Tibialis posterior muscle

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Tibialis posterior muscle
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The mucous sheaths of the tendons around the ankle. Medial aspect. (Tibialis posterior labeled at top center.)
Details
Origin Tibia and fibula
Insertion Navicular and medial cuneiform bone
Artery Posterior tibial artery
Nerve Tibial nerve
Actions Inversion of the foot and plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle
Antagonist Fibularis brevis and longus, antagonist to the inversion.
Identifiers
Latin Musculus tibialis posterior
TA98 A04.7.02.051
TA2 2666
FMA 51099
Anatomical terms of muscle

The tibialis posterior muscle is the most central of all the leg muscles, and is located in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. It is the key stabilizing muscle of the lower leg.

Contents

Structure

The tibialis posterior muscle originates on the inner posterior border of the fibula laterally. [1] It is also attached to the interosseous membrane medially, which attaches to the tibia and fibula. [1]

The tendon of the tibialis posterior muscle (sometimes called the posterior tibial tendon) descends posterior to the medial malleolus. [1] It terminates by dividing into plantar, main, and recurrent components. The main portion inserts into the tuberosity of the navicular bone. [1] The smaller portion inserts into the plantar surface of the medial cuneiform. The plantar portion inserts into the bases of the second, third and fourth metatarsals, the intermediate and lateral cuneiforms and the cuboid. The recurrent portion inserts into the sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus.

Blood is supplied to the muscle by the posterior tibial artery.

Nerve supply

The tibialis posterior muscle is suppled by the tibial nerve.

Function

The tibialis posterior muscle is a key muscle for stabilization of the lower leg. It also contracts to produce inversion of the foot, and assists in the plantarflexion of the foot at the ankle. [2] The tibialis posterior has a major role in supporting the medial arch of the foot. Dysfunction of the tibialis posterior, including rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon, can lead to flat feet in adults, as well as a valgus deformity due to unopposed eversion when inversion is lost. [3] [4]

Clinical significance

Injury to the distal tendon of the tibialis posterior muscle is rare. [2] It may be caused during exercise. [2] It usually presents with pain on the medial side of the ankle. [2] This may be treated with dry needling acupuncture. [1]

Additional images

Related Research Articles

Foot Anatomical structure found in vertebrates

The foot is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates. It is the terminal portion of a limb which bears weight and allows locomotion. In many animals with feet, the foot is a separate organ at the terminal part of the leg made up of one or more segments or bones, generally including claws or nails.

Human leg Lower extremity or limb of the human body (foot, lower leg, thigh and hip)

The human leg, in the general word sense, is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region. However, the definition in human anatomy refers only to the section of the lower limb extending from the knee to the ankle, also known as the crus or, especially in non-technical use, the shank. Legs are used for standing, and all forms of locomotion including recreational such as dancing, and constitute a significant portion of a person's mass. Female legs generally have greater hip anteversion and tibiofemoral angles, but shorter femur and tibial lengths than those in males.

Peroneus longus Superficial muscle in the lateral compartment of the leg

In human anatomy, the peroneus longus is a superficial muscle in the lateral compartment of the leg, and acts to evert and plantarflex the ankle.

Cuboid bone

In the human body, the cuboid bone is one of the seven tarsal bones of the foot.

Tibia Long bone of the lower leg

The tibia, also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates, and it connects the knee with the ankle bones. The tibia is found on the medial side of the leg next to the fibula and closer to the median plane or centre-line. The tibia is connected to the fibula by the interosseous membrane of the leg, forming a type of fibrous joint called a syndesmosis with very little movement. The tibia is named for the flute tibia. It is the second largest bone in the human body next to the femur. The leg bones are the strongest long bones as they support the rest of the body.

Ankle Region where the foot and the leg meet

The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot and the leg meet. The ankle includes three joints: the ankle joint proper or talocrural joint, the subtalar joint, and the inferior tibiofibular joint. The movements produced at this joint are dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the foot. In common usage, the term ankle refers exclusively to the ankle region. In medical terminology, "ankle" can refer broadly to the region or specifically to the talocrural joint.

Extensor hallucis longus muscle A thin muscle, situated between the tibialis anterior and the extensor digitorum longus

The extensor hallucis longus muscle is a thin skeletal muscle, situated between the tibialis anterior and the extensor digitorum longus. It extends the big toe and dorsiflects the foot. It also assists with foot eversion and inversion.

Tibialis anterior muscle Flexor muscle in humans that dorsiflexes the foot

The tibialis anterior muscle is a muscle in humans that originates along the upper two-thirds of the lateral (outside) surface of the tibia and inserts into the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the foot. It acts to dorsiflex and invert the foot. This muscle is mostly located near the shin.

Gastrocnemius muscle Calf muscle

The gastrocnemius muscle is a superficial two-headed muscle that is in the back part of the lower leg of humans. It runs from its two heads just above the knee to the heel, a three joint muscle. The muscle is named via Latin, from Greek γαστήρ (gaster) 'belly' or 'stomach' and κνήμη (knḗmē) 'leg', meaning 'stomach of leg'.

Tibial nerve

The tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus.

Flexor hallucis longus muscle One of the three deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg that attaches to the plantar surface of the distal phalanx of the great toe

The flexor hallucis longus muscle (FHL) is one of the three deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg that attaches to the plantar surface of the distal phalanx of the great toe. The other deep muscles are the flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior; the tibialis posterior is the most powerful of these deep muscles. All three muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve which comprises half of the sciatic nerve.

Flexor digitorum longus muscle Muscle located on the tibial side of the leg

The flexor digitorum longus muscle is situated on the tibial side of the leg. At its origin it is thin and pointed, but it gradually increases in size as it descends. It serves to flex the second, third, fourth, and fifth toes.

Extensor digitorum longus muscle A pennate muscle, situated at the lateral part of the front of the leg

The extensor digitorum longus is a pennate muscle, situated at the lateral part of the front of the leg.

Peroneus brevis Shorter and smaller of the peroneus muscles

The peroneus brevismuscle lies under cover of the peroneus longus, and is the shorter and smaller of the peroneus muscles.

Flexor hallucis brevis muscle Muscle in sole of the foot that leads to the big toe

Flexor hallucis brevis muscle is a muscle of the foot that flexes the big toe.

Deep peroneal nerve

The deep peroneal nerve begins at the bifurcation of the common peroneal nerve between the fibula and upper part of the peroneus longus, passes infero-medially, deep to extensor digitorum longus, to the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane, and comes into relation with the anterior tibial artery above the middle of the leg; it then descends with the artery to the front of the ankle-joint, where it divides into a lateral and a medial terminal branch.

Sole (foot) Bottom part of foot

The sole is the bottom of the foot.

Inferior extensor retinaculum of foot Y-shaped band placed in front of the ankle-joint

The inferior extensor retinaculum of the foot is a Y-shaped band placed in front of the ankle-joint, the stem of the Y being attached laterally to the upper surface of the calcaneus, in front of the depression for the interosseous talocalcaneal ligament; it is directed medialward as a double layer, one lamina passing in front of, and the other behind, the tendons of the peroneus tertius and extensor digitorum longus.

Malleolus

A malleolus is the bony prominence on each side of the human ankle.

Tarsal tunnel Canal in the ankle area

The tarsal tunnel is a passage found along the inner leg underneath the medial malleolus of the ankle.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Ma, Yun-tao (2011-01-01), Ma, Yun-tao (ed.), "CHAPTER 14 - General Principles of Treating Soft Tissue Dysfunction in Sports Injuries", Acupuncture for Sports and Trauma Rehabilitation, Saint Louis: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 212–233, doi:10.1016/b978-1-4377-0927-8.00014-2, ISBN   978-1-4377-0927-8 , retrieved 2021-02-21
  2. 1 2 3 4 Hunt, Kenneth J. (2020-01-01), Porter, David A.; Schon, Lew C. (eds.), "10 - Posterior Tibialis Tendon Injury in the Athlete", Baxter's the Foot and Ankle in Sport (Third Edition), Philadelphia: Elsevier, pp. 206–223, doi:10.1016/b978-0-323-54942-4.00010-5, ISBN   978-0-323-54942-4 , retrieved 2021-02-21
  3. Durrant, B., Chockalingam, N. and Hashmi, F., 2011. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: a review. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 101(2), pp.176-186.https://doi.org/10.7547/1010176
  4. Bowring, B. and Chockalingam, N., 2010. Conservative treatment of tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction—A review. The Foot, 20(1), pp.18-26.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foot.2009.11.001