Stylommatophora

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Stylommatophora
Temporal range: Cretaceous–Recent
Stylommatophora-001.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Heterobranchia
Superorder: Eupulmonata
Order: Stylommatophora
A. Schmidt, 1855
Diversity [1] [2]
about 20,500 species
Cornu aspersum (Common Garden Snail) Snail-wiki-120-Zachi-Evenor.jpg
Cornu aspersum (Common Garden Snail)

Stylommatophora is an order [3] of air-breathing land snails and slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs. This taxon includes most land snails and slugs.

Contents

The two strong synapomorphies of Stylommatophora are a long pedal gland placed beneath a membrane and two pairs of retractile tentacles (Dayrat & Tillier).[ citation needed ]

Several families in this group contain species of snails and slugs that create love darts.

Stylommatophora are known from the Cretaceous period up to the present day. [4]

2005 taxonomy

According to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) based on evolutionary ancestry is the clade Stylommatophora in clade Eupulmonata within informal group Pulmonata. It uses unranked clades for taxa above the rank of superfamily (replacing the ranks suborder, order, superorder and subclass) and the traditional Linnaean approach for all taxa below the rank of superfamily.

The clade Stylommatophora contains the subclades Elasmognatha, Orthurethra and the informal group Sigmurethra. The term "informal group" has been used to indicate whenever monophyly has not been tested, or where a traditional taxon of gastropods has now been discovered to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic.

clade Elasmognatha

clade Orthurethra

informal group Sigmurethra

"limacoid clade" (within the Sigmurethra)

(not in limacoid clade, but is within the Sigmurethra)

Previous taxonomy

Related Research Articles

Orthogastropoda was a major taxonomic grouping of snails and slugs, an extremely large subclass within the huge class Gastropoda according to the older taxonomy of the Gastropoda.

Pulmonata Informal group of gastropods

Pulmonata, or "pulmonates", is an informal group of snails and slugs characterized by the ability to breathe air, by virtue of having a pallial lung instead of a gill, or gills. The group includes many land and freshwater families, and several marine families.

Basommatophora Informal group of gastropods

Basommatophora was a term that was previously used as a taxonomic informal group, a group of snails within the informal group Pulmonata, the air-breathing slugs and snails. According to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda, whenever monophyly has not been tested, or where a traditional taxon of gastropods has now been discovered to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic, the term "group" or "informal group" was used.

Eupulmonata Clade of gastropods

Eupulmonata is a taxonomic clade of air-breathing snails. The great majority of this group are land snails and slugs, but some are marine and some are saltmarsh snails that can tolerate salty conditions.

Punctoidea Superfamily of gastropods

Punctoidea is a superfamily of air-breathing land snails and slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the informal group Sigmurethra.

Ptychotrema is a genus of air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Streptaxidae.

The taxonomy of the Gastropoda as it was revised in 2005 by Philippe Bouchet and Jean-Pierre Rocroi is a system for the scientific classification of gastropod mollusks. The paper setting out this taxonomy was published in the journal Malacologia. The system encompasses both living and extinct groups, as well as some fossils whose classification as gastropods is uncertain.

Slug Shell-less terrestrial gastropod mollusc

Slug, or land slug, is a common name for any apparently shell-less terrestrial gastropod mollusc. The word slug is also often used as part of the common name of any gastropod mollusc that has no shell, a very reduced shell, or only a small internal shell, particularly sea slugs and semislugs.

Humboldtianidae Family of gastropods

Humboldtianidae is an American family of air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Helicoidea.

Cepolidae (gastropod) Family of gastropods

Cepolidae is a family of air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Helicoidea.

Spiraxidae Family of gastropods

Spiraxidae is a family of predatory air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropods in the superfamily Testacelloidea.

The taxonomy of the Gastropoda, as revised by Winston Ponder and David R. Lindberg in 1997, is an older taxonomy of the class Gastropoda, the class of molluscs consisting of all snails and slugs. The full name of the work in which this taxonomy was published is Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters.

Apogastropoda Group of molluscs

Apogastropoda was previously used as a major taxonomic grouping of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs. This infraclass mostly consisted of marine limpets and operculate snails. At least 20,000 species were considered to exist within the two clades that were included, Heterobranchia and Caenogastropoda.

Sigmurethra Informal group of gastropods

Sigmurethra is a taxonomic category of air-breathing land snails and slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs. This is an informal group which includes most land snails and slugs.

Orthurethra Clade of gastropods

Orthurethra is a clade of air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the clade Stylommatophora.

Streptaxoidea Superfamily of gastropods

Streptaxoidea is a superfamily of air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the suborder Achatinina of the order Stylommatophora.

Limacoidei Group of molluscs

The limacoidei is a taxonomic infraorder of air-breathing land snails, semislugs and slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs in the suborder Helicina

Acavoidea Superfamily of gastropods

The Acavoidea are a taxonomic superfamily of air-breathing land snails and slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the informal group Sigmurethra.

After excluding groups not related, the informal group Sigmurethra has become the suborder Helicina, with the following infraorders and a collection of families with no superfamily:

The Pupilloideiis an taxonomic infraorder of air-breathing land snails, semislugs and slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs in the suborder Helicina.

References

  1. Solem A. (1978). Classification of the land Mollusca. In: Fretter V. & Peake J. (eds). Pulmonates, Vol. 2A. London, Academic Press, 49–97.
  2. Sutcharit C., Naggs F., Wade C. M., Fontanilla I. & Panha S. (2010). "The new family Diapheridae, a new species of Diaphera Albers from Thailand, and the position of the Diapheridae within a molecular phylogeny of the Streptaxoidea (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160: 1-16. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00598.x.
  3. Philippe Bouchet, Jean-Pierre Rocroi, Bernhard Hausdorf, Andrzej Kaim, Yasunori Kano, Alexander Nützel, Pavel Parkhaev, Michael Schrödl and Ellen E. Strong. 2017. Revised Classification, Nomenclator and Typification of Gastropod and Monoplacophoran Families . Malacologia, 61(1-2): 1-526.
  4. (in Czech) Pek I., Vašíček Z., Roček Z., Hajn. V. & Mikuláš R. (1996). Základy zoopaleontologie. Olomouc, 264 pp., ISBN   80-7067-599-3.