|Location|| Jaffna District, Sri Lanka |
Kilinochchi District, Sri Lanka
|Primary outflows||Indian Ocean|
|Surface area||400 square kilometres (150 sq mi)|
|Surface elevation||Sea level|
Jaffna Lagoon is a large lagoon off Jaffna District and Kilinochchi District, northern Sri Lanka. The lagoon is surrounded by the densely populated Jaffna Peninsula containing palmyra palms, coconut plantations, and rice paddies. There are numerous fishing villages and some salt pans. The lagoon has extensive mudflats, seagrass beds and some mangroves. The lagoon attracts a wide variety of water birds including American flamingoes, ducks, gulls, terns and other shorebirds.
Jaffna Lagoon is a shallow coastal stretch of water between the Jaffna and the Kilinochchi Districts in northern Sri Lanka. It is located between the longitudes of 79°54E and 80°20E, and the latitudes of 9°30N and 9°50N, and connected to Palk Bay through a channel to the west. It is connected to two internal lagoons, Vadamarachchi Lagoon and Uppu Aru Lagoon, and the external Chundikkulam Lagoon (sometimes known as Elephants Pass Lagoon). The lagoons receive fresh water from their catchment areas, contain brackish or saline water and are connected to the sea; sandbanks sometimes form across the channels connecting them to the sea and at other times, these are washed away.[ citation needed ]
The shores of the lagoon are largely sand, shingle and mud, with many small creeks. There are some mudflats, saltmarshes and areas of scrubby mangrove.The area round the lagoon is marshland bordered by thick jungle with dense undergrowth. There are disused saltpans and marshy scrubland, as well as coconut plantations and fishing camps, but little human occupation. This is because this area of the Jaffna Peninsula saw much strife during the struggles of the Tamil Tigers for an independent state in the late twentieth century, and much of the civilian population left the area. Both sides in the conflict planted land mines, including in the shallow waters of the lagoons. Most of the land mines have now been cleared, bringing the possibility of introducing increased eco-type tourism.
The lagoon is very shallow, mostly under 2 m (7 ft) deep, but in some places reaches 4 m (13 ft). There are extensive areas of seagrass meadows, with shrimps and various species of fish. Plants growing on the shore include the coconut palm, doub palm, Ipomoea pes-caprae , and Calotropis gigantea , Azadirachta indica , Cynodon dactylon and Argemone mexicana .
The lagoon is visited by large numbers of migratory water birds during the winter. These include the northern pintail, the Eurasian wigeon, the garganey, the black-tailed godwit, the Eurasian curlew, the Eurasian teal, and the northern shoveler. Other birds found here include gulls, terns and the American flamingo.
The Mud Islands reserve is located within Port Phillip, about 90 km (56 mi) south-west of Melbourne, Australia, lying 10 km (6.2 mi) inside Port Phillip Heads, 7 km (4.3 mi) north of Portsea and 9 km (5.6 mi) east of Queenscliff. The land area of about 50 hectares is made up of three low-lying islands surrounding a shallow tidal 35-hectare (86-acre) lagoon connected to the sea by three narrow channels. The shapes and configuration of the islands change over the years due to movement of sand by tidal currents.
Pulicat Lagoon is the second largest brackish water lagoon in India, after Chilika Lake. Pulicat Lagoon is considered to be the second largest brackish water body in India measuring 759 square kilometres (293 sq mi). The lagoon is one of the three important wetlands to attract northeast monsoon rain clouds during the October to December season in the Tirupati Region. The lagoon comprises the following regions, which adds up 759 square kilometres (293 sq mi) according to Andhra Pradesh Forest Department: 1) Pulicat Lake 2) Marshy/Wetland Land Region (AP) 3) Venadu Reserve Forest (AP) 4) Pernadu Reserve Forest (AP) The lagoon was cut across in the middle by the Sriharikota Link Road, which divided the water body into lagoon and marshy land. The lagoon encompasses the Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary. The barrier island of Sriharikota separates the lagoon from the Bay of Bengal and is home to the Satish Dhawan Space Centre. Major part of the lagoon comes under Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh.
Lake Togo(French: Lac Togo) is the largest part of a lagoon in Togo, separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a narrow coastal strip. It is shallow and a popular location for water sports. Towns on the lake's shore include Agbodrafo and Togoville. Transport on the lake is generally by pirogue.
The Swan Bay is a shallow, 30-square-kilometre (12 sq mi) marine embayment at the eastern end of the Bellarine Peninsula in Port Phillip, Victoria, Australia. The township of Queenscliff lies at its southern end, and St Leonards at its northern. It is partly separated from Port Phillip by Swan Island, Duck Island and Edwards Point. Most of the area is included in the Port Phillip Heads Marine National Park as well as being listed as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention as part of the Port Phillip Bay and Bellarine Peninsula Ramsar Site. The bay is part of the Swan Bay and Port Phillip Bay Islands Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for orange-bellied parrots, waders and seabirds.
The Vanni, also spelled Wanni, is the name given to the mainland area of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. It covers the entirety of Mannar, Mullaitivu and Vavuniya Districts, and most of Kilinochchi District, and has an area of approximately 7,650 square kilometres (2,950 sq mi). The population and infrastructure of the Vanni were devastated by the Sri Lankan Civil War.
Kokkilai lagoon is an estuarine lagoon in Mullaitivu District and Trincomalee District, north-east Sri Lanka. The town of Kokkilai is located on a sand bar between the lagoon and the Indian Ocean.
Uppu Aru lagoon is a lagoon in Jaffna District, northern Sri Lanka. The lagoon separates the Valikamam region from the Thenmarachchi region.
Vadamarachchi lagoon is a lagoon in Jaffna District, northern Sri Lanka. The lagoon is sometimes referred to as Thondamannar lagoon. The lagoon separates the Vadamarachchi region from the Valikamam and Thenmarachchi regions.
Chundikkulam Lagoon is a lagoon in Jaffna District and Kilinochchi District, north-east Sri Lanka. The town of Chundikkulam is located on a narrow piece of land between the lagoon and the Indian Ocean. The lagoon is sometimes referred to as Elephant Pass Lagoon.
Chalai Lagoon is a lagoon in Mullaitivu District, north-east Sri Lanka. The town of Chalai is located on a sand bar between the lagoon and the Indian Ocean.
Nai Aru Lagoon is an estuarine lagoon in Mullaitivu District, north-east Sri Lanka.
Negombo Lagoon is a large estuarine lagoon in Negombo, south-west Sri Lanka.
Mundal Lagoon is a lagoon in Puttalam District, western Sri Lanka. The lagoon is sometimes referred to as Mundal Lake.
Valvettithurai, sometimes shortened as VVT or Valvai, is a coastal town of Jaffna District on the northeast coast of the Jaffna Peninsula in Northern Province, Sri Lanka governed by an Urban Council of the same name. Valvettithurai was historically known for its seafaring traditions and olden transnational shipping trade.
The Gulf of Salwah is the southern portion of the Gulf of Bahrain. The Gulf of Salwah is a narrow bay separating the peninsula of Qatar from Saudi Arabia. It is bordered to the west by a well-vegetated shoreland containing palm trees and reed beds. To the east are low cliffs and hills, with sand dunes and salt flats at the southern end.
Housing more than 200 resident and wintering bird species, Chennai has long been a haven for bird watchers. It is the one of the few urban areas in India with diverse range of birds including greater flamingo, black baza, osprey, Indian eagle-owl, Coppersmith barbet, Spot billed pelican and pied avocet can be seen. The following are some known birding hotspots in and around Chennai.
Mudaliarkuppam Boat House, also known as Raindrop Boat House, is a water sport facility located on the East Coast Road, 36 km to the south of Mamallapuram and 92 km from Chennai in India. It was developed by the Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation on the Odiyur lake back waters. It has rowing, cruising, speed boating, water scooting and kayaking facilities.
Iranamadu Tank is an irrigation tank in northern Sri Lanka, approximately 3 mi (5 km) south east of Kilinochchi.
Chundikkulam National Park is a national park in northern Sri Lanka, approximately 12 km (7 mi) north east of Kilinochchi.
Sri Lanka is a relatively small continental island, it exhibits a remarkable diversity of forest types, which are among the biologically one of richest forests in Asia. In these forests plant species show extraordinary patterns of localized distribution. Sri Lanka's forest became one of highest density of species diversity in the world. Sri Lanka natural forests cover about 12,493 km2 29.46% According to the National Red List said, Sri Lanka counts 253 land species, 245 species of butterflies, 240 birds, 211 reptiles, 748 evaluated vertebrates and 1,492 invertebrates. Forest coverage is about 70% tropical dry monsoon forests, 15% tropical moist monsoon forests and 5% tropical lower montane forests. By the dawn of the 19th century, Sri Lanka's forest cover was estimated at up to 70% of the total land area. Since then, the forest cover has decreased progressively over time. Significant loss of Sri Lanka's forest cover was first reported in the 19th century, with the introduction of plantation agricultural crops such as tea and vegetables. Commercial timber extraction policy of colonial rulers (British colonial time also led to clearing of forests in the dry zone. Irrigation development and agricultural expansions have been identified as key drivers of forest cover change.
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