Punchi Romaya (Little Rome), Meepura (City of Bees)
|• Type||Municipal Council|
|• Mayor||Dayan Lanza|
|• Urban||30 km2 (11.58 sq mi)|
|• Metro||34 km2 (13.12 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2 m (7 ft)|
|• Ethnic groups||Sinhalese Sri Lankan Tamils Sri Lankan Moors Sri Lankan Malays and Sri Lankan Chinese|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (Sri Lanka Standard Time Zone)|
Negombo (Sinhala : මීගමුව, romanized: Mīgamuva, Tamil : நீர்கொழும்பு, romanized: Nīrkoḻumpu) is a major city in Sri Lanka, situated on the west coast and at the mouth of the Negombo Lagoon, in Western Province, 38 km from Colombo via Colombo - Katunayake Expressway.
Negombo is one of the major commercial hubs in the country and the administrative centre of Negombo Division. Negombo has about 142,136 population within its divisional secretariat division.
Negombo is known for its long sandy beaches and centuries old fishing industry. Negombo has a large bilingual (Sinhala/Tamil) population with a clear Roman Catholic majority.
The name "Negombo" is the Portuguese corrupted name of its Tamil name Neerkolombu.
The Sinhala name Migamuva means "Village of the honeycomb", gaining its name from a legend mentioned in Rajaveliya.The army of King Kavantissa found bee honey in a canoe near the seashore, for Viharamahadevi who was pregnant with the prince Dutugamunu. Because of this, the place was named "Mee-Gomuwa".
The shallow waters of the Negombo Lagoon provided safe shelter for seafaring vessels and became one of the key ports along with Kalpitiya, Puttalam, Colombo, Kalutara and Galle, from which the Sri Lankan kingdoms conducted external trade.
The Jaffna kings who controlled greater parts of the North-west coast of Sri Lanka, built fortifications at Negombo, Colombo and Chilaw.The language used in and around Negombo was Tamil when the Portuguese colonisers arrived in the 16th century.
Negombo served also as a shelter for Arabic vessels, whose descendants are the Sri Lankan Moors.Negombo was a major port known for its trading activity and was well known for its cinnamon cultivation. The cinnamon trade was controlled by the Sri lankan kings and later by the Sri Lankan Moors.
Landing in the early 1500s, the Portuguese ousted the Jaffna Kingdom, constructed a fort in Negombo and took over the trade of cinnamon to the west.During the Portuguese occupation, the Karava (the dominant seafaring clan of Negombo), who were previously Buddhist and Hindu, embraced Catholicism. So successfully were they converted that today Negombo is sometimes known as 'Little Rome' and nearly two thirds of its population profess the Catholic faith.
The Portuguese restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon and maintained their control over the trade for more than a century. The decline of their power began in the 1630s when warfare between the Portuguese and the Kingdom of Kandy reached a stalemate. the King of Kandy turned to the Dutch for help.The Dutch captured Negombo from the Portuguese in 1646 and negotiated an armistice with Portugal for ten years. During this period the King of Kandy sought to provoke conflict between the nations by passing through the territories of the one to attack the other. On one occasion he captured the fort of Negombo and sent the head of the Dutch commander Adrian Vander Stell to his countrymen in Galle. Although the Dutch managed to regain control of Negombo from the King by diplomatic means, hostilities continued. In particular, the disruption of the cinnamon trade was a favourite method of the King to harass the Dutch.
The legacy of the Dutch colonial era can be seen in the Negombo fort, constructed in 1672, other Dutch buildings, churches and the extensive canal system that runs 120 km (75 mi) from Colombo in the south, through Negombo to Puttalam in the north.
Throughout the eighteenth century the demand for cinnamon from Ceylon outstripped the supply, and its quality appears to have suffered. Other factors, including the continued hostility from the Kandian government and a rival cinnamon trade from China, led to a 40% decline in the volume of cinnamon exported between 1785 and 1791. Despite attempts to clear land around Negombo and create cinnamon plantations, by the time the British commander Colonel Stuart took over the trade in 1796, it was clear that the industry was in decline. Poor policies put in place by Frederick North the first Governor of British Ceylon exacerbated the problem. By the 1830s commercial interest had moved elsewhere.
Following the British takeover of the Kingdom of Kandy in 1815, Negombo lost its strategic value as an outpost of Colombo. However it continued to develop in commercial influence. The Negombo fishery was at the heart of the seafood trade in Ceylon, and many migrant fisherman arrived annually with the profits of their ventures going into the small, prosperous town. In 1907 Negombo was connected to the massive railway project that was linking the island together under British control and encouraging the growth of plantations in coconuts, tea and coffee.
Negombo is about 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) above sea level, and Negombo's geography is a mix of land and water. The Dutch canal flows in the heart of the city. The lagoon is one of the most scenic landmarks of Negombo. There are over 190 species of wildlife and plenty of birds in its mangroves. The northern border of the city is formed by the Ma Oya river which meets the Indian Ocean.
Negombo features a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification. The city receives rainfall mainly from the Southwestern monsoons from May to August and October to January. During the remaining months there is a little precipitation due to Convective rains. The average annual precipitation is about 2,400 millimetres (94 in). The average temperature varies 24 °C (75 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F), and there are high humidity levels from February to April.
|Climate data for Negombo, Sri Lanka|
|Average high °C (°F)||30|
|Average low °C (°F)||22|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||89|
|[ citation needed ]|
Negombo Lagoon is large semi-enclosed coastal water body with plenty of natural resources. The lagoon is fed by number of small rivers and the Dutch canal. It is linked to the Indian Ocean by a narrow channel to the north, near Negombo city. The lagoon and the marsh land area also support local agriculture and forestry. It has extensive mangrove swamps and attracts a wide variety of water birds. The lagoon supports so many distinct species of flora, fauna and as well as another species of birds and variety of animals. Negombo Lagoon is a major local and tourist attraction primarily for sightseeing and boating tours.
The fishermen who are based at the Negombo lagoon live in abject poverty in shanty thatch palm villages along the water's edge. They rely mainly on their traditional knowledge of the seasons for their livelihood, using outrigger canoes carved out of tree trunks and nylon nets to bring in modest catches from September through April. Their boats are made in two forms – oruvas (a type of sailing canoe) and paruvas (a large, man-powered catamaran fitted with kurlon dividers). The men are regularly forced to head out to the ocean to fish, often losing money in the chartering process. In recent years, the villagers have supplemented the income earned from fishing by collecting 'toddy', or palm sap, which is used to brew arrack.
The Airport Expressway (E03) opened in 2013 links the capital Colombo through the Katunayake Interchange with Negombo city minimising travelling time to approximately 20 to 30 minutes.
There are highway bus services running between from Negombo to Galle and Matara (the southern tip of the country) using the Southern Expressway.
The A3 main road from Colombo, goes through Negombo, extends to Jaffna, and Trincomalee via Anuradhapura. Negombo is connected with some of the B grade roads, and there is a good road network in and around Negombo City.
The Bus Terminal complex of Negombo has multiple facilities for passengers and public. It is served by many bus routes, connecting with some major destinations in the country.
Due to Negombo being situated along A3 Main Road, it is served by many bus routes from Colombo to Northern and North western points of Sri Lanka including Jaffna, Vavuniya, Padaviya, Kilinochchi, Mullaitivu, Pulmude, Mannar, Kankasanthura, Point Pedro, Velvetithurai, Nikaweratiya, Panduwasnuwara, Anamaduwa and Silawathurai.
Four railway stations serve Negombo, they are: Kurana, Negombo Downtown, Kattuwa and Kochchikade. Negombo Downtown Station is the main railway station on the Puttalam railway line. It serves Panadura, via Colombo from south and to Puttalam, via Chilaw from north. The Sri Lanka Railway Department has introduced an intercity express train between Chilaw and Colombo with stops at Negombo Downtown and Kochchikade Stations.
The Negombo Downtown Station is close to the central Bus Terminal Complex. Negombo is the closest major city to the Bandaranaike International Airport.
According by the statistics of 2011, 6.3% of the population of Gampaha district live in Negombo city limits and 11.6% of the population of the district live in Negombo Metropolis.[ citation needed ] It is a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural city. Most of Negombo's residents belong to the Sinhalese majority. There are Tamil and Muslim people also living in the city. There is a local Sri Lankan Chinese community living in the city.
|Sri Lankan Moor||19,364||13.67%|
|Sri Lankan Tamil||12,590||8.89%|
|Sri Lankan Chetty||91||0.06%|
Negombo is a multi-religious city. Since the beginning of European colonization, the township of Negombo has had a majority of Roman Catholics along with Buddhists, Hindus and Muslims.
Negombo has been given the name Little Rome due to the highly ornate Portuguese-era Roman Catholic churches such as St. Mary's Church found in the township and because the majority are the Roman Catholics. St. Sebastian Church at Sea Street and Katuwapitiya, Saint Stephen’s Church, Negombo, Grand Street St.Mary's Church, St. Anne's churches at Kurana and Palangatura, St. Anthony's church Dalupotha and Our Lady of Sorrows Church, Kandawala are the biggest parishes in Negombo. There are over 25 Roman Catholic churches in the city.
There is a branch of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Negombo. The church building is just west of the intersection of Ave Maria street and Old Chilaw street. There are also Methodist churches, Baptist churches, and the other Anglican churches in Negombo.
Agurukaramulla Raja Maha Viharaya (Bodhirajaramaya) is a famous Buddhist temple bringing Buddhists from all over Sri Lanka to Negombo every year. Abhayasekararamaya temple (Podipansala), Sri Sudarshanaramaya, Dutugamunu viharaya and Sri Buddhagaya maha viharaya are famous Buddhist temples in the city.
There are many Hindu temples (Kovil) in Negombo: Kali Amman temple, Ganapathi (Pillaiar) Temple, Kamachchi Amman Temple, Muththumari Amman Temple, Murugan (Kandaswami) Temple, Karumari Amman Temple etc.
There are nine Jummah Mosques in Negombo. The Kamachchoda Jummah Masjid in Kamachchoda, Negombo is one of the oldest in Sri Lanka.[ citation needed ] Another old Msajid in Negombo is the Udayar Thoppuwa Mosque, Mirigama Road, Dheen Junction, Negombo which was built in 1846 by Maththicham Saleem Lebbe Muhammed Thamby Vidane and the old building which was built in 1846 is still in use.
Negombo City Local Board began in 1878. After 44 years, it became the Urban District Council on 1 January 1922. Negombo celebrated its silver jubilee of its Urban council status in grand style in February 1948. Their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester were the main patrons on the opening day of the celebrations. The Negombo Urban Council was offered Municipal status on 1 January 1950 under the municipal ordinance of 1865.
The Negombo Municipal Council has governed the city with a mayor from the government, since 1950. Negombo's mayor and the council members are elected through the local government election held every five years. There are 29 wards in the Negombo municipal boundary. Each is represented by an elected member, but [ when? ] there were only 26 members before the Local Government election held in 2018. The number of municipal councillors was increased to 48 according to new local government election system introduced in 2018. where 29 members are elected form wards and the rest form a preferential list.
In the Local Government Election held in 2018,United National Party Won the Negombo Municipal council led by former Western Provincial councillor Royce Fernando by securing 19 seats and Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna led By Dayan Lanza, brother of Nimal Lanza (MP) secured 16 Seats. The rest of seats were distributed among other political Parties and independent groups including Sri Lanka Freedom Party. Dayan Lanza became the Mayor of Negombo with the support of minor political parties and Sri Lanka Freedom Party. Royce Fernando Became the Opposition Leader in Negombo Municipal council.
Negombo considered as one of the largest economic centre of the country.[ citation needed ] Negombo is about 5–6 km from the Bandaranaike International Airport, and the free trade zone. Negombo has a moderate fish port (used during the periods of Portuguese and Dutch colonization)
The economy of Negombo is mainly based on tourism and its centuries-old fishing industry, though it also produces cinnamon,ceramics, and brass ware.
The Colombo Stock Exchange-Negombo branch and many major financial corporations have their key branches in Negombo. There are department stores, large supermarkets, and boutiques in the bustling streets of Downtown and international food outlets are being opened.
Negombo is home to some of the oldest secondary educational institutes in Sri Lanka. The leading schools are listed below.
There are also many higher educational institutes and private tuition institutes in Negombo City: Ocean University of Sri Lanka Negombo faculty conducts Nautical Engineering, Marine Science, Fisheries and other degree programmes. Pope Benedict higher educational and Cultural Centre, Gateway Graduate School, Horizon Campus, Regent Language School, ACBS Campus, IPM Institute of Sri Lanka, ACCHE, SLIMM, AIMS College, American College of Higher Education, Australian Higher Educational Centre, E-Soft Institute, Electro Technical Institute and Don Bosco Technical College, IDM Institute are some of them.
Colombo is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka by population. According to the Brookings Institution, Colombo metropolitan area has a population of 5.6 million, and 752,993 in the city proper. It is the financial centre of the island and a tourist destination. It is located on the west coast of the island and adjacent to the Greater Colombo area which includes Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, the legislative capital of Sri Lanka and Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia. Colombo is often referred to as the capital since Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte is within the urban area of, and a suburb of, Colombo. It is also the administrative capital of the Western Province and the district capital of Colombo District. Colombo is a busy and vibrant city with a mixture of modern life, colonial buildings and monuments.
In Sri Lanka, provinces are the first level administrative division. They were first established by the British rulers of Ceylon in 1833. Over the next century most of the administrative functions were transferred to the districts, the second level administrative division. By the middle of the 20th century the provinces had become merely ceremonial. This changed in 1987 when, following several decades of increasing demand for a decentralization, the 13th Amendment to the 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka established provincial councils. Currently there are nine provinces.
Batticaloa is a major city in the Eastern Province, Sri Lanka, and its former capital. It is the administrative capital of the Batticaloa District. The city is the seat of the Eastern University of Sri Lanka and is a major commercial centre. It is on the east coast, 111 kilometres (69 mi) south of Trincomalee, and is situated on an island. Pasikudah is popular tourist destinations situated 35 km (22 mi) northwest with beaches and flat year-round warm-water shallow-lagoons.
North Western Province is a province of Sri Lanka. The province consists of the districts of Kurunegala and Puttalam. Its capital is Kurunegala, which has a population of 28,571. The province is known mainly for its numerous coconut plantations. Other main towns in this province are Chilaw (24,712) and Puttalam (45,661), which are both small fishing towns. The majority of the population of Wayamba province is of Sinhalese ethnicity. There is also a substantial Sri Lankan Moor minority around Puttalam and Sri Lankan Tamils in Udappu and Munneswaram. Fishing, prawn farming and rubber tree plantations are other prominent industries of the region. The province has an area of 7,888 km², and a population of 2,370,075.
Puttalam is the largest town in Puttalam District, North Western Province, Sri Lanka. Puttalam is the administrative capital of the Puttalam District and governed by an Urban Council. Situated 130 kilometres (81 mi) north of Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka and 95 kilometres (59 mi) north of Negombo. Puttalam is known for energy production, salt, coconut production and fishing. It has one of the largest lagoons in the country. Puttalam is popularly known for kind and hospitality people. It has many virgin tourist destination such as Wilpattu National Park, Kalpitiya, and virgin beaches, natural resources, Dolphin watch, carol watch and sand dunes etc. Puttalam town is near to Anamaduwa.
Moratuwa is a large suburb of Colombo, on the southwestern coast of Sri Lanka, near Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia. It is situated on the Galle–Colombo main highway, 18 km south of Colombo city centre. Moratuwa is surrounded on three sides by water, except in the north of the city, by the Indian Ocean on the west, the Bolgoda lake on the east and the Moratu river on the south. According to the 2012 census, the suburb had a population of 168,280.
Negombo Tamils or Puttalam Tamils are the native Sri Lankan Tamils who live in the western Gampaha and Puttalam districts of Sri Lanka. They are distinguished from other Tamils from the island nation by their unique dialects, one of which is known as Negombo Tamil dialect. Other sub categories of native Tamils of Sri Lanka are Jaffna Tamils or Northern Tamils and Batticalao Tamils or Eastern Tamils from the traditional Tamil dominant North and East of the Island nation. Negombo is a principal coastal city in the Gampaha District and Puttalam is also the principal city within the neighbouring Puttalam District.
Mudali was a colonial title and office in Ceylon which was part of the native headman system. The Portuguese colonials created the Mudaliyar class in the 17th century by enlisting natives of different castes from the coastal areas.
Cricket is the most popular sport in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is one of the twelve nations that take part in test cricket and one of the six nations that has won a cricket world cup. Cricket is played at professional, semi-professional and recreational levels in the country and international cricket matches are watched with interest by a large proportion of the population.
Chilaw is a large town in Puttalam District, North Western Province, Sri Lanka. It is governed by an urban council. The town is located, 80 km away from the capital Colombo via Negombo.
Liyanagemulla is a village situated in Gampaha District, Western Province, Sri Lanka lying near the west coast to the south of the city of Negombo and is administered by the katunayake seeduwa urban council. It is located 30 km from Colombo, and 12 km from Negombo. It is on the Katunayake-Colombo road (A03) and is located a few miles from the Bandaranaike International Airport and Katunayake Export Processing Zone.
Arachchi ( was an influential post in the native headmen system in Ceylon during the colonial era. Appointed by the Government Agent. The holder had much control over the people of the area and wielded quasi-judicial powers since he was responsible to keep the peace, carry out revenue collection and assist in judicial functions.
Madampe is a town situated in the Puttalam District, of North Western Province, Sri Lanka. Madampe is a town with historical importance which was ruled by king Thaniwallbha according to the history. There are two areas: Old town and New town which is also known as Silva town. Old town is located on Colombo - Negombo - Chilaw main road. The new town is located on Kuliyapitiya road. The old town area is mainly occupied by Muslim community and consists of many shops. Town areas are occupied by commercial users: several super markets, shops, hardware stores, restaurants and other public institutions. Middle income class residential users are mostly occupied. The road network is well developed.
Kalpitiya Fort was built by the Dutch between 1667 and 1676. Kalpitiya was important as it commands the entrance to the adjacent bay, Puttalam Lagoon. The surrounding Puttalam area was one of the major cinnamon cultivation areas in Sri Lanka. The Dutch even constructed a canal from Puttalam via Negombo to Colombo to transport cinnamon from the area.
The Hamilton Canal is a 14.5 km (9.0 mi) canal connecting Puttalam to Colombo, passing through Negombo in Sri Lanka. The canal was constructed by the British in 1802 and completed in 1804. It was designed to drain salt water out of the Muthurajawela wetlands. The canal was named after Gavin Hamilton, the Government Agent of Revenue and Commerce.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to Sri Lanka.
The 2018–19 SLC Twenty20 Tournament was a Twenty20 cricket tournament that was held in Sri Lanka. It was played between twenty-four domestic teams in Sri Lanka, with the tournament running from 15 to 27 February 2019. Nondescripts Cricket Club were the defending champions.
The 2019–20 Invitation Limited Over Tournament was a List A cricket competition that took place in Sri Lanka. It ran from 14 to 31 December 2019, with twenty-five teams taking part. It was the first edition of the Invitation Limited Over Tournament, replacing the Premier Limited Overs Tournament, after Sri Lanka Cricket failed to approve the latter due to delays in their domestic cricket structure. Sinhalese Sports Club won the last edition of the Premier Limited Overs Tournament.
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