June 2006. Originally Angammedilla was a forest reserve within the Minneriya-Girithale Sanctuary declared on 12 February 1988. The park is declared mainly to protect the drainage basin of Parakrama Samudra. Angammedilla also secures the drainage basins of Minneriya and Girithale irrigation tanks, water sources in Sudu Kanda and habitats and wildlife of the adjacent forests. It is located 225 kilometres (140 mi) away from Colombo in Polonnaruwa District.
Kantale is a town in the Trincomalee District in eastern Sri Lanka. The town is located 38 km (24 mi) south-west of Trincomalee.
The Kandalama Reservoir is a reservoir in Kandalama, Sri Lanka. The reservoir is created by the 21 m (69 ft) high and 1,600 m (5,200 ft) wide Kandalama Dam. Water from the dam is used for irrigation purposes in the region, extending up to Kekirawa. The tank was created by constructing a dam across one of the main tributaries of Kala Wewa - the Mirisgoniya River. During 1952 to 1957, the tank was rehabilitated by Department of Irrigation of Sri Lanka. The reservoir and hotel is situated with the Kaludiya Pokuna Forest archeological site.
Tissa Wewa, an artificial reservoir, was built by Devanampiya Tissa in order to increase the water supply to his capital city of Anuradhapura. Only Panda Wewa and Abhaya Wewa are older. The embankment of Tissa Wewa is 2 miles (3.2 km) long and 25 feet (7.6 m) high.
Ranmasu Uyana is a park in Sri Lanka containing the ancient Magul Uyana. It is situated close to Isurumuni Vihara and Tissa Wewa in the ancient sacred city of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. It sits on approximately 40 acres (16 ha), and is a noted example of Sri Lankan garden architecture of the pre-Christian era. According to an inscription found in Vessagiriya, the water to the park was supplied by Tessa Wewa and then released to rice fields around Isurumuni Vihara.
Nachchaduwa wewa is a reservoir near Thammannakulama, Sri Lanka. The reservoir is used to store water brings from Kala Wewa through Yoda Ela channel. The reservoir was severely damaged in 1957 flood and the restoration of the tank was completed in 1958.
Sorabora Wewa is an ancient reservoir in Mahiyangana, Badulla District Sri Lanka. It is thought to have been constructed during the reign of King Dutugemunu by a giant named Bulatha. In the ancient past, this tank was known as the 'Sea of Bintenna'.
Malala-Ambilikala Lagoons are two interconnected coastal water-bodies located inside the Bundala National Park, Hambantota District in the Southern Province, Sri Lanka. It is 260 km (160 mi) from Colombo to the arid south. The Malala-Ambilikala Lagoons are two of the three key lagoons located within the Bundala Ramsar wetlands.
Sri Lanka is a relatively small continental island, it exhibits a remarkable diversity of forest types, which are among the biologically one of richest forests in Asia. In these forests plant species show extraordinary patterns of localized distribution. Sri Lanka's forest became one of highest density of species diversity in the world. Sri Lanka natural forests cover about 12,493 km2 29.46% According to the National Red List said, Sri Lanka counts 253 land species, 245 species of butterflies, 240 birds, 211 reptiles, 748 evaluated vertebrates and 1,492 invertebrates. Forest coverage is about 70% tropical dry monsoon forests, 15% tropical moist monsoon forests and 5% tropical lower montane forests. By the dawn of the 19th century, Sri Lanka's forest cover was estimated at up to 70% of the total land area. Since then, the forest cover has decreased progressively over time. Significant loss of Sri Lanka's forest cover was first reported in the 19th century, with the introduction of plantation agricultural crops such as tea and vegetables. Commercial timber extraction policy of colonial rulers (British colonial time also led to clearing of forests in the dry zone. Irrigation development and agricultural expansions have been identified as key drivers of forest cover change.