New Zealand Liberal Party (1992)

Last updated
New Zealand Liberal Party
Founders Gilbert Myles
Hamish MacIntyre
Founded 1991
Split from National Party
Merged into Alliance
Ideology Liberalism
Social liberalism
Political position Centre

The New Zealand Liberal Party founded in 1992 (not to be confused with the original Liberal Party or the 1962 Liberal Party) was a splinter group of the National Party.

The New Zealand Liberal Party was the first organised political party in New Zealand. It governed from 1891 until 1912. The Liberal strategy was to create a large class of small land-owning farmers who supported Liberal ideals, by buying large tracts of Māori land and selling it to small farmers on credit. The Liberal Government also established the basis of the later welfare state, with old age pensions, developed a system for settling industrial disputes, which was accepted by both employers and trade unions. In 1893 it extended voting rights to women, making New Zealand the first country in the world to enact universal female suffrage.

The New Zealand Liberal Party was a defunct laissez-faire Liberal Party that was formed to stand candidates in the 1963 New Zealand general election.

New Zealand National Party Major New Zealand political party

The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.

History

The Liberal Party was founded by Gilbert Myles and Hamish MacIntyre, two dissident National MPs. Myles and McIntyre were opponents of the economic reforms (dubbed "Ruthanasia") promoted by Minister of Finance Ruth Richardson, believing that they were harmful to society. As a result of their objections, Myles and McIntyre fell out with their National Party colleagues, and eventually decided to break away. After a short time as independents, they established the Liberal Party.

Gilbert Colin Myles is a former New Zealand politician who entered Parliament for the National Party in 1990, then split from the party in 1991 and sat as an independent, before representing the Liberal Party, the Alliance and the New Zealand First party.

Hamish MacIntyre is a former New Zealand politician who at various times represented the National Party, Liberal Party, and the Alliance.

Ruthanasia, a portmanteau of "Ruth" and "euthanasia", is the pejorative name given to the period of free-market policies conducted during the first term of the fourth National government in New Zealand, from 1990 to 1993. As the first period of reform from 1984 to 1990 was known as Rogernomics after the Labour Party Minister of Finance, Roger Douglas, so the second period became known as "Ruthanasia", after the National Party's Minister of Finance, Ruth Richardson.

The new organisation was plagued by organisational difficulties, and neither Myles not MacIntyre both first-term MPs had much political experience. Not long after the party was established, Myles and McIntyre opted to join the Liberals to the newly formed Alliance party. Although the Alliance was considerably more left-wing than the Liberals, it was emerging as the most significant political group to oppose Ruth Richardson's policies the leader of the Alliance, Jim Anderton, had quit his own Labour Party out of opposition to Roger Douglas, an ideological ally of Richardson.

The Alliance was a left-wing political party in New Zealand. It was formed at the end of 1991 by the linking of four smaller parties. The Alliance positioned itself as a democratic socialist alternative to the centre-left New Zealand Labour Party. It was influential throughout the 1990s, but suffered a major setback after its founder and leader, Jim Anderton, left the party in 2002, taking with him several of its members of parliament (MPs). After the remaining MPs lost their seats in the 2002 general election, some commentators predicted the demise of the party.

Jim Anderton New Zealand politician

James Patrick Anderton was a New Zealand politician who led a succession of left-wing parties after leaving the Labour Party in 1989.

The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.

In 1993, however, a more prominent dissident within the National Party, Winston Peters, also quit. Although it was briefly considered that a pact might be formed between the Alliance and Peters, the two proved incompatible, and Peters established the New Zealand First party. At the time when Myles and McIntyre had split from National, they had entertained hopes that Peters (and possibly Michael Laws or Cam Campion) would join them, and were therefore disappointed at the failure of talks between Peters and the Alliance. The possibility of leaving the Alliance and merging with New Zealand First was discussed, but deep divisions emerged within the party about this possibility. In the end, Gilbert Myles (along with party president Malcolm Wright) opted to leave the Liberals and join New Zealand First. MacIntyre remained with the Liberals for some time afterwards, however he did not enter Parliament again and following the 1996 election where he was a list candidate for the Alliance, retired from politics.

Winston Peters New Zealand politician

Winston Raymond Peters is a New Zealand politician who has served since 2017 as the Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand and Minister of Foreign Affairs. He was previously Deputy Prime Minister from 1996 to 1998. Peters has led the populist New Zealand First party since its foundation in 1993. He has been a Member of Parliament since 2011, having previously served from 1979 to 1981 and 1984 to 2008.

New Zealand First, commonly abbreviated to NZ First, is a nationalist and populist political party in New Zealand. It was founded in July 1993, following the resignation on 19 March 1993 of its leader and founder, Winston Peters, from the then-governing National Party. It has formed governments with both major parties in New Zealand: first with the National Party from 1996 to 1998, and then with the Labour Party from 2005 to 2008 and from 2017 to present.

Michael Laws is a New Zealand former politician, broadcaster and writer/columnist. He served two terms as a Member of the New Zealand Parliament, representing the National Party (1990–96). He was elected as Mayor of Whanganui in 2004, and was re-elected in 2007. Before the October 2010 elections he announced his retirement from the mayoralty, but in 2013 entered the "race" for the Whanganui mayoralty again. He was elected a Whanganui district councillor and district health board member, was a Radio Live morning talkback host and a longstanding The Sunday Star-Times columnist, but resigned all positions in 2014 to take full-time care of his youngest children, after their mother suffered a severe stroke.

In 1996, leadership of the Liberals fell to Frank Grover, who had been elected to Parliament as an Alliance list MP in the 1996 election. Grover himself eventually rejected the Alliance, and shortly before the 1999 election, defected to the Christian Heritage Party, giving it its first seat in Parliament though he did not secure re-election, however. The leadership of the Liberal Party then passed to former Auckland City Councillor Suzanne Corbett, [1] though the party was eventually dissolved, with its few remaining members simply becoming members of the Alliance as a whole.

Frank Grover is a former New Zealand politician. He was an MP from 1996 to 1999, representing first the Alliance and then the Christian Heritage Party in the House of Representatives.

Party-list proportional representation family of voting systems

Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected through allocations to an electoral list. They can also be used as part of mixed additional member systems.

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Ruth Richardson served as New Zealand's Minister of Finance from 1990 to 1993, is credited for being the first Finance Minister to have published a modern public sector balance sheet. Following the work of the preceding Labour Government that initiated the financial reforms and passed the necessary legislation, she supported and carried on the reforms, and extended them in a significant way with the fiscal responsibility Act 1994. And more than the Labour ministers who initiated the reforms, she advocated for the merits of modern accounting and financial systems subsequently introduced modern accounting to the national government. These Public Financial Management reforms were part of her wider economic reforms that helped to take New Zealand out of its economic and financial crisis, including the Mother of all Budgets as the first budget was called. This first budget formed the catalyst of her economic reforms known in the media as 'Ruthanasia', as they were widely unpopular at the time with huge, controversial changes following the works of the previous labour government. The successful reforms have been thoroughly researched and documented in academia and held up as a model reform program.

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References

  1. Espiner, Guyon (10 June 2001). "Clash at Lee's home". Sunday Star Times. p. A1.