This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations . (May 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Endeavour deploys the TDRS-F satellite
|Mission type||Satellite deployment|
|Mission duration||5 days, 23 hours, 38 minutes, 19 seconds|
|Distance travelled||4,000,000 kilometers (2,500,000 mi)|
|Spacecraft||Space Shuttle Endeavour|
|Landing mass||92,988 kilograms (205,003 lb)|
|Payload mass||18,559 kilograms (40,916 lb)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||13 January 1993, 13:59:30 UTC|
|Launch site||Kennedy LC-39B|
|End of mission|
|Landing date||19 January 1993, 13:37:47 UTC|
|Landing site||Kennedy SLF Runway 33|
|Perigee altitude||302 kilometres (188 mi)|
|Apogee altitude||309 kilometres (192 mi)|
Left to right: Runco, Casper, McMonagle, Helms, Harbaugh
STS-54 was a Space Transportation System (NASA Space Shuttle) mission using Space Shuttle Endeavour. This was the third flight for Endeavour, and was launched on 13 January 1993.
|Commander|| John H. Casper |
|Pilot|| Donald R. McMonagle |
|Mission Specialist 1|| Mario Runco, Jr. |
|Mission Specialist 2|| Gregory J. Harbaugh |
|Mission Specialist 3|| Susan J. Helms |
The primary payload was the fifth Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-F) which was deployed on day one of the mission. It was later successfully transferred to its proper orbit by the Inertial Upper Stage booster.
Also carried into orbit in the payload bay was a Hitchhiker experiment called the Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer (DXS). This instrument collected data on X-ray radiation from diffuse sources in deep space.
Other middeck payloads to test the effects of microgravity included the Commercial General Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGPA) for-life sciences research; the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space Experiment (CHROMEX) to-study plant growth; the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE) to examine the skeletal system and the adaptation of bone to space flight; the Space Acceleration Measurement Equipment (SAMS) to measure and record the microgravity acceleration environment of middeck experiments; and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE) to measure the rate of flame spread and temperature of burning filter paper.
Also, on day five, mission specialists Mario Runco and Gregory J. Harbaugh spent nearly 5 hours in the open cargo bay performing a series of space-walking tasks designed to increase NASA's knowledge of working in space. They tested their abilities to move about freely in the cargo bay, climb into foot restraints without using their hands and simulated carrying large objects in the microgravity environment.
John Howard Casper is an American astronaut and United States Air Force pilot.
STS-42 was a Space Shuttle Discovery mission with the Spacelab module. Liftoff was originally scheduled for 8:45 EST 22 January 1992, but the launch was delayed due to weather constraints. Discovery successfully lifted off an hour later at 9:52 EST. The main goal of the mission was to study the effects of microgravity on a variety of organisms. The shuttle landed at 8:07 PST on 30 January 1992 on Runway 22, Edwards Air Force Base, California. STS-42 was the first of two flights in 1992 of Discovery, the second of which occurred during STS-53, which launched on 2 December 1992. The mission was also the last mission of the Space Shuttle Discovery to have a seven-member crew until STS-82, which was launched on 11 February 1997.
STS-52 was a Space Transportation System mission using Space Shuttle Columbia, and was launched on 22 October 1992.
STS-56 was a Space Shuttle Discovery mission to perform special experiments. The mission was launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on 8 April 1993.
STS-57 was a Shuttle-Spacehab mission of Space ShuttleEndeavour that launched 21 June 1993 from Kennedy Space Center, Florida.
STS-51 was a Space Shuttle Discovery mission that launched the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) in September 1993. The flight also featured the deployment and retrieval of the SPAS-ORFEUS satellite and its IMAX camera, which captured spectacular footage of Discovery in space. A spacewalk was also performed during the mission to evaluate tools and techniques for the STS-61 Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission later that year. STS-51 was the first shuttle mission to fly a GPS receiver, a Trimble TANS Quadrex. It was mounted in an overhead window where limited field of view and signal attenuation from the glass severely impacted receiver performance.
STS-64 was a Space Shuttle Discovery mission that was set to perform multiple experiment packages. STS-64 was launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on 9 September 1994, and landed back on 20 September 1994 at Edwards Air Force Base.
STS-66 was a Space Shuttle program mission that was flown by the Space Shuttle Atlantis. STS-66 launched on 3 November 1994 at 11:59:43.060 am EDT from Launch Pad 39-B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Atlantis landed at Edwards Air Force Base on 14 November 1994 at 10:33:45 am EST.
STS-63 was the second mission of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, which carried out the first rendezvous of the American Space Shuttle with Russia's space station Mir. Known as the 'Near-Mir' mission, the flight used Space Shuttle Discovery, which lifted off from launch pad 39B on 3 February 1995 from Kennedy Space Center, Florida. A night launch and the 20th mission for Discovery, it marked the first time a Space Shuttle mission had a female pilot, Eileen Collins, the first EVAs for both a UK born astronaut Michael Foale and a US astronaut of African heritage Bernard A. Harris, Jr. and it also carried out the successful deployment and retrieval of the Spartan-204 platform, along with the scheduled rendezvous and flyaround of Mir, in preparation for STS-71, the first mission to dock with Mir.
STS-69 was a Space Shuttle Endeavour mission, and the second flight of the Wake Shield Facility (WSF). The mission launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida on 7 September 1995. It was the 100th successful crewed NASA spaceflight, not including X-15 flights.
STS-72 was a Space Shuttle Endeavour mission to capture and return to Earth a Japanese microgravity research spacecraft known as Space Flyer Unit (SFU). The mission launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida on 11 January 1996.
STS-76 was NASA's 76th Space Shuttle mission, and the 16th mission for Atlantis. STS-76 launched on 22 March 1996 at 3:13 am EST from Kennedy Space Center launch pad 39B. STS-76 lasted over 9 days, traveled about 3,800,000 miles (6,100,000 km) while orbiting Earth an estimated 145 times, and landing at 5:28 am PST on 31 March 1996 at Edwards Air Force Base runway 22.
STS-77 was the 77th Space Shuttle mission and the 11th mission of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The mission began from launch pad 39B from Kennedy Space Center, Florida on 19 May 1996 lasting 10 days and 40 minutes and completing 161 revolutions before landing on runway 33.
STS-83 was a NASA Space Shuttle mission flown by Columbia. It was a science research mission that achieved orbit successfully, but the planned duration was a failure due to a technical problem with a fuel cell that resulted in the abort of the 15 day duration. Columbia returned to Earth just shy of four days. It was re-done on STS-94 with the same crew later that year.
STS-94 was a mission of the United States Space Shuttle Columbia, launched on 1 July 1997.
STS-87 was a Space Shuttle mission launched from Launch Complex 39B of the Kennedy Space Center on 19 November 1997. It was the 88th flight of the Space Shuttle, and the 24th flight of Columbia. The mission goals were to conduct experiments using the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4), conduct two EVAs, and to deploy the SPARTAN-201 experiment. This mission marked the first time an EVA was performed from Columbia. An EVA from Columbia was originally planned for STS-5 in 1982, but was cancelled due to spacesuit problems. It also marked the first EVA conducted by a Japanese astronaut, Takao Doi.
STS-89 was a Space Shuttle mission to the Mir space station flown by Space Shuttle Endeavour, and launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida on 22 January 1998.
Mario Runco Jr., is a former United States Navy officer and NASA astronaut. He is an Earth and planetary physicist.
Peter Jeffrey Kelsay Wisoff is an American physicist and former NASA astronaut. Wisoff qualified as mission specialist and flew in four manned Space Shuttle missions, with his first launch in 1993 and his last in 2000.
NASA Astronaut Group 11 was a group of 13 NASA astronauts announced on 4 June 1985.