|, TRP1, TRY1, TRY4, TRYP1, Trypsin 1, protease, serine 1, serine protease 1|
Trypsin-1, also known as cationic trypsinogen, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRSS1 gene. Trypsin-1 is the main isoform of trypsinogen secreted by pancreas, the others are trypsin-2 (anionic trypsinogen), and trypsin-3 (meso-trypsinogen).
This gene encodes a trypsinogen, which is a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. This enzyme is secreted by the pancreas and cleaved to its active form in the small intestine. It is active on peptide linkages involving the carboxyl group of lysine or arginine. Mutations in this gene are associated with hereditary pancreatitis. This gene and several other trypsinogen genes are localized to the T cell receptor beta locus on chromosome 7.
Its malfunction acts in an autosomal dominant manner to cause pancreatitis. Many mutations that can lead to pancreatitis have been found.An example is a mutation at Arg 117. Arg 117 is a trypsin-sensitive site which can be cleaved by another trypsin and becomes inactivated. This site may be a fail-safe mechanism by which trypsin, when activated within the pancreas, may become inactivated. Mutation at this cleavage site would result in a loss of control and permit autodigestion, causing pancreatitis.
Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins. Trypsin is formed in the small intestine when its proenzyme form, the trypsinogen produced by the pancreas, is activated. Trypsin cuts peptide chains mainly at the carboxyl side of the amino acids lysine or arginine. It is used for numerous biotechnological processes. The process is commonly referred to as trypsin proteolysis or trypsinization, and proteins that have been digested/treated with trypsin are said to have been trypsinized. Trypsin was discovered in 1876 by Wilhelm Kühne and was named from the Ancient Greek word for rubbing since it was first isolated by rubbing the pancreas with glycerin.
Trypsinogen is the precursor form of trypsin, a digestive enzyme. It is produced by the pancreas and found in pancreatic juice, along with amylase, lipase, and chymotrypsinogen. It is cleaved to its active form, trypsin, by enteropeptidase, which is found in the intestinal mucosa. Once activated, the trypsin can cleave more trypsinogen into trypsin, a process called autoactivation. Trypsin cleaves the peptide bond on the carboxyl side of basic amino acids such as arginine and lysine.
Enteropeptidase is an enzyme produced by cells of the duodenum and is involved in digestion in humans and other animals. Enteropeptidase converts trypsinogen into its active form trypsin, resulting in the subsequent activation of pancreatic digestive enzymes. Absence of enteropeptidase results in intestinal digestion impairment.
Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is an inflammation of the pancreas due to genetic causes. It was first described in 1952 by Comfort and Steinberg but it was not until 1996 that Whitcomb et al isolated the first responsible mutation in the trypsinogen gene (PRSS1) on the long arm of chromosome seven (7q35).
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This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.