The Protected areas of New South Wales include both terrestrial and marine protected areas. At 30 June 2010 there were 776[ needs update ] separate terrestrial protected areas with a total land area of 6,641,256 hectares (16,410,900 acres) (8.29% of the state’s area). 189 of these are national parks, totalling 5,045,422 hectares (12,467,510 acres). At the same time there were 18 aquatic protected areas with a total area of 347,087 hectares (857,670 acres).
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved.
Marine protected areas (MPA) are protected areas of seas, oceans, estuaries or large lakes. These marine areas can come in many forms ranging from wildlife refuges to research facilities. MPAs restrict human activity for a conservation purpose, typically to protect natural or cultural resources. Such marine resources are protected by local, state, territorial, native, regional, national, or international authorities and differ substantially among and between nations. This variation includes different limitations on development, fishing practices, fishing seasons and catch limits, moorings and bans on removing or disrupting marine life. In some situations, MPAs also provide revenue for countries, potentially equal to the income that they would have if they were to grant companies permissions to fish.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of 'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas.
National parks are managed by the National Parks and Wildlife Service, an agency of the Department of Environment and Climate Change of New South Wales.
The National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) is part of the Office of Environment and Heritage - the main government conservation agency in New South Wales, Australia.
The Abercrombie River National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Central Tablelands region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 19,000-hectare (47,000-acre) national park is situated approximately 120 kilometres (75 mi) west of Sydney and 40 kilometres (25 mi) south of Oberon.
The Cocoparra National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Riverina region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 8,357-hectare (20,650-acre) national park is situated 457 kilometres (284 mi) southwest of Sydney and 25 kilometres (16 mi) northeast of Griffith.
The Conimbla National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Central West region of New South Wales in eastern Australia. The 8,471-hectare (20,930-acre) national park is situated approximately 253 kilometres (157 mi) west of Sydney, northwest of Cowra and northeast of Grenfell.
Bago Bluff is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, approximately 410 km northeast of Sydney. It is situated south west of Wauchope and includes parts of the former Broken Bago State Forest and a part of Lorne State Forest. The Bago Bluff National Park also includes in the northern section the old Bago Bluff Flora Reserve and Six B Flora Reserve.
Barakee is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 257 km north of Sydney.
The Barrington Tops National Park is a protected national park located in the Hunter Valley, approximately 200 kilometres (120 mi) north of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Gazetted in 1969, the 76,512-hectare (189,070-acre) park is situated between Scone, Singleton, Dungog, Gloucester and East Gresford.
Bald Rock National Park is a national park in northern New South Wales, Australia, just north of Tenterfield on the Queensland border. The border passes over the rock on the Western side. On the other side of the border national park continues as the Girraween National Park.
Barool is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 479 km north of Sydney.
Basket Swamp is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 558 km north of Sydney, and 15 kilometres north east of Tenterfield.
Arakwal National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 624 km north of Sydney and 2 km south of Cape Byron, the most easterly point of mainland Australia. The nearest town is Byron Bay. The park protects an area of Wallum country, of coastal clay heaths behind Tallow Beach, providing habitat to numerous bird species and two native frog species, the Wallum Froglet and Wallum Sedge Frog, both of which are deemed vulnerable to extinction.
The Border Ranges National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia. A small portion of the national park is also located in South East Queensland. The 31,729-hectare (78,400-acre) park is situated approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) south of Brisbane, north of Kyogle.
Broadwater is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 577 km northeast of Sydney.
Nature Reserves are managed by the National Parks and Wildlife Service, an agency of the Department of Environment and Climate Change of New South Wales.
State Conservation Areas, formerly referred to as State Recreation Areas, are managed by the Department of Environment and Climate Change.
Regional Parks are managed by the Department of Environment and Climate Change.
Aboriginal Areas are managed by local Aboriginal communities and the Department of Environment and Climate Change.
A number of Historic Sites are managed by the Department of Environment and Climate Change. Other historic sites in the state are managed by the Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales.
State Parks are managed by the Land and Property Management Authority.
Four Karst Conservation Reserves are managed by the Jenolan Caves Reserve Trust.
Marine Parks are managed by the New South Wales Marine Parks Authority.
Aquatic reserves are managed by the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries.
The protected areas of South Africa include national parks and marine protected areas managed by the national government, public nature reserves managed by provincial and local governments, and private nature reserves managed by private landowners. Most protected areas are intended for the conservation of flora and fauna. National parks are maintained by South African National Parks (SANParks). A number of national parks have been incorporated in transfrontier conservation areas.
Protected areas of Australia include Commonwealth and off-shore protected areas managed by the Australian government, as well as protected areas within each of the six states of Australia and two self-governing territories, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, which are managed by the eight state and territory governments.
The protected areas of the Northern Territory consists of protected areas managed by the governments of the Northern Territory and Australia and private organisations with a reported total area of 335,527 square kilometres (129,548 sq mi) being 24.8% of the total area of the Northern Territory of Australia.
Protected areas of South Australia consists of protected areas located within South Australia and its immediate onshore waters and which are managed by South Australian Government agencies. As of March 2018, South Australia contains 359 separate protected areas declared under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972, the Crown Land Management Act 2009 and the Wilderness Protection Act 1992 which have a total land area of 211,387.48 km2 (81,617.16 sq mi) or 21.5% of the state's area.
Protected areas of Tasmania consists of protected areas located within Tasmania and its immediate onshore waters, including Macquarie Island. It includes areas of crown land managed by Tasmanian Government agencies as well as private reserves. As of 2016, 51% of Tasmania's land area has some form of reservation classification, the majority is managed by the Tasmania Parks & Wildlife Service. Marine protected areas cover about 7.9% of state waters.
Victoria is the smallest mainland state in Australia. As of 2008 it contained 2,850 separate protected areas with a total land area of 39,273 km2 (15,163 sq mi). Of these, 45 were national parks, totalling 28,023 km2 (10,820 sq mi).
Coffin Bay National Park is a protected area in on the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia, Australia, which is located about 301 km west of Adelaide and about 46 km west of Port Lincoln. The town of Coffin Bay is near the entrance to the national park. The national park occupies the Coffin Bay Peninsula - a long peninsula with a sheltered bay to its north, coastal dunes, swamps and a coastline which overlooks islands, reefs, limestone cliffs and white surf beaches.
Southwest National Park is an Australian national park located in the south-west of Tasmania, bounded by the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park to the north and the Hartz Mountains National Park to the east. It is a part of a chain of national parks and state reserves that make up the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area. Covering an area of 6,183 km2 (2,387 sq mi), it is Tasmania's largest national park.
Protected areas of New Zealand receive protection to preserve their environmental, historical or cultural value. The method and aims of protection vary according to the importance of the resource and whether it has public or private status. Nearly 30 percent of the land mass of New Zealand is in public ownership and has some degree of protection; these areas include conservation parks, mainland islands, island reserves, marine reserves, and national parks.
The New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage (OEH), a former division of the Government of New South Wales between April 2011 and July 2019, was responsible for the care and protection of the environment and heritage, which includes the natural environment, Aboriginal country, culture and heritage, and built heritage in New South Wales, Australia. Until its abolition in 2019, the OEH supported the community, business and government in protecting, strengthening and making the most of a healthy environment and economy within the state. The OEH was part of the Department of Planning and Environment cluster and managed national parks and reserves.
Lake Macquarie or Awaba is Australia's largest coastal salt water lagoon. Located in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, it covers an area of 110 square kilometres (42.5 sq mi) and is connected to the Tasman Sea by a short channel. Most of the residents of the City of Lake Macquarie live near the shores of the lake.
The South West Slopes is a region predominantly in New South Wales, Australia. It covers the lower inland slopes of the Great Dividing Range extending from north of Cowra through southern NSW into western Victoria. More than 90% of the region is in the state of New South Wales and it occupies about 10% of that state.
Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service is the government body responsible for protected areas of Tasmania on public land, such as national parks, historic sites and regional reserves. Historically it has also had responsibility for managing wildlife, including game.
In 1999, the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve was designated in St. Johns and Flagler counties, Florida as a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) system. The GTM Research Reserve represents the east Florida sub-region of the Carolinian bioregion. It is one of 29 NERRs in 23 states and one territory. GTM is one of three NERRs in Florida, and is administered on behalf of the state by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's Florida Coastal Office as part of a network that includes forty-one aquatic preserves, three NERRs, a National Marine Sanctuary, the Coral Reef Conservation Program and the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council.
Innamincka Regional Reserve is a protected area located in the north-east of South Australia which includes the town of Innamincka. The regional reserve was proclaimed on 22 December 1988 under National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 over a parcel of land previously part of the Innamincka Pastoral Lease to recognise it as "a place of major conservation importance" whilst permitting ongoing mining and agricultural activity. It was the first "multiple use reserve to be administered by a nature conservation agency" to be declared in South Australia under the category of regional reserve provided for in the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972. It is partly located on land that was included on the List of Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention under the name Coongie Lakes in 1987. In 2005, a parcel of land was excised from the regional reserve to create the national park now known as Malkumba-Coongie Lakes National Park. It also includes the Innamincka/Cooper Creek state heritage area. The regional reserve is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area.
The Paroo-Darling National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Far West region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 178,053-hectare (439,980-acre) national park spans two distinct regions in the outback area. This region covers the arid catchments of the Paroo River and the Paroo-Darling confluence to the south.
The Dharawal National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 6,508-hectare (16,080-acre) national park is situated between the Illawarra Range and the Georges River and is approximately 45 kilometres (28 mi) south west of Sydney. There are three entry points to the park: from the east through Helensburgh; from the north through Campbelltown; and from the south through Appin.
The High Conservation Value Old Growth forest is a heritage-listed forest located across twelve local government areas in the Northern Rivers, Mid North Coast, and New England regions of New South Wales, Australia. The conservation area is also known as Old Growth Forest; HCVOG Forest; and Upper North East NSW. Broadly speaking, the conservation area forms part of the much larger Gondwana Rainforests, a UNESCO World Heritage site totalling more than 366,000 hectares. The conservation area is owned by the NSW Department of Primary Industries and the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, both agencies of the Government of New South Wales. The conservation area was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 22 December 2000.