# Wax-ester hydrolase

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wax-ester hydrolase
Identifiers
EC number 3.1.1.50
CAS number 66625-78-3
Databases
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MetaCyc metabolic pathway
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Gene Ontology

In enzymology, a wax-ester hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.50) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

The Enzyme Commission number is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. As a system of enzyme nomenclature, every EC number is associated with a recommended name for the respective enzyme.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Because of this, only very small amounts of catalyst are required to alter the reaction rate in principle.

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei, and can often be described by a chemical equation. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes can occur.

a wax ester + H2O ${\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }$ a long-chain alcohol + a long-chain carboxylate

Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are wax ester and H2O, whereas its two products are long-chain alcohol and long-chain carboxylate.

A wax ester (WE) is an ester of a fatty acid and a fatty alcohol. Wax esters comprise the main components of three commercially important waxes: carnauba wax, candelilla wax, and beeswax.

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. Water is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard ambient temperature and pressure. It forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds are formed from suspended droplets of water and ice, its solid state. When finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is steam or water vapor. Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation, transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea.

Products are the species formed from chemical reactions. During a chemical reaction reactants are transformed into products after passing through a high energy transition state. This process results in the consumption of the reactants. It can be a spontaneous reaction or mediated by catalysts which lower the energy of the transition state, and by solvents which provide the chemical environment necessary for the reaction to take place. When represented in chemical equations products are by convention drawn on the right-hand side, even in the case of reversible reactions. The properties of products such as their energies help determine several characteristics of a chemical reaction such as whether the reaction is exergonic or endergonic. Additionally the properties of a product can make it easier to extract and purify following a chemical reaction, especially if the product has a different state of matter than the reactants. Reactants are molecular materials used to create chemical reactions. The atoms aren't created or destroyed. The materials are reactive and reactants are rearranging during a chemical reaction. Here is an example of reactants: CH4 + O2. A non-example is CO2 + H2O or "energy".

This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is wax-ester acylhydrolase. Other names in common use include jojoba wax esterase, and WEH.

Hydrolase is a class of enzyme that commonly perform as biochemical catalysts that use water to break a chemical bond, which typically results in dividing a larger molecule to smaller molecules. Some common examples of hydrolase enzymes are esterases including lipases, phosphatases, glycosidases, peptidases, and nucleosidases.

In chemistry, an ester − as opposed to an ether − is a chemical compound derived from an acid in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group. Usually, esters are derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Glycerides, which are fatty acid esters of glycerol, are important esters in biology, being one of the main classes of lipids, and making up the bulk of animal fats and vegetable oils. Esters with low molecular weight are commonly used as fragrances and found in essential oils and pheromones. Phosphoesters form the backbone of DNA molecules. Nitrate esters, such as nitroglycerin, are known for their explosive properties, while polyesters are important plastics, with monomers linked by ester moieties. Esters usually have a sweet smell and are considered high-quality solvents for a broad array of plastics, plasticizers, resins, and lacquers. They are also one of the largest classes of synthetic lubricants on the commercial market.

## Related Research Articles

Long-chain alcohol oxidase is one of two enzyme classes that oxidize long-chain or fatty alcohols to aldehydes. It has been found in certain Candida yeast, where it participates in omega oxidation of fatty acids to produce acyl-CoA for energy or industrial use, as well as in other fungi, plants, and bacteria.

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Acyl-CoA thioesterase 2, also known as ACOT2, is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the ACOT2 gene.

## References

• Huang AH, Moreau RA, Liu KD (1978). "Development and properties of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings". Plant Physiol. 61 (3): 339–341. doi:10.1104/pp.61.3.339. PMC  . PMID   16660288.
• Moreau RA; Huang AHC (1981). "Enzymes of wax ester catabolism in jojoba; Chapter: [93] Enzymes of wax ester catabolism in jojoba". Methods Enzymol. Methods in Enzymology. 71: 804–813. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(81)71095-4. ISBN   978-0-12-181971-2.

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