St. Martin's Day

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Saint Martin's day, also known as the Feast of Saint Martin, Martinstag or Martinmas, as well as Old Halloween and Old Hallowmas Eve, [1] [2] is the feast day of Saint Martin of Tours (Martin le Miséricordieux) and is celebrated on November 11 each year. This is the time when autumn wheat seeding was completed, and the annual slaughter of fattened cattle produced "Martinmas beef". [3] Historically, hiring fairs were held where farm laborers would seek new posts.

November 11 is the 315th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 50 days remain until the end of the year.

Contents

Saint Martin of Tours was a Roman soldier who was baptised as an adult and became a bishop in a French town. The most famous legend concerning him was that he had once cut his cloak in half to share with a beggar during a snowstorm, to save the latter from the cold. That night, he dreamt of Jesus, wearing the half-cloak and saying to the angels, "Here is Martin, the Roman soldier who is now baptised; he has clothed me." [4] Saint Martin died on November 8, 397.

Jesus The central figure of Christianity

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.

Customs

St. Martin was known as friend of the children and patron of the poor. [5] This holiday originated in France, then spread to the Low Countries, the British Isles, Germany, Scandinavia, and Eastern Europe. It celebrates the end of the agrarian year and the end of the harvest. [6] Bishop Perpetuus of Tours, who died a week from the day after Saint Martin's Day (11 November). In the 6th century, councils required fasting on all days except Saturdays and Sundays from Saint Martin's Day to Epiphany (the Feast of the Three Wise Men and the star, c.f. Matthew 2: 1-12) on January 6, a period of 56 days, but of 40 days fasting, like the fast of Lent. It was therefore called Quadragesima Sancti Martini (Saint Martin's Fast). [7] This period of fasting was later shortened and called "Advent" by the Church. [8]

Epiphany (holiday) Christian feast, public holiday in some countries

Epiphany, also Theophany, Denha, Little Christmas, or Three Kings' Day, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ. In Western Christianity, the feast commemorates principally the visit of the Magi to the Christ Child, and thus Jesus' physical manifestation to the Gentiles. Moreover, the feast of the Epiphany, in some Western Christian denominations, also initiates the liturgical season of Epiphanytide. Eastern Christians, on the other hand, commemorate the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River, seen as his manifestation to the world as the Son of God. Qasr el Yahud in the West Bank, and Al-Maghtas in Jordan on the east bank, is considered to be the original site of the baptism of Jesus and the ministry of John the Baptist.

Lent Christian observance

Lent is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later on Holy Saturday, the day before Easter Sunday. The purpose of Lent is the preparation of the believer for Easter through prayer, doing penance, mortifying the flesh, repentance of sins, almsgiving, and denial of ego. This event is observed in the Anglican, Baptist, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran, Methodist, Moravian, Oriental Orthodox, Reformed, and Roman Catholic Churches. Some Anabaptist and evangelical churches also observe the Lenten season.

Advent Christian church season

Advent is a season observed in many Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for both the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas and the return of Jesus at the Second Coming. The term is a version of the Latin word meaning "coming". The term "Advent" is also used in Eastern Orthodoxy for the 40-day Nativity Fast, which has practices different from those in the West.

The goose became a symbol of St. Martin of Tours because of a legend that when trying to avoid being ordained bishop he had hidden in a goose pen, where he was betrayed by the cackling of the geese. St. Martin's feast day falls in November, when geese are ready for killing. St. Martin’s Day was an important medieval autumn feast, and the custom of eating goose spread to Sweden from France. It was primarily observed by the craftsmen and noblemen of the towns. In the peasant community, not everyone could afford to eat goose, so many ate duck or hen instead. [9]

Though no mention of Saint Martin's connection with viticulture is made by Gregory of Tours or other early hagiographers, he is nonetheless credited with a prominent role in spreading wine-making throughout the Touraine region and facilitating the planting of many vines. The Greek myth that Aristaeus first discovered the concept of pruning the vines after watching a goat eat some of the foliage has been appropriated to Martin. [10] Martin is also credited with introducing the Chenin blanc grape varietal, from which most of the white wine of western Touraine and Anjou is made.

Viticulture science, production and study of grapes

Viticulture or winegrowing is the cultivation and harvesting of grapes. It is a branch of the science of horticulture. While the native territory of Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, ranges from Western Europe to the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, the vine has demonstrated high levels of adaptability to new environments. Thus, viticulture can be found on every continent except Antarctica.

Gregory of Tours Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours

Gregory of Tours was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of the area that had been previously referred to as Gaul by the Romans. He was born Georgius Florentius and later added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather. He is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. His most notable work was his Decem Libri Historiarum, better known as the Historia Francorum, a title that later chroniclers gave to it, but he is also known for his accounts of the miracles of saints, especially four books of the miracles of Martin of Tours. St. Martin's tomb was a major pilgrimage destination in the 6th century, and St. Gregory's writings had the practical effect of promoting this highly organized devotion.

Touraine Place in France

Touraine is one of the traditional provinces of France. Its capital was Tours. During the political reorganization of French territory in 1790, Touraine was divided between the departments of Indre-et-Loire, Loir-et-Cher and Indre.

As with the word “Christmas”, the term Martinmas literally means "Mass of Martin", or the day when he is honoured in the Mass. Martinmas, as a date on the calendar, has two meanings: in the agricultural calendar it marks the beginning of the natural winter, but in the economic calendar it is seen as the end of autumn. The feast coincides not only with the end of the Octave of All Saints, but with harvest-time, the time when newly produced wine is ready for drinking, and the end of winter preparations, including the butchering of animals. (An old English saying is "His Martinmas will come as it does to every hog," meaning "he will get his comeuppance" or "everyone must die".) Because of this, St. Martin's Feast is much like the American Thanksgiving - a celebration of the earth's bounty. Because it also comes before the penitential season of Advent, it is seen as a mini "carnivale", with all the feasting and bonfires. As at Michaelmas on 29 September, goose is eaten in most places. Following these holidays, women traditionally moved their work indoors for the winter, while men would proceed to work in the forests.

Mass (liturgy) type of worship service within many Christian denomination

Mass is the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity. The term Mass is commonly used in the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches, as well as in some Lutheran, Methodist, Western Rite Orthodox, and Old Catholic churches.

In music, an octave or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with double its frequency. The octave relationship is a natural phenomenon that has been referred to as the "basic miracle of music", the use of which is "common in most musical systems". The interval between the first and second harmonics of the harmonic series is an octave.

Thanksgiving Holiday in North America

Thanksgiving Day is a national holiday celebrated on various dates in Canada, the United States, some of the Caribbean islands, and Liberia. It began as a day of giving thanks and sacrifice for the blessing of the harvest and of the preceding year. Similarly named festival holidays occur in Germany and Japan. Thanksgiving is celebrated on the second Monday of October in Canada and on the fourth Thursday of November in the United States, and around the same part of the year in other places. Although Thanksgiving has historical roots in religious and cultural traditions, it has long been celebrated as a secular holiday as well.

In some countries, Martinmas celebrations begin at the eleventh minute of the eleventh hour of this eleventh day of the eleventh month (that is, at 11:11 am on November 11). In others, the festivities commence on St. Martin's Eve (that is, on November 10). Bonfires are built and children carry lanterns in the streets after dark, singing songs for which they are rewarded with candy.

Celebrations around the world

Austria

"Martinloben" is celebrated as a collective festival. Events include art exhibitions, wine tastings, and live music. “Martinigansl” (roasted goose) is the traditional dish of the season. [11] In Austria St. Martin's Day is celebrated the same way as in Germany.The nights before and on the night of Nov. 11, children walk in processions carrying lanterns, which they made in school, and sing Martin songs.

Belgium

The day is celebrated on the evening of November 10 in a small part of Belgium (mainly in the east of Flanders and around Ypres). Children go through the streets with paper lanterns and candles, and sing songs about St. Martin. Sometimes, a man dressed as St. Martin rides on a horse in front of the procession. [12]

In some areas, there is a traditional goose meal, although in West Flanders there is no specific meal; in other areas it is more a day for children, with toys brought on the night of 10 to 11 November. In the west part of the Belgian province of West Flanders, especially around Ypres, children receive presents from either their friends or family as supposedly coming from St. Martin on November 11. In other areas it is customary that children receive gifts later in the year from either their friends or family as supposedly coming from Saint Nicholas on December 5 or 6 (called Sinterklaas in Belgium and the Netherlands) or Santa Claus on December 25.

In Wervik, children go from door to door, singing traditional "Séngmarténg" songs, sporting a hollow beetroot with a carved face and a candle inside called "Bolle Séngmarténg". Later in the evening there is a bonfire where all of them gather. At the end the beetroots are thrown into the fire, and pancakes are being served.

Croatia, Slovenia

In Croatia, St. Martin's Day (Martinje, Martinovanje) marks the day when the must traditionally turns to wine. The must is usually considered impure and sinful, until it is baptised and turned into wine. The baptism is performed by someone who dresses up as a bishop and blesses the wine; this is usually done by the host. Another person is chosen as the godfather of the wine. The foods traditionally eaten on the day are goose and home-made or store bought mlinci.

The biggest event in Slovenia is the St. Martin's Day celebration in Maribor which marks the symbolic winding up of all the wine growers’ endeavours. There is the ceremonial "christening" of the new wine, and the arrival of the Wine Queen. The square Trg Leona Štuklja is filled with musicians and stalls offering autumn produce and delicacies. [13]

Slovakia

In Slovakia, the Feast of St. Martin is like a "2nd Birthday" for those named after this saint. Small presents or money are common gifts for this special occasion. Tradition says that if it snows on the feast of St. Martin, November 11, then St. Martin came on a white horse and there will be snow on Christmas day. However, if it doesn't snow on this day, then St. Martin came on a dark horse and it will not snow on Christmas.

Czech Republic

A Czech proverb connected with the Feast of St. Martin - Martin přijíždí na bílém koni (trans. "Martin is coming on a white horse") - signifies that the first half of November in the Czech Republic is the time when it often starts to snow. St. Martin’s Day is the traditional feast day in the run-up to Advent. Roasted goose is usually found on restaurant menus, and the Czech version of Beaujolais nouveau, Svatomartinské víno, a young wine from the recent harvest, which has recently become more widely available and popular. Wine shops and restaurants around Prague pour the first of the St. Martin’s wines at 11:11 a.m. Many restaurants offer special menus for the day, featuring the traditional roast goose. [14]

Denmark

In Denmark, Mortensaften, meaning the evening of St. Martin, is celebrated with traditional dinners, while the day itself is rarely recognized. (Morten is the Danish vernacular form of Martin.) The background is the same legend as mentioned above, but nowadays the goose is most often replaced with a duck due to size, taste and/or cost.

Estonia

In Estonia, Martinmas signifies the merging of Western European customs with local Finnic pagan traditions. It also contains elements of earlier worship of the dead as well as a certain year-end celebration that predates Christianity. For centuries mardipäev (Martinmas) has been one of the most important and cherished days in the Estonian folk calendar. It remains popular today, especially among young people and the rural population. Martinmas celebrates the end of the agrarian year and the beginning of the winter period.

Among Estonians, Martinmas also marks the end of the period of All Souls, as well as the autumn period in the Estonian popular calendar when the souls of ancestors were worshiped, a period that lasted from November 1 to Martinmas (November 11). On this day children disguise themselves as men and go from door to door, singing songs and telling jokes to receive sweets.

In Southern Estonia, November is called Märtekuu after St. Martin's Day.

Germany

St. Martin's procession with children carrying paper lanterns in West Germany in 1949 Bundesarchiv Bild 194-0273-38, Sankt Martinszug.jpg
St. Martin's procession with children carrying paper lanterns in West Germany in 1949
Martin's procession and Martin's bonfire, Konz, Germany, Rhineland-Palatinate 2016

A widespread custom in Germany is bonfires on St. Martin's eve, called "Martinsfeuer." In recent years, the processions that accompany those fires have been spread over almost a fortnight before Martinmas. At one time, the Rhine River valley would be lined with fires on the eve of Martinmas. In the Rhineland region, Martin's day is celebrated traditionally with a get-together during which a roasted suckling pig is shared with the neighbours.

The nights before and on the night of Nov. 11, children walk in processions carrying lanterns, which they made in school, and sing Martin songs. Usually, the walk starts at a church and goes to a public square. A man on horseback dressed like St. Martin accompanies the children. When they reach the square, Martin’s bonfire is lit and Martin’s pretzels are distributed. [5]

In some regions of Germany (e.g. Rhineland or Bergisches Land) in a separate procession the children also go from house to house with their lanterns, sing songs and get candy in return.

The origin of the procession of lanterns is unclear. To some, it is a substitute for the St. Martin bonfire, which is still lit in a few cities and villages throughout Europe. It formerly symbolized the light that holiness brings to the darkness, just as St. Martin brought hope to the poor through his good deeds. Even though the tradition of the large, crackling fire is gradually being lost, the procession of lanterns is still practiced. [15]

The tradition of the St. Martin’s goose or "Martinsgans", which is typically served on the evening of St. Martin’s feast day following the procession of lanterns, most likely evolved from the well-known legend of St. Martin and the geese. "Martinsgans" is usually served in restaurants, roasted, with red cabbage and dumplings. [15]

In some regions of Germany, the traditional sweet of Martinmas is "Martinshörnchen", a pastry shaped in the form of a croissant, which recalls both the hooves of St. Martin's horse and, by being the half of a pretzel, the parting of his mantle. In parts of western Germany these pastries are instead shaped like men (Stutenkerl or Weckmänner).

Great Britain

In the United Kingdom, St. Martin's Day is known as Martinmas (or sometimes Martlemass). It is one of the term days in Scotland, where some schools celebrate St. Martin's day. Many schools are also named after St. Martin.

Martlemass beef was from cattle slaughtered at Martinmas and salted or otherwise preserved for the winter. The now largely archaic term "St. Martin's Summer" referred to the fact that in Britain people often believed there was a brief warm spell common around the time of St. Martin's Day, before the winter months began in earnest. A similar term that originated in America is "Indian Summer".

In the United Kingdom, however, St. Martin's day is not widely recognised and November 11 is better known for being Remembrance Day.

Ireland

In Ireland, on the eve of St. Martin's Day, it is tradition to sacrifice a cockerel by bleeding it. The blood was collected and sprinkled on the four corners of the house. Also in Ireland, no wheel of any kind was to turn on St. Martin's Day, because Martin was thrown into a mill stream and killed by the wheel and so it was not right to turn any kind of wheel on that day.

In Northern Ireland the village and surrounding parish of Desertmartin owes its name to Saint Columba (also referred to as Colmcille) who visited there in the sixth century. He erected a church there as a retreat and named it in honour of St. Martin. Hence the name in Irish Díseart Mhartain or 'Retreat of Martin'.

Sicily

In Sicily, November is the winemaking season. On St. Martin's Day Sicilians eat anise biscuits washed down with Moscato, Malvasia or Passito. More precisely, the hard biscuits are dipped into the Moscato. l'Estate di San Martino (Saint Martin's Summer) is the traditional Sicilian reference to a period of unseasonably warm weather in early to mid November. Saint Martin's Day is celebrated in a special way in a village near Messina and at a monastery dedicated to him overlooking Palermo beyond Monreale. [16]

Latvia

Mārtiņi (Martin's) is traditionally celebrated by Latvians on November 10, marking the end of the preparations for winter, such as salting meat and fish, storing the harvest and making preserves. Mārtiņi also marks the beginning of masquerading and sledding, among other winter activities.

Malta

A Maltese "Borza ta' San Martin" Borza 1.JPG
A Maltese "Borża ta' San Martin"

St. Martin's Day (Jum San Martin in Maltese) is celebrated in Malta on the Sunday nearest to November 11. Children are given a bag full of fruits and sweets associated with the feast, known by the Maltese as Il-Borża ta' San Martin, "St. Martin's bag". This bag may include walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, chestnuts, dried or processed figs, seasonal fruit (like oranges, tangerines, apples and pomegranates) and "Saint Martin's bread roll" (Maltese: Ħobża ta' San Martin). In old days, nuts were used by the children in their games.

There is a traditional rhyme associated with this custom:

Ġewż, Lewż, Qastan, Tin

Kemm inħobbu lil San Martin.

(Walnuts, Almonds, Chestnuts, Figs
I love Saint Martin so much.)

A feast is celebrated in the village of Baħrija on the outskirts of Rabat (Malta), including a procession led by the statue of Saint Martin. There is also a fair, and a show for local animals. San Anton School, a private school on the island, organises a walk to and from a cave especially associated with Martin in remembrance of the day.

A number of places in Malta are named after this saint, including San Martin on the outskirts of St. Paul's Bay, and Ġebel San Martin outside of Żejtun.

Netherlands

Children going door to door with paper lanterns on St. Martin's Day in the Netherlands Sunte-Marten.jpg
Children going door to door with paper lanterns on St. Martin's Day in the Netherlands

The day is celebrated on the evening of the 11th of November (the day Saint Martin died), where he is known as Sint-Maarten. As soon it gets dark, children up to the age of 11 or 12 (primary school age) go door to door with hand-crafted lanterns made of hollowed-out sugar beet or, more recently, paper, singing songs such as "Sinte Sinte Maarten," to receive candy or fruit in return. In the past, poor people would visit farms on the 11th of November to get food for the winter. In the 1600s, the city of Amsterdam held boat races on the lake IJ. 400 to 500 light craft, both rowing boats and sailboats, took part under the eyes of a vast crowd on the banks.

Poland

Procession of Saint Martin in Poznan, 2006 Festive procession of Saint Martin05.jpg
Procession of Saint Martin in Poznań, 2006

In Poland, November 11 is the National Independence Day. St. Martin's Day is celebrated mainly in the city of Poznań. On November 11, the people of Poznań buy and eat considerable amounts of "Rogale" (pronounced Ro-gah-leh), locally produced croissants, made specially for this occasion, filled with almond paste with white poppy seeds, so-called "Rogal świętomarciński" or Martin Croissants or St. Martin Croissants. Legend has it this centuries-old tradition commemorates a Poznań baker's dream. His nighttime reveries had St. Martin entering the city on a white horse that lost its golden horseshoe. The very next morning, the baker whipped up horseshoe-shaped croissants filled with almonds, white poppy seeds and nuts, and gave them to the poor. In recent years, competition amongst local bakeries has become fierce for producing the best "Rogale," and very often bakeries proudly display a certificate of compliance with authentic, traditional recipes. Poznanians celebrate with a feast, specially organised by the city. There are different concerts, a St. Martin's parade and a fireworks show. [17] See also: Saint Martin Street in Poznań.

Portugal

In Portugal, St. Martin's Day is commonly associated with the celebration of the maturation of the year's wine, being traditionally the first day when the new wine can be tasted. It is celebrated, traditionally around a bonfire, eating the magusto, chestnuts roasted under the embers of the bonfire (sometimes dry figs and walnuts), and drinking a local light alcoholic beverage called água-pé (literally "foot water", made by adding water to the pomace left after the juice is pressed out of the grapes for wine - traditionally by stomping on them in vats with bare feet, and letting it ferment for several days), or the stronger jeropiga (a sweet liquor obtained in a very similar fashion, with aguardente added to the water). Água-pé, though no longer available for sale in supermarkets and similar outlets (it is officially banned for sale in Portugal), is still generally available in small local shops from domestic production.

Leite de Vasconcelos regarded the magusto as the vestige of an ancient sacrifice to honor the dead and stated that it was tradition in Barqueiros to prepare, at midnight, a table with chestnuts for the deceased family members to eat. [18] The people also mask their faces with the dark wood ashes from the bonfire. A typical Portuguese saying related to Saint Martin's Day:

É dia de São Martinho;
comem-se castanhas, prova-se o vinho.
(It is St. Martin's Day,
we'll eat chestnuts, we'll taste the wine.)

This period is also quite popular because of the usual good weather period that occurs in Portugal in this time of year, called Verão de São Martinho (St. Martin's Summer). It is frequently tied to the legend since Portuguese versions of St. Martin's legend usually replace the snowstorm with rain (because snow is not frequent in most parts of Portugal, while rain is common at that time of the year) and have Jesus bringing the end of it, thus making the "summer" a gift from God.

Spain

In Spain, St. Martin's Day is the traditional day for slaughtering fattened pigs for the winter. This tradition has given way to the popular saying "A cada cerdo le llega su San Martín", which translates as "Every pig gets its St Martin." The phrase is used to indicate that wrongdoers eventually get their comeuppance.

Sint Maarten / Saint Martin

In Saint Martin, November 11 is commemorated as the date when Spanish explorer Christopher Columbus, on his second journey into Antillean waters, landed on the island in 1493, naming it “Saint Martin.” It is a public holiday on both sides to commemorate this event.

Sweden

St Martin’s Day was an important medieval autumn feast, and the custom of eating goose spread to Sweden from France. In early November, geese are ready for slaughter, and on St. Martin's Eve (Mårtensafton), November 10, it is time for the traditional dinner of roast goose. The custom is particularly popular in Skåne in southern Sweden, where goose farming has long been practised, but it has gradually spread northwards. A proper goose dinner also includes svartsoppa (a heavily spiced soup made from geese blood) and apple charlotte. [19]

Switzerland

Its celebration has mainly remained a tradition in the Swiss Catholic region of the Ajoie in the canton of Jura. The traditional gargantuan feast, the Repas du Saint Martin, includes all the parts of freshly butchered pigs, accompanied by shots of Damassine, and lasting for at least 5 hours.

United States

In the United States, St. Martin's Day celebrations are uncommon, and when they do happen, reflect the cultural heritage of a local community.

Many German restaurants feature a traditional menu with goose and gluhwein (a mulled red wine). St. Paul, Minnesota celebrates with a traditional lantern procession around Rice Park. The evening includes German treats and traditions that highlight the season of giving. [20] In Dayton, Ohio the Dayton Liederkranz-Turner organization hosts a St. Martin's Family Celebration on the weekend before with an evening lantern parade to the singing of St. Martin's carols, followed by a bonfire. [21] Phoenix, Arizona carries out an annual traditional German lantern procession at the MacDonald‘s Ranch in Scottsdale.

Other customs

The Auvergne region of central France traditionally hosts horse fairs on St. Martin’s Day.

Carnival

In German-speaking Europe and the Netherlands, the carnival season traditionally opens on 11 November.

In art

Pieter Bruegel the Elder's physically largest painting is The Wine of Saint Martin's Day, which depicts the saint giving charity.

There is a closely similar painting by Peeter Baltens, which can be seen here: File:Sint Maartenskermis. Rijksmuseum SK-A-860.jpeg .

Armistice Day

'Armistice Day' (also known as 'Remembrance Day' and 'Veterans Day') is on 11 November and commemorates the armistice signed between the Allies of World War I and Germany at Compiègne, France, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the morning — the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918.

Freeing of the Prussian serfs

The edict of 9 October 1807, one of the first and central reforms of Baron Heinrich vom Stein's Prussian reforms, liberated all the Prussian peasants by 11 November 1810 at the latest. This edict began the process of abolishing serfdom and its hereditary character.

See also

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Saint Lucy's Day, also called the Feast of Saint Lucy, is a Christian feast day celebrated on 13 December in Advent, commemorating Saint Lucy, a 3rd-century martyr under the Diocletianic Persecution, who according to legend brought "food and aid to Christians hiding in the catacombs" using a candle-lit wreath to "light her way and leave her hands free to carry as much food as possible". Her feast once coincided with the Winter Solstice, the shortest day of the year before calendar reforms, so her feast day has become a Christian festival of light. Falling within the Advent season, Saint Lucy's Day is viewed as an event signaling the arrival of Christmastide, pointing to the arrival of the Light of Christ in the calendar, on Christmas Day.

Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country. Christmas celebrations for many nations include the installing and lighting of Christmas trees, the hanging of Advent wreaths, Christmas stockings, candy canes, setting out cookies and milk, and the creation of Nativity scenes depicting the birth of Jesus Christ. Christmas carols may be sung and stories told about such figures as the Baby Jesus, St Nicholas, Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Christkind or Grandfather Frost. The sending and exchange of Christmas card greetings, observance of fasting and special religious observances such as a midnight Mass or Vespers on Christmas Eve, the burning of a Yule log, and the giving and receiving of presents. Along with Easter, Christmas is one of the most important periods on the Christian calendar, and is often closely connected to other holidays at this time of year, such as Advent, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, St Nicholas Day, St. Stephen's Day, New Year's, and the Feast of the Epiphany.

Lohri bonfire night festival before Maghi (Makar Sankranti)

Lohri is a Punjabi folk festival, celebrated primarily by Sikhs and Hindus from the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, celebrated on 13 January of every year. The significance and legends about the Lohri festival are many and these link the festival to the Punjab region. Many people believe the festival commemorates the passing of the winter solstice. Lohri marks the end of winter, and is a traditional welcome of longer days and sun's journey to the northern hemisphere by Sikhs and Hindus in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent. It is observed the night before Makar Sankranti, also known as Maghi, and according to the solar part of the lunisolar Bikrami calendar and typically falls about the same date every year ..

Saint Catherines Day

Saint Catherine's Day is 25 November. It has retained its popularity throughout the centuries. It commemorates the martyrdom of Saint Catherine of Alexandria, one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers.

San Esteban de la Sierra Municipality in Castile and León, Spain

San Esteban de la Sierra is a village and municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon. It is located 65 kilometres from the provincial capital city of Salamanca and has a population of 340 people.

The magosto is a traditional festival in some areas of northern Spain, such as Galicia, Cantabria, Asturias and the provinces of León, Zamora and Salamanca and Cáceres. Castanyada in Catalan, the festival is also celebrated across Catalonia on both sides of the French-Spanish border. It is a popular party in Portugal, where it is called magusto. It has also spread internationally as chestnut party.

Bonfire Night Annual event dedicated to bonfires, fireworks and celebrations

Bonfire Night is a name given to various annual celebrations characterised by bonfires and fireworks. The event celebrates different traditions on different dates, depending on the country. Some of the most popular instances include Guy Fawkes Night in Great Britain, which is also celebrated in some Commonwealth countries; Northern Ireland's Eleventh Night, and 5 November in Newfoundland and Labrador. In various parts of Ireland, Bonfire Nights are held on St John's Eve, Bealtaine eve and Halloween. In Scandinavia it is known as Walpurgis Night. St John's Eve is also a very important celebration in Spain and Northern Portugal. Several other cultures also include night-time celebrations involving bonfires and/or fireworks.

Laternelaufenpronounced [laˈtɛʁnəˌlaʊ̯fn̩] is a German tradition for the time around St. Martin's Day. On 11 November children walk along the streets holding colourful, often self-made lanterns. Laternelaufen is slightly competing with Halloween, but they are different enough to coexist.

Kekri, also known as Keyri, Köyri, Köyry and Kööri, is an old annual Finnish society-fashioned harvest festival, celebrated in the fall. The recognition and celebrations of Kekri were stronger when Finland was still an agricultural society, and prior to the modern Christmas culture and traditions being embedded in the Finnish society. Historically, Kekri has also referred to a god.

English festivals are the Christian and secular festivals that are traditionally celebrated in England. Most festivals are observed throughout England but some, such as Oak Apple Day, Souling, Rushbearing, Bawming the Thorn and Hocktide are local to certain regions.

References

  1. Bulik, Mark (1 January 2015). The Sons of Molly Maguire: The Irish Roots of America's First Labor War. Fordham University Press. p. 43. ISBN   9780823262243.
  2. Carlyle, Thomas (11 November 2010). The Works of Thomas Carlyle. Cambridge University Press. p. 356. ISBN   9781108022354.
  3. George C. Homans, English Villagers of the Thirteenth Century, 2nd ed. 1991, "The Husbandman's year" p355f.
  4. Sulpicius, ch 2 CSBSJU.edu
  5. 1 2 "St. Martin’s Day traditions honor missionary", Kaiserlautern American, 7 November 2008
  6. [httpsto supported sites ://www.germansociety.org/event_stmartin.html "Saint Martin's Day Parade", German Society of Pennsylvania]
  7. Philip H. Pfatteicher, Journey into the Heart of God (Oxford University Press 2013 ISBN   978-0-19999714-5)
  8. "Saint Martin's Lent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  9. Lilja, Agneta. "St Martin's Day - or 'Martin Goose'", Sweden.SE
  10. For instance, in Hugh Johnson, Vintage: The Story of Wine 1989, p 97.
  11. "Autumn Feast of St. Martin", Austrian Tourism Board
  12. Thomson, George William. Peeps At Many Lands: Belgium, Library of Alexandria, 1909
  13. "St. Martin’s Day Celebrations in Maribor", Slovenian Tourist Board
  14. "St. Martin’s Day specials at Prague restaurants", Prague Post, 11 November 2011
  15. 1 2 "Celebrating St. Martin's Day on November 11", German Missions in the United States Archived 2012-01-06 at the Wayback Machine
  16. Gangi, Roberta. "The Joys of St Martin's Summer", Best of Sicily Magazine, 2010
  17. "St. Martin's Day Celebrations"
  18. Leite de Vasconcelos, Opúsculos Etnologia — volumes VII, Lisboa, Imprensa Nacional, 1938
  19. "Mårten Gås", Sweden.SE
  20. "St. Martin's Day", St. Paul Star Tribune, November 5, 2015
  21. q=node/658 "St. Martin’s Day Family Celebration", Dayton Liederkranz-Turner

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