Women's boxing

Last updated

Boxing
2017-12-02 Tina Rupprecht - Anne Sophie Da Costa - DSC2902.jpg
Anne Sophie Da Costa and Tina Rupprecht boxing, 2017
Also known asPugilism
Focus Punching, Striking
Olympic sportYes, as of the 2012 Olympics

Although women have participated in boxing for almost as long as the sport has existed, female fights have been effectively outlawed for most of boxing's history, with athletic commissioners refusing to sanction or issue licenses to women boxers, and most nations officially banning the sport. [1] [2] [3] Reports of women entering the ring go back to the 18th century. [4]

Contents

History

Louise Adler, female lightweight world boxing champion of the 1920s, training for her title defense Vrouwelijke bokskampioen - Female boxing champion (3337917616).jpg
Louise Adler, female lightweight world boxing champion of the 1920s, training for her title defense

Women's boxing goes back at least to the early 18th century, when Elizabeth Wilkinson fought in London. Billing herself as the European Championess, she fought both men and women. In those days, the rules of boxing allowed kicking, gouging and other methods of attack not part of today's arsenal. [5]

During the 1920s, Professor Andrew Newton formed a Women's Boxing Club in London. [6] However women's boxing was hugely controversial. In early 1926, Shoreditch borough council banned an arranged exhibition match between boxers Annie Newton and Madge Baker, a student of Digger Stanley. [7] [8] [9] An attempt to hold the match in nearby Hackney instead was defeated by a campaign led by the Mayor of Hackney, who wrote "I regard this proposed exhibition of women boxers as a gratification of the sensual ideals of a crowd of vulgar men." [9] The Home Secretary Sir William Joynson-Hicks was among those opposing the match, claiming "the Legislature never imagined that such a disgraceful exhibition would have been staged in this country." [7] The story was reported across the country [10] and even internationally. [11]

Women's boxing first appeared in the Olympic Games at a demonstration bout in 1904. Its revival was pioneered by the Swedish Amateur Boxing Association, which sanctioned events for women in 1988. The British Amateur Boxing Association sanctioned its first boxing competition for women in 1997. The first event was to be between two thirteen-year-olds, but one of the boxers withdrew because of hostile media attention. Four weeks later, an event was held between two sixteen-year-olds. One named Susan MacGregor (Laurenckirk, Aberdeenshire) and the other Joanne Cawthorne (Peterhead, Aberdeenshire). The International Boxing Association (amateur) accepted new rules for Women's Boxing at the end of the 20th century and approved the first European Cup for Women in 1999 and the first World Championship for women in 2001. [12] In 1197, Jenifer Simpson saw her way onto the spotlight.

Women's boxing was not featured at the 2008 Olympics; however, on 14 August 2009, it was announced that the International Olympic Committee's Executive Board (EB) had approved the inclusion of women's boxing for the Games in London in the 2012 Olympics, [13] [14] [15] contrary to the expectations of some observers. Around these (2009) hearings, in conjunction with AIBA (International Boxing Association), the International Olympic Committee agreed to include three additional women's weight classes to the 2012 London Olympic Games. However, a new "gender-appropriate" women's boxing uniform was in the works, this would require women (under AIBA rules) to wear skirts during competition.Traditional gender role sentiment was prominent to the news of women and skirts. To include top armature coaches, who have been documented stating, "Women are made for beauty and not to take blows to the head" and "By wearing skirts…it gives a good impression, a womanly impression". The issue was widely ignored till amateur boxer and London student Elizbeth Plank, brought light to the issue and created a petition at Change.com to end this sex-based mandatory uniforms. [16]

Although women fought professionally in many countries, in the United Kingdom the B.B.B.C. refused to issue licences to women until 1998. [17] By the end of the century, however, they had issued five such licenses. The first sanctioned bout between women was in November 1998 at Streatham in London, between Jane Couch and Simona Lukic. [18] [19]

Renata Cristina Dos Santos Ferreira punches Adriana Salles, Sao Paulo, Brazil (2006) Women boxing.jpg
Renata Cristina Dos Santos Ferreira punches Adriana Salles, São Paulo, Brazil (2006)

In October 2001 the 2001 Women's World Amateur Boxing Championships were held in Scranton, The United States. [20]

International Olympic Committee (IOC) president Jacques Rogge announced that it would be an Olympic sport at the 2012 Games in London. [21] [22]

Women were allowed to competitively box for the first time at the Olympics during the 2012 Summer Olympics, producing the world's first 12 female Olympic medalist boxers. [23] [24] [25] [26]

In 2015 the World Boxing Federation unified various women's titles to have one title holder. [27]

History in the US

Bennett sisters boxing, c.1910-1915 Bennett sisters boxing.jpg
Bennett sisters boxing, c.1910-1915
Lucia Rijker and Jane Couch boxing, 2003 LuciaRijker.jpg
Lucia Rijker and Jane Couch boxing, 2003

Barbara Buttrick was the first televised boxing match between two women on television and radio. [28]

During the 1970s, a popular female boxer named Cathy 'Cat' Davis came out of the United States Northwest, and a few of her fights were televised. Cathy Davis was the female boxer to appear on the cover of Ring Magazine. But a scandal broke out where it was said that some of her fights had been fixed. Marian “Tyger” Trimiar and Jackie Tonawanda were pioneers as they were the first women in the United States to get a license for boxing in the United States. [29] [30] [31]

During the 1980s, women's boxing briefly resurfaced in California under the wings of sisters Dora and Cora Webber. The twin sisters were world champions and packed crunching punching power and a good chin. Women took hunger strikes to be noticed [32]

But the boom of women's boxing came during the 1990s, coinciding with the boom in professional women sports leagues such as the WNBA and WUSA, and with boxers such as Stephanie Jaramillo, Delia 'Chikita' Gonzalez, Laura Serrano, Christy Martin, Deirdre Gogarty, Laila Ali, Jackie Frazier-Lyde, Lucia Rijker, Ada Vélez, Ivonne Caples, Bonnie Canino and Sumya Anani, all world champions, jumping into the scene. [33] [34] [35] [36] [37]

Women's boxing has experienced more television and media exposure, including the major motion picture Million Dollar Baby . There are a few organizations that recognize world championship bouts, and fights are held in more than 100 countries. [38]

Although positive strides in recent years have been made to women's boxing, reports of sex-based harassment [39] in boxing gyms and tournaments across the United Kingdom and the United States remain. In addition to harassment and unfair policy, women have also been grossly under-promoted or sponsored in the professional rankings. [40] [16] Major boxing broadcasting networks such as HBO and P.B.C have yet to feature a woman's headlining bout. [41] In a recent press conference, 2x Olympic Gold medalist Claressa Shields stated, "All the respect to all the women that box, we have more than one fight… [we are] fighting for equal pay and equal time on T.V… we don’t get enough sponsorships or endorsements as the men". [42]

On 16 April 1992, after eight years in court in Massachusetts, Gail Grandchamp won her battle to become a boxer, as a state Superior Court judge ruled it was illegal to deny someone a chance to box based on gender. [43] During her battle to win the right to box as an amateur, she passed the age of 36, the maximum age for amateur fighters. Even though she knew it would not help her as an amateur, Grandchamp continued her efforts, and eventually did box professionally for a time. [44] [45] [46] [47]

Professional women's boxing has declined in popularity in the United States and struggles to get viewership and sponsorship and many fighters have to fight in Mexico or Europe in order to make a good living. [48] [49] [34] [50] Amongst females, the sport has been supplanted by Women's MMA. [34] [51] [52]

Africa

Women's boxing in Benin DEGAN Gabin ( female boxing).jpg
Women's boxing in Benin

Women's boxing is not as common as in western countries. [53] Esther Phiri is one of the more prominent champions [54]

Argentina

In Argentina, women's boxing has experienced a notable rise in popularity, due in part to the presence of boxers such as Alejandra Oliveras, Marcela Acuna, Yesica Bopp and Erica Farias. [55]

Australia

Women's boxing in Australia has a small following in the country.

Bulgaria

There professional boxing, physical therapist and actress, Dessislava Kirova better known as Daisy "The Lady" Lang. Along with other competitors, Stanimira Petrova and Stoyka Petrova.

India

The 2006 Women's World Amateur Boxing Championships was hosted by India from November 2006 in New Delhi wherein India won four gold, one silver and three bronze medals.

Mary Kom is a five-time World Amateur Boxing champion. She is the only woman boxer to have won a medal in each one of the six world championships. [56]

Three Indian female boxers, namely, Pinki Jangra, Mary Kom and Kavita Chahal were placed in the world's top three in AIBA world rankings (1 March 2014) in their respective categories. [57]

Mexico

The sport is growing in Mexico. Boxing is one of the top spectators sports in Mexico. Similar to soccer, boxing inspires pride that directly translates to Mexican nationalism. Male boxers have been seen in Mexico as icons and are hugely celebrated by fans in international competitions. Despite the popularity of boxing in Mexico, women weren't allowed to participate in professional matches, due to a bill enacted in 1947 that banned female professional matches. [58] In 20 April 1995 Law student Laura Serrano became the first Mexican woman to win a boxing world title (WIBF lightweight title). Later in 1998 Serrano was supposed to fight in Mexico city, but the Legislative Assembly of the Mexico City used the 1947 female boxing ban to cancel the match. It wasn't until 1999, that women’s professional boxing became legal in Mexico City after Serrano, brought a lawsuit against the boxing regulations that banned women from the practice, as the ban infringed equality rights, the Legislative Assembly of Mexico City was then to permanently remove the ban. [59] A small sector of female boxers began to develop in spite of the scarcity of training facilities, the open hostility of their male counterparts, and the scarcity of tournaments and fights open to women. Women in Mexico had to fight the social stigma of female fighters. However, Mexico has produced a number of female fighters who previously and currently hold world titles. Some notable female boxers from Mexico are Jackie Nava, Irma Sánchez, Kenia Enriquez and Alejandra Jiménez. In 2005 Jackie "The Aztec" Nava was the first woman ever to win a female world title fight sanction by the WBC. [60] As a result of her ground breaking achievement Jackie Nava is alongside Serrano one of the women who is credited with opening the door for the next generation of female boxers in Mexico through empowerment. [61] [62] [63] [58] [64] [65]

Russia

First introduced in the Soviet Union, the women's boxing has been growing in popularity for the last 50 years. Since the introduction of the women's boxing to the Olympic programme, Russian female fighters have won two silver medals (2012) and one bronze.

Differences between men and women's boxing guidelines

As of 2017, the only differences between men's and women's boxing are the ones related to boxer safety.

As stated by the AIBA Technical Rules and Competition Rules:

- head guards are necessary for female boxers of any age;

- breast guard is advised for female fighters in addition to pubic (crotch) guard;

- pregnant sportswomen are not allowed to engage in combat.

In cinema

Anime

See also

Related Research Articles

Boxing Full contact combat sport

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves and other protective equipment such as hand wraps and mouthguards, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring.

World Boxing Organization Sanctioning organization which recognizes professional boxing world champions

The World Boxing Organization (WBO) is an organization which sanctions professional boxing bouts. It is recognized by the International Boxing Hall of Fame (IBHOF) as one of the four major world championship groups, alongside the World Boxing Association (WBA), World Boxing Council (WBC), and International Boxing Federation (IBF). The WBO's headquarters are located in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Amateur boxing Boxing by non-professionals

Amateur boxing is a variant of boxing practised at the collegiate level, at the Olympic Games, Pan American Games and Commonwealth Games, as well as many associations.

The Val Barker Trophy is presented every four years to the most "outstanding boxer" at the Olympic Games. In theory, the award goes to the top "pound for pound" boxer in the Olympics. The winner is selected by a committee of International Boxing Association (amateur) (AIBA) officials. The trophy is named after British boxer Val Barker who won the Amateur Boxing Association of England (ABA) heavyweight title in 1891, before becoming the secretary of the AIBA between 1926 and 1929.

Katie Taylor Irish boxer and association footballer

Katie Taylor is an Irish professional boxer and former footballer. She is a two-weight world champion and the current undisputed lightweight champion, having held the WBA title since 2017; the IBF title since 2018; and the WBC, WBO, and Ring magazine titles since 2019, as well as having held the WBO junior-welterweight title in 2019. Following her victory over Delfine Persoon in 2019, she became one of only eight boxers in history to hold all four major world titles in boxing—WBA, WBC, IBF, and WBO—simultaneously. Her first victory over Persoon in 2019, also gained her recognition as the inaugural lightweight lineal champion.

Mary Kom Indian boxer

Mangte Chungneijang Mary Kom is an Indian amateur boxer, politician, and incumbent Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha. She is the only female to become World Amateur Boxing champion for a record six times, the only female boxer to have won a medal in each one of the first seven World Championships, and the only boxer to win eight World Championship medals. Nicknamed Magnificent Mary, she is the only Indian female boxer to have qualified for the 2012 Summer Olympics, competing in the flyweight (51 kg) category and winning a bronze medal. She had also been ranked as the world's No. 1 female light-flyweight by the International Boxing Association (amateur) (AIBA). She became the first Indian female boxer to win a gold medal in the Asian Games in 2014 at Incheon, South Korea and is the first Indian female boxer to win gold at the 2018 Commonwealth Games. She is also the only boxer to become Asian Amateur Boxing Champion for a record six times.

Cecilia Brækhus Norwegian boxer

Cecilia Carmen Linda Brækhus is a Norwegian professional boxer and former kickboxer. She is widely regarded as one of the greatest female boxers of all time. In boxing she reigned as the undisputed female welterweight champion from 2014 to 2020, and is the first woman in any weight class to hold the WBA, WBC, IBF and WBO titles simultaneously. She is also one of only eight boxers in history, female or male, to hold all four major world titles simultaneously, along with Bernard Hopkins (2004–2005), Jermain Taylor (2005), Terence Crawford (2017), Oleksandr Usyk (2018–2019), Claressa Shields (2019–2020), Katie Taylor (2019–), and Jessica McCaskill (2020–). In 2016, she captured the IBO title, becoming the first ever boxer to hold five world titles from sanctioning bodies simultaneously.

Boxing at the 2012 Summer Olympics Boxing competitions

The boxing tournaments at the 2012 Olympic Games in London were held from 28 July to 12 August at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre.

Weight class (boxing) Measurement weight range for boxers

In boxing, a weight class is a measurement weight range for boxers. The lower limit of a weight class is equal to the upper weight limit of the class below it. The top class, with no upper limit, is called heavyweight in professional boxing and super heavyweight in amateur boxing. A boxing match is usually scheduled for a fixed weight class, and each boxer's weight must not exceed the upper limit. Although professional boxers may fight above their weight class, an amateur boxer's weight must not fall below the lower limit. A nonstandard weight limit is called a catchweight.

Natasha Jonas is a British professional boxer who challenged for the WBC and IBO female super-featherweight titles in August 2020. As an amateur, she won a bronze medal in the lightweight division at the 2012 AIBA World Championships; bronze in the light welterweight division at the 2011 European Championships; and silver in the light welterweight division at the 2014 European Championships.

Nicola Adams British boxer

Nicola Adams is a British former professional boxer who competed from 2017 to 2019. She retired with an undefeated record and held the WBO female flyweight title in 2019. As an amateur, she became the first female boxer to become an Olympic champion after winning gold at London 2012, and the first double Olympic champion following a second gold medal at Rio 2016, both in the flyweight division. As of 27 May 2016 she was the reigning Olympic, World and European Games champion at flyweight, and won the entire set of amateur championships available to her - Olympic, Commonwealth and European Games' titles, and the World, European and European Union championships.

Amanda Serrano Puerto Rican boxer and mixed martial artist

Amanda Serrano is a Puerto Rican professional boxer, mixed martial artist and professional wrestler. As a boxer, she is the unified featherweight world champion, having held the WBO title since 2019; the WBC title since February 2021; and the IBO title since March 2021. She is the only female, and Puerto Rican, to win world titles in more than four weight classes, and holds the Guinness World Record for the most boxing world championships won in different weight-classes by a female, having held 9 major world titles across seven different weight classes. Her older sister, Cindy, is also a professional boxer. The pair became the first sisters to hold world titles from major sanctioning bodies at the same time after Cindy won the WBO featherweight title in 2016.

Claressa Shields American boxer

Claressa Maria Shields is an American professional boxer and mixed martial artist. She has held multiple world championships in three weight classes, including the undisputed female light middleweight title since March 2021; the undisputed female middleweight title from 2019 to 2020; and the unified WBC and IBF female super middleweight titles from 2017 to 2018. Shields currently holds the record for becoming a two and three-weight world champion in the fewest professional fights. As of November 2020, she is ranked as the world's best active female light middleweight by The Ring and BoxRec, as well as the best active female boxer, pound for pound, by Lineal Boxing Champion and ESPN, second by The Ring, and fourth by BoxRec.

Marlen Esparza American boxer

Marlen Esparza is an American professional boxer who challenged for the WBA interim female flyweight title in 2019. As an amateur she became the first American woman to qualify for the Olympics in the first year that women's boxing was an Olympic event, going on to win a bronze medal in the women's flyweight division at the 2012 Olympics in London.

Savannah Marshall English boxer

Savannah Rose Marshall is a British professional boxer who has held the WBO female middleweight title since October 2020. As an amateur, she became the first British female world champion after securing gold at the 2012 World Championships. She has been nicknamed as the 'Silent Assassin' due to her shyness. As of October 2020, she is ranked as the world's second best active female middleweight by BoxRec and the fifth best active super-middleweight by The Ring.

Michael Conlan (boxer) Irish boxer

Michael John Conlan is an Irish professional boxer. As an amateur, he reached number one in the AIBA bantamweight world rankings, with achievements that include a bronze medal at the 2012 Olympics and gold at the 2015 World Championships. He has been one of Ireland's most successful amateur fighters of all time. He turned professional in 2016 after misgivings with the amateur sport, and had his first bout in 2017.

Elena Savelyeva is a Russian world champion boxer, and European champion.

Boxing at the 2016 Summer Olympics Boxing competitions

The boxing tournaments at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro took place from 6 to 21 August 2016 at the Pavilion 6 of Riocentro.

Jessica McCaskill is an American professional boxer. She is a two-weight world champion, having held the undisputed, and IBO female welterweight titles since 2020; the WBC female super lightweight title from 2018 to 2020; and the WBA female super lightweight title from 2019 to 2020. She also challenged for the WBA lightweight title in 2017. As of September 2020, she is ranked as the world's best active female welterweight by Lineal Boxing Champion,The Ring and BoxRec, and the third best active female, pound for pound, by Lineal Boxing Champion, BoxRec, and fourth by The Ring and ESPN. McCaskill is one of only two women in the modern, post-Olympic era of women's boxing, to win lineal championships in two weight classes.

Chantelle Cameron is a British professional boxer. She is a two-weight world champion, having held the WBC female light-welterweight title since 2020 and the IBO female lightweight title from 2017 to 2019. As an amateur, she won a silver medal in the light-welterweight division at the 2010 EU Championships in Keszthely, Hungary, and a bronze in the lightweight division at the 2011 EU Championships in Katowice, Poland, losing to Ireland's Katie Taylor in the semi-finals. As of October 2020, she is ranked as the world's best active female light-welterweight by BoxRec, and third best active female lightweight and light-welterweight by The Ring.

References

  1. "The Martial Chronicles: Fighting Like a Girl". Bloody Elbow. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  2. Jason Rodrigues. "Women boxers to make Olympic history in city that once shunned them | Sport". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  3. Woodward, Kath (28 July 2010). "BBC Sport - Women in boxing over the years". BBC News. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  4. Brown, Sarah (2014). "Against the Ropes". Bitch Magazine. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  5. "Honoring Women's Labor: Elizabeth Wilkinson-Stokes, 18th Century Boxer!". Girlboxing. 5 September 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  6. "Formation of the contemporary women's boxing" . Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  7. 1 2 "WOMEN's BOXING BOUTS ABANDONED Promoter Yields to Public Opinion". Hackney and Kingsland Gazette. 1 February 1926.
  8. Norris, H.C. (4 April 1926). "She Wants to FIGHT Jack Dempsey!". Zanesville Times Signal. Zanesville . Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  9. 1 2 "WOMEN BOXERS Proposed Bouts With Men". Hackney and Kingsland Gazette. 29 January 1926.
  10. "WOMEN BOXERS". Western Daily Press. 30 January 1926.
  11. Brown, Norman (4 February 1926). "Sports Done Brown". Sarasota Herald Tribune. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  12. "Women's Boxing". Insidethegames.biz. 25 September 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  13. Rachel Dixon. "The rise of women boxers | Life and style". The Guardian . Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  14. "Women's Boxing Olympic place a victory 'for justice and equality'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  15. "Olympic News - Official Source of Olympic News". Olympic.org. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  16. 1 2 Paradis, Elise (24 May 2012). "Boxers, Briefs or Bras? Bodies, Gender and Change in the Boxing Gym". Body & Society. 18 (2): 82–109. doi:10.1177/1357034x12440829. ISSN   1357-034X. S2CID   146627642.
  17. "Sport | Round one for women's boxing". BBC News. 24 November 1998. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  18. "Sport | Women's boxing makes instant impact". BBC News. 25 November 1998. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  19. "Boxing: First Night Jane Couch - Women face an even bigger fight". 29 November 1998. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  20. "Women's boxing is in safe hands with the new generation after fighting its way back from a sordid past". 27 March 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  21. "BBC SPORT | Olympics | Women's boxing gains Olympic spot". BBC News. 13 August 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  22. Nolan, Hamilton (3 August 2012). "Marlen Esparza, Queen Underwood, Claressa Shields: Women boxers are about to become huge stars. Can that last after the Olympics?". Slate.com. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  23. "Women's boxing gains Olympic spot". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  24. Park, Alice (9 August 2012). "Olympic Women's Boxing Has Its First Champions, and a Generation of Girls Have New Role Models | TIME.com". Olympics.time.com. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  25. "Women Finally Get Their Chance to Be Contenders in Olympic Boxing". The New York Times . Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  26. "Nicola Adams becomes first ever winner of an Olympic women's boxing tournament". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  27. "WBF | World Boxing Federation". Worldboxingfederation.net. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
  28. "A Pioneer of Women's Boxing Looks Back on a Lifetime of Battles - Broadly" . Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  29. Kates, Brian (24 June 2003). "PRETTIER THAN MEN Cat Davis vs. Floyd Patterson Chapter 104". The New York Daily News . Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  30. "Women Try Boxing on the Coast". The New York Times . Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  31. "Women Have Been Boxing in the Shadows for Too Long". The New York Times. 15 August 2016.
  32. Leigh Behrens (19 April 1987). "Boxer Hungry For Recognition - tribunedigital-chicagotribune". Articles.chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  33. "ESPN.com: BOXING - Women's boxing becoming a real joke". A.espncdn.com. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  34. 1 2 3 Smith, Malissa (2014). A History of Women's Boxing. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 263. ISBN   9781442229952 . Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  35. Brown, Sarah (13 May 2014). "Against the Ropes". Bitchmedia.org. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  36. "The Real Knockouts of Women's Boxing". The Atlantic. 16 January 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  37. "A Ring of One's Own". The New Yorker. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
  38. "COLUMN ONE : Striking a Blow for Equality : Dallas Malloy has won her fight to be America's first sanctioned female amateur boxer. The scrappy 16-year-old knows the rewards of blood, sweat and a killer instinct". Los Angeles Times. 18 October 1993. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  39. K., Bosson, Jennifer (27 February 2018). The psychology of sex and gender. Vendello, Joseph A.,, Buckner, Camille E. Thousand Oaks, California. ISBN   9781506331324. OCLC   1004248895.
  40. Halbert, Christy (February 1997). "Tough Enough and Woman Enough". Journal of Sport and Social Issues. 21 (1): 7–36. doi:10.1177/019372397021001002. ISSN   0193-7235. S2CID   145750125.
  41. Lowe, Jaime (15 August 2016). "Women Have Been Boxing in the Shadows for Too Long". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  42. "CLARESSA SHIELDS CORRECTS EDDIE HEARN; TELLS HANNAH RANKIN WHAT PUNCH SHE'LL "PUT HER DOWN" WITH" . Retrieved 6 October 2018.
  43. "ESPN.com: BOXING - Historical Events in Women's Boxing". Assets.espn.go.com. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  44. "Grandchamp, Local Boxing Legend, Ready to Film Life Story / iBerkshires.com - The Berkshires online guide to events, news and Berkshire County community information". Iberkshires.com. 17 July 1987. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  45. "A Fighter's Passion for Her Olympic Dream". Globenewswire.com. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  46. Rosenwald, Julius (17 July 1987). "Boxer with a mission - Berkshire Eagle Online". Berkshireeagle.com. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  47. "The Grand Champ of Women's Boxing: A Massachusetts fighter opens the door to first-ever women's Olympic boxing". SCN. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  48. Raskin, Alex (6 July 2016). "Women's Boxing Fights for Exposure". The Wall Street Journal . Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  49. Paul Sullivan (17 August 1987). "These Women Go Toe-to-toe For Extra Dough - tribunedigital-chicagotribune". Articles.chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  50. "Female boxers' fight for survival in the US". Al Jazeera English. 10 November 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  51. "Women's boxing hopes to gain traction from Holly Holm's UFC victory over Ronda Rousey". LA Times. 8 February 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  52. "Examining the Growth and Popularity of Women's Mixed Martial Arts". Bleacher Report . Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  53. "Fight like a girl: the female boxers of the Democratic Republic of the Congo". 14 July 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2017 via The Guardian.
  54. Schatz, Joseph J. (4 August 2008). "Boxer Breaks Barriers for Women in Zambia". WSJ.com. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  55. Hernandez, Vladimir (2 July 2011). "Why Argentina is producing women boxing champions" . Retrieved 12 May 2017 via www.bbc.co.uk.
  56. "Magnificent Mary". I See India. 13 August 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  57. Marar, Nandakumar (6 March 2014). "Five Indian boxers in AIBA top three". The Hindu. ISSN   0971-751X . Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  58. 1 2 "SPORTS: Women Boxers in Mexico Winning Major Battle in the Ring - Inter Press Service". www.ipsnews.net. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  59. "Women's Boxing: Laura Serrano". www.womenboxing.com. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  60. C.V, DEMOS, Desarrollo de Medios, S. A. de (3 July 2009). "La Jornada: El boxeo femenil encara a diario a sus más duros rivales: el machismo y la discriminación". www.jornada.com.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  61. Faris Mustafa (1 June 2016). "Knockout: how female boxing is taking over Mexico - British Airways High Life". Highlife.ba.com. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  62. AVILA, DAVID A. "BOXING: West remains optimistic despite lack of willing fighters" . Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  63. "MEXICO: OFFICIALS BAN 2 WOMEN'S BOXING MATCHES - AP Archive". www.aparchive.com. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  64. Before we continue... - The Lily. (2019). Thelily.com. Retrieved 27 September 2019, from https://www.thelily.com/she-grew-up-throwing-punches-at-school-now-shes-shaping-tijuanas-womens-boxing-scene/
  65. Moreno H. (2015) Women Boxers and Nationalism in Mexico. In: L’Hoeste H.F., Irwin R.M., Poblete J. (eds) Sports and Nationalism in Latin/o America. New Directions in Latino American Cultures. Palgrave Macmillan, New York

Bibliography