Last updated
Thiabendazole ball-and-stick.png
Clinical data
Trade names Mintezol, others
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
  • AU:B3
Routes of
By mouth, topical
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Сmax 1–2 hours (oral administration)
Metabolism GI tract
Elimination half-life 8 hours
Excretion Urine (90%)
  • 4-(1H-1,3-Benzodiazol-2-yl)-1,3-thiazole
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.005.206 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Chemical and physical data
Formula C10H7N3S
Molar mass 201.25 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Density 1.103 g/cm3
Melting point 293 to 305 °C (559 to 581 °F)
  • [nH]1c2ccccc2nc1c3cscn3
  • InChI=1S/C10H7N3S/c1-2-4-8-7(3-1)12-10(13-8)9-5-14-6-11-9/h1-6H,(H,12,13) X mark.svgN
 X mark.svgNYes check.svgY  (what is this?)    (verify)

Tiabendazole (INN, BAN), also known as thiabendazole (AAN, USAN) or TBZ and the trade names Mintezol, Tresaderm, and Arbotect, is a preservative, [1] an antifungal agent, and an antiparasitic agent.




Tiabendazole is used primarily to control mold, blight, and other fungal diseases in fruits (e.g. oranges) and vegetables; it is also used as a prophylactic treatment for Dutch elm disease. [ citation needed ]

Tiabendazole is also used as a food additive, [2] [3] a preservative with E number E233 (INS number 233). For example, it is applied to bananas to ensure freshness, and is a common ingredient in the waxes applied to the skins of citrus fruits. It is not approved as a food additive in the EU, [4] Australia and New Zealand. [5]

Use in treatment of aspergillosis has been reported. [6]

It is also used in anti-fungal wallboards as a mixture with azoxystrobin.[ citation needed ]


As an antiparasitic, tiabendazole is able to control roundworms (such as those causing strongyloidiasis), [7] hookworms, and other helminth species which infect wild animals, livestock, and humans. [8]


In dogs and cats, tiabendazole is used to treat ear infections.[ clarification needed ]

Tiabendazole is also a chelating agent, which means it is used medicinally to bind metals in cases of metal poisoning, such as lead, mercury, or antimony poisoning.[ medical citation needed ]


Genes responsible for the maintenance of cell walls in yeast have been shown to be responsible for angiogenesis in vertebrates. Tiabendazole serves to block angiogenesis in both frog embryos and human cells. It has also been shown to serve as a vascular disrupting agent to reduce newly established blood vessels. Tiabendazole has been shown to effectively do this in certain cancer cells. [9]


Tiabendazole works by inhibition of the mitochondrial, helminth-specific enzyme, fumarate reductase, with possible interaction with endogenous quinone. [10]


The substance appears to have a slight toxicity in higher doses, with effects such as liver and intestinal disorders at high exposure in test animals (just below LD50 level).[ citation needed ] Some reproductive disorders and decreasing weaning weight have been observed, also at high exposure. Effects on humans from use as a drug include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness, or headache; very rarely also ringing in the ears, vision changes, stomach pain, yellowing eyes and skin, dark urine, fever, fatigue, increased thirst and change in the amount of urine occur.[ citation needed ] Carcinogenic effects have been shown at higher doses. [11]


Intermediate arylamidine 2 is prepared by aluminium trichloride-catalyzed addition of aniline to the nitrile of 4-cyanothiazole (1). [12] [13] The amidine (2) is then converted to its N-chloro derivative 3 with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Upon treatment with base, this undergoes a nitrene insertion reaction (4) to produce tiabendazole (5).

Tiabendazole synthesis Thiabendazole synthesis.svg
Tiabendazole synthesis

An alternative synthesis involves reacting 4-thiazolecarboxamide with o-phenylenediamine in polyphosphoric acid. [14]


A number of derivatives of tiabendazole are also pharmaceutical drugs, including albendazole, cambendazole, fenbendazole, oxfendazole, mebendazole, and flubendazole.

Preparation of cambendazole Cambendazole synthesis.svg
Preparation of cambendazole

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trichuriasis</span> Infection by Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)

Trichuriasis, also known as whipworm infection, is an infection by the parasitic worm Trichuris trichiura (whipworm). If infection is only with a few worms, there are often no symptoms. In those who are infected with many worms, there may be abdominal pain, fatigue and diarrhea. The diarrhea sometimes contains blood. Infections in children may cause poor intellectual and physical development. Low red blood cell levels may occur due to loss of blood.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ascariasis</span> Disease caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides

Ascariasis is a disease caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Infections have no symptoms in more than 85% of cases, especially if the number of worms is small. Symptoms increase with the number of worms present and may include shortness of breath and fever in the beginning of the disease. These may be followed by symptoms of abdominal swelling, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Children are most commonly affected, and in this age group the infection may also cause poor weight gain, malnutrition, and learning problems.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antifungal</span> Pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis

An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others. Such drugs are usually obtained by a doctor's prescription, but a few are available over the counter (OTC). The evolution of antifungal resistance is a growing threat to health globally.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Natamycin</span> Antifungal

Natamycin, also known as pimaricin, is an antifungal medication used to treat fungal infections around the eye. This includes infections of the eyelids, conjunctiva, and cornea. It is used as eyedrops. Natamycin is also used in the food industry as a preservative.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ivermectin</span> Medication for parasite infestations

Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug. After its discovery in 1975, its first uses were in veterinary medicine to prevent and treat heartworm and acariasis. Approved for human use in 1987, it is used to treat infestations including head lice, scabies, river blindness (onchocerciasis), strongyloidiasis, trichuriasis, ascariasis and lymphatic filariasis. It works through many mechanisms to kill the targeted parasites, and can be taken by mouth, or applied to the skin for external infestations. It belongs to the avermectin family of medications.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Albendazole</span> Chemical compound

Albendazole is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic and antiprotozoal agent of the benzimidazole type. It is used for the treatment of a variety of intestinal parasite infections, including ascariasis, pinworm infection, hookworm infection, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, taeniasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, cutaneous larva migrans, giardiasis, and gnathostomiasis, among other diseases.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Benzimidazole</span> Chemical compound

Benzimidazole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. This bicyclic compound may be viewed as fused rings of the aromatic compounds benzene and imidazole. It is a white solid that appears in form of tabular crystals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Piperazine</span> Chemical compound

Piperazine is an organic compound that consists of a six-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms at opposite positions in the ring. Piperazine exists as small alkaline deliquescent crystals with a saline taste.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Strongyloidiasis</span> Medical condition

Strongyloidiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by the nematode called Strongyloides stercoralis, or sometimes the closely related S. fülleborni. These helminths belong to a group of nematodes called roundworms. These intestinal worms can cause a number of symptoms in people, principally skin symptoms, abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss, but also many other specific and vague symptoms in disseminated disease, and severe life-threatening conditions through hyperinfection. In some people, particularly those who require corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medication, Strongyloides can cause a hyperinfection syndrome that can lead to death if untreated. The diagnosis is made by blood and stool tests. The medication ivermectin is widely used to treat strongyloidiasis.

An angiogenesis inhibitor is a substance that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Some angiogenesis inhibitors are endogenous and a normal part of the body's control and others are obtained exogenously through pharmaceutical drugs or diet.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Terconazole</span> Chemical compound

Terconazole is an antifungal drug used to treat vaginal yeast infection. It comes as a lotion or a suppository and disrupts the biosynthesis of fats in a yeast cell. It has a relatively broad spectrum compared to azole compounds but not triazole compounds. Testing shows that it is a suitable compound for prophylaxis for those that suffer from chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Antiparasitics are a class of medications which are indicated for the treatment of parasitic diseases, such as those caused by helminths, amoeba, ectoparasites, parasitic fungi, and protozoa, among others. Antiparasitics target the parasitic agents of the infections by destroying them or inhibiting their growth; they are usually effective against a limited number of parasites within a particular class. Antiparasitics are one of the antimicrobial drugs which include antibiotics that target bacteria, and antifungals that target fungi. They may be administered orally, intravenously or topically. Overuse or misuse of antiparasitics can lead to the development of antimicrobial resistance.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Echinocandin</span> Group of chemical compounds

Echinocandins are a class of antifungal drugs that inhibit the synthesis of β-glucan in the fungal cell wall via noncompetitive inhibition of the enzyme 1,3-β glucan synthase. The class has been termed the "penicillin of antifungals," along with the related papulacandins, as their mechanism of action resembles that of penicillin in bacteria. β-glucans are carbohydrate polymers that are cross-linked with other fungal cell wall components, the fungal equivalent to bacterial peptidoglycan. Caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin are semisynthetic echinocandin derivatives with limited clinical use due to their solubility, antifungal spectrum, and pharmacokinetic properties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nitazoxanide</span> Broad-spectrum antiparasitic and antiviral medication

Nitazoxanide, sold under the brand name Alinia among others, is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic and broad-spectrum antiviral medication that is used in medicine for the treatment of various helminthic, protozoal, and viral infections. It is indicated for the treatment of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in immunocompetent individuals and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza. Nitazoxanide has also been shown to have in vitro antiparasitic activity and clinical treatment efficacy for infections caused by other protozoa and helminths; evidence as of 2014 suggested that it possesses efficacy in treating a number of viral infections as well.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Naftifine</span> Chemical compound

Naftifine hydrochloride is an allylamine antifungal drug for the topical treatment of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bifonazole</span> Chemical compound

Bifonazole is an imidazole antifungal drug used in form of ointments.

Ascaricides are drugs to treat ascariasis that is caused by infections with parasitic nematodes (roundworms) of the genus Ascaris. The large roundworm of pigs typically infects pigs while Ascaris lumbricoides affects human populations, typically in sub-tropical and tropical areas with poor sanitation. Ascaricides belong to the group of drugs collectively called anthelmintics which expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anthelmintic</span> Antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) from the body

Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. They may also be called vermifuges or vermicides. Anthelmintics are used to treat people who are infected by helminths, a condition called helminthiasis. These drugs are also used to treat infected animals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oxfendazole</span> Chemical compound

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