STS-82

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STS-82
Hubble servicing sts-82.jpg
The Hubble Space Telescope being serviced in Discovery's payload bay
Mission type Hubble servicing
Operator NASA
COSPAR ID 1997-004A
SATCAT no. 24719
Mission duration 9 days, 23 hours, 38 minutes, 09 seconds
Distance travelled 6,100,000 kilometres (3,800,000 mi)
Orbits completed 149
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft Space Shuttle Discovery
Launch mass 116,884 kilograms (257,685 lb)
Payload mass 83,122 kilograms (183,253 lb)
Crew
Crew size 7
Members Kenneth D. Bowersox
Scott J. Horowitz
Joseph R. Tanner
Steven A. Hawley
Gregory J. Harbaugh
Mark C. Lee
Steven L. Smith
Start of mission
Launch date 11 February 1997, 08:55:17 (1997-02-11UTC08:55:17Z) UTC
Launch site Kennedy LC-39A
End of mission
Landing date 21 February 1997, 08:32 (1997-02-21UTC08:33Z) UTC
Landing site Kennedy SLF Runway 15
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Perigee 475 kilometres (295 mi)
Apogee 574 kilometres (357 mi)
Inclination 28.4698 degrees
Period 95.2 min
Capture of Hubble
RMS capture 13 February 1997, 08:34 UTC
RMS release 19 February 1997, 06:41 UTC

Sts-82-patch.png

STS-82 crew.jpg
Left to right - Front: Bowersox, Hawley, Horowitz; Back: Tanner, Harbaugh, Lee, Smith
  STS-81
STS-83  

STS-82 was the 22nd flight of the Space Shuttle Discovery and the 82nd mission of the Space Shuttle program. It was NASA's second mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope, during which Discovery's crew repaired and upgraded the telescope's scientific instruments, increasing its research capabilities and achieved the highest altitude ever attained by a STS Orbiter (335-nautical-mile (620 km)). Discovery launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on 11 February 1997, returning to Earth on 21 February 1997 at Kennedy Space Center. [1]

Space Shuttle Partially reusable launch system and spacecraft

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program. Its official program name was Space Transportation System (STS), taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. In addition to the prototype whose completion was cancelled, five complete Shuttle systems were built and used on a total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST); conducted science experiments in orbit; and participated in construction and servicing of the International Space Station. The Shuttle fleet's total mission time was 1322 days, 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds.

Space Shuttle <i>Discovery</i> Space shuttle orbiter

Space Shuttle Discovery is one of the orbiters from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the third of five fully operational orbiters to be built. Its first mission, STS-41-D, flew from August 30 to September 5, 1984. Over 27 years of service it launched and landed 39 times, gathering more spaceflights than any other spacecraft to date. The shuttle has three main components: the orbiter, a huge fuel tank, and two rocket boosters. Nearly 25,000 heat resistant tiles cover the orbiter to protect it from high temperatures on re-entry.

Space Shuttle program United States governments manned launch vehicle program, administered by NASA from 1972 to 2011

The Space Shuttle program was the fourth human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished routine transportation for Earth-to-orbit crew and cargo from 1981 to 2011. Its official name, Space Transportation System (STS), was taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development.

Contents

Crew

Position Astronaut
Commander Kenneth D. Bowersox
Fourth spaceflight
Pilot Scott J. Horowitz
Second spaceflight
Mission Specialist 1 Joseph R. Tanner
Second spaceflight
Mission Specialist 2 Steven A. Hawley
Fourth spaceflight
Mission Specialist 3 Gregory J. Harbaugh
Fourth and last spaceflight
Mission Specialist 4 Mark C. Lee
Fourth and last spaceflight
Mission Specialist 5 Steven L. Smith
Second spaceflight

Spacewalks

  • EVA 1 Lee and Smith
    • Start: 14 February 1997 – 04:34 UTC
    • End: 14 February 1997 – 11:16 UTC
    • Duration: 6 hours, 42 minutes
  • EVA 2 Harbaugh and Tanner
    • Start: 15 February 1997 – 03:25 UTC
    • End: 15 February 1997 – 10:52 UTC
    • Duration: 7 hours, 27 minutes
  • EVA 3 Lee and Smith
    • Start: 16 February 1997 – 02:53 UTC
    • End: 16 February 1997 – 10:04 UTC
    • Duration: 7 hours, 11 minutes
  • EVA 4 Harbaugh and Tanner
    • Start: 17 February 1997 – 03:45 UTC
    • End: 17 February 1997 – 10:19 UTC
    • Duration: 6 hours, 34 minutes
  • EVA 5 Lee and Smith
    • Start: 18 February 1997 – 13:15 UTC
    • End: 18 February 1997 – 18:32 UTC
    • Duration: 5 hours, 17 minutes

Mission Objectives

Astronauts train in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator with a mockup of the HST Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Hubble Space Telescope repair training.jpg
Astronauts train in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator with a mockup of the HST

The STS-82 mission was the second in a series of planned servicing missions to the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope ("HST"), which had been placed in orbit on 24 April 1990 by Discovery during STS-31. The first servicing mission was done by Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-61. Work performed by Discovery's crew significantly upgraded the scientific capabilities of the HST and helped to keep the telescope functioning smoothly until the next scheduled servicing missions, which were STS-103 in 1999 and STS-109 in 2002. [1]

Hubble Space Telescope space telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation. Although not the first space telescope, Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile and is well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy. The HST is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble and is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope.

STS-31 human spaceflight

STS-31 was the thirty-fifth mission of the American Space Shuttle program, which launched the Hubble Space Telescope astronomical observatory into Earth orbit. The mission used the Space Shuttle Discovery, which lifted off from Launch Complex 39B on 24 April 1990 from Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

Space Shuttle <i>Endeavour</i> Space shuttle orbiter

Space Shuttle Endeavour is a retired orbiter from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the fifth and final operational shuttle built. It embarked on its first mission, STS-49, in May 1992 and its 25th and final mission, STS-134, in May 2011. STS-134 was expected to be the final mission of the Space Shuttle program, but with the authorization of STS-135, Atlantis became the last shuttle to fly.

On the third day of the mission, Discovery's seven-member crew conducted the first of four spacewalks (also called Extra-vehicular Activities or "EVAs") to remove two older instruments and install two new astronomy instruments, as well as perform other servicing tasks. The two older instruments being replaced were the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph and the Faint Object Spectrograph, exchanged for the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), respectively. [2]

Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph

The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph was an ultraviolet spectrograph installed on the Hubble Space Telescope during its original construction, and it was launched into space as part of that space telescope aboard the Space Shuttle on April 24, 1990 (STS-31). The instrument is named after 20th century rocket pioneer Robert H. Goddard.

Faint Object Spectrograph

The Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) was a spectrograph installed on the Hubble Space Telescope. It was replaced by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph in 1997, and is now on display in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC.

Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) is a spectrograph, also with a camera mode, installed on the Hubble Space Telescope. Aerospace engineer Bruce Woodgate of the Goddard Space Flight Center was the principal investigator and creator of the STIS. It operated continuously from 1997 until a power supply failure in August 2004. After repairs, it began operating again in 2009. The spectrograph has made many important observations, including the first spectrum of the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet, HD 209458b.

In addition to installing the new instruments, astronauts replaced other existing hardware with upgrades and spares. Hubble received a refurbished Fine Guidance Sensor, an optical device used to provide pointing information for the telescope and as a scientific instrument for astrometric science. [1] The Solid State Recorder (SSR) replaced one of HST's reel-to-reel tape recorders. The SSR provides much more flexibility than a reel-to-reel recorder and can store ten times more data. [1] [2] One of Hubble's four Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWA) -- part of the telescope's Pointing Control Subsystem—was replaced with a refurbished spare. [3] The RWAs use angular momentum to move and maintain the telescope in a desired position. The wheel axes are oriented so that the telescope can provide science with only three wheels operating, if required. [1] Study of the returned mechanism provided a rare opportunity to study equipment that had undergone long-term service (7 years) in space, particularly for the effects of vacuum on lubricants which were found to be in 'excellent condition'. [3]

Optics The branch of physics that studies light

Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties.

Astrometry part of astronomy, covers star positions and their movements

Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies. The information obtained by astrometric measurements provides information on the kinematics and physical origin of the Solar System and our galaxy, the Milky Way.

Angular momentum measure of the extent to which an object will continue to rotate in the absence of an applied torque

In physics, angular momentum is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum. It is an important quantity in physics because it is a conserved quantity—the total angular momentum of a system remains constant unless acted on by an external torque.

Mission Results

Joseph Tanner performing maintenance on the Hubble Space Telescope. STS-82 Joseph Tanner.jpg
Joseph Tanner performing maintenance on the Hubble Space Telescope.

STS-82 demonstrated anew the capability of the Space Shuttle to service orbiting spacecraft. Discovery's crew completed servicing and upgrading of the Hubble Space Telescope during four planned EVAs, later performing a fifth unscheduled space walk to repair insulation on the telescope. [2]

HST deployed in April 1990 during STS-31. It was designed to undergo periodic servicing and upgrading over its 15-year lifespan, with first servicing performed during STS-61 in December 1993. Hawley, who originally deployed the telescope, operated the orbiter Remote Manipulator System arm on STS-82 to retrieve HST for second servicing at 3:34 am EST, 13 Feb., and positioned it above Discovery's payload bay less than half an hour later. [2]

STS-61 the first Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission

STS-61 was the first Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, and the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The mission launched on 2 December 1993 from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The mission restored the spaceborne observatory's vision, marred by spherical aberration, with the installation of a new main camera and a corrective optics package. This correction occurred more than three and a half years after the Hubble was launched aboard STS-31 in April 1990. The flight also brought instrument upgrades and new solar arrays to the telescope. With its very heavy workload, the STS-61 mission was one of the most complex in the Shuttle's history. It lasted almost 11 days, and crew members made five spacewalks (EVAs), an all-time record. Even the re-positioning of Intelsat VI on STS-49 in May 1992 required only four. The flight plan allowed for two additional EVAs, which could have raised the total number to seven. The final two contingency EVAs were not made. In order to complete the mission without too much fatigue, the five extravehicular working sessions were shared between two pairs of different astronauts alternating their shifts.

Relying on more than 150 tools and crew aids, Lee and Smith performed EVAs 1, 3 and 5, with Harbaugh and Tanner performing EVAs 2 and 4. EVA 1 began at 11:34 pm EST, 13 February, and lasted six hours, 42 minutes. One of Hubble's solar arrays was unexpectedly disturbed by a gust of air from Discovery's airlock when it was depressurized, but was not damaged. [2] Lee and Smith removed two scientific instruments from Hubble, the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS), and replaced them with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), respectively. STIS expected to shed further light on supermassive black holes.[ citation needed ] NICMOS features more capable infrared detectors and gave astronomers their first clear view of the universe at near infrared wavelengths between 0.8 and 2.5 micrometers.[ citation needed ]

EVA 2 began at 10:25 pm, 14 February, and lasted seven hours, 27 minutes. Harbaugh and Tanner replaced a degraded Fine Guidance Sensor and a failed Engineering and Science Tape Recorder with new spares. Also installed was a new unit called the Optical Control Electronics Enhancement Kit, which further increased the capability of the Fine Guidance Sensor. [2] During this EVA astronauts noted cracking and wear on thermal insulation on the side of HST facing sun and in the direction of travel. [2]

EVA 3 began at 9:53 pm, 15 February, and lasted seven hours, 11 minutes. Lee and Smith removed and replaced a Data Interface Unit on Hubble, as well as a reel-to-reel Engineering and Science Tape Recorder with a new digital Solid State Recorder (SSR) that allowed simultaneous recording and playback of data. [2] Also changed out was one of four Reaction Wheel Assembly units that use spin momentum to move telescope toward a target and maintain it in a stable position. After this EVA, mission managers decided to add EVA 5 to repair the thermal insulation on HST.

EVA 4 began at 10:45 pm, 16 February, and lasted six hours, 34 minutes. Harbaugh and Tanner replaced a Solar Array Drive Electronics package which controls the positioning of Hubble's solar arrays. Also replaced covers over Hubble's magnetometers and placed thermal blankets of multi-layer material over two areas of degraded insulation around the light shield portion of the telescope just below the top of the observatory. Meanwhile, inside Discovery Horowitz and Lee worked on the middeck to fabricate new insulation blankets for HST.

Final space walk, EVA 5, lasted five hours, 17 minutes. Lee and Smith attached several thermal insulation blankets to three equipment compartments at the top of the Support Systems Module section of the telescope which contain key data processing, electronics and scientific instrument telemetry packages. STS-82 EVA total of 33 hours, 11 minutes is about two hours shy of total EVA time recorded on first servicing mission.

Discovery's maneuvering jets fired several times during mission to reboost telescope's orbit by eight nautical miles. Hubble was redeployed on 19 February at 1:41 am, at the highest altitude both it, and a STS Orbiter ever reached, a 335-nautical-mile (620 km) by 321-nautical-mile (594 km) orbit. Initial checkout of new instruments and equipment during mission showed all were performing nominally. Calibration of the two new science instruments took place over a period of several weeks, with first images and data anticipated in about eight to ten weeks.

Wake-up calls

NASA began a tradition of playing music to astronauts during the Gemini program, which was first used to wake up a flight crew during Apollo 15. [4] Each track is specially chosen, often by their families, and usually has a special meaning to an individual member of the crew, or is applicable to their daily activities. [4] [5]

Flight DaySongArtist/Composer
Day 2"Magic Carpet Ride" Steppenwolf
Day 3"These Are Days" 10,000 Maniacs
Day 4"Two Princes" Spin Doctors
Day 5"Higher Love" Steve Winwood
Day 6"The Packerena" WMYX-FM
Day 7"Shiny Happy People" R.E.M.
Day 8"Dreams" The Cranberries
Day 9"That Thing You Do"The Wonders
Day 10"Five Hundred Miles Away From Home" Reba McEntire
Day 11"Born to Be Wild" Steppenwolf

Summary of instruments exchange

See also

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References

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from websites or documents ofthe National Aeronautics and Space Administration .

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "STS-82 (82)". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Nasa - STS-82". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
  3. 1 2 Carré, D. J.; Bertrand, P. A. (1999). "Analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Reaction Wheel Lubricant". Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. 36 (1): 109–113. Bibcode:1999JSpRo..36..109C. doi:10.2514/2.3422.
  4. 1 2 Fries, Colin (25 June 2007). "Chronology of Wakeup Calls" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 13 August 2007.
  5. NASA (11 May 2009). "STS-82 Wakeup Calls". NASA.Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)