Tibialis anterior muscle

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Tibialis anterior muscle
Tibialis anterior
Tibialis anterior muscle - animation.gif
Pronunciation /ˌtɪbiˈlɪs/ or /ˌtɪbiˈælɪs/
Origin From the upper 1/2 or 2/3 of the lateral surface of the tibia and the adjacent interosseous membrane
Insertion Medial cuneiform and the base of first metatarsal bone of the foot
Artery Anterior tibial artery
Nerve Deep Fibular (peroneal) nerve (L5)
Actions Dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot
Antagonist Fibularis longus, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Plantaris, Tibialis posterior
Latin musculus tibialis anterior
TA98 A04.7.02.037
TA2 2644
FMA 22532
Anatomical terms of muscle

The tibialis anterior muscle is a muscle of the anterior compartment of the lower leg. It originates from the upper portion of the tibia; it inserts into the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the foot. It acts to dorsiflex and invert the foot. This muscle is mostly located near the shin.


It is situated on the lateral side of the tibia; it is thick and fleshy above, tendinous below. The tibialis anterior overlaps the anterior tibial vessels and deep peroneal nerve in the upper part of the leg.


The tibialis anterior muscle is the most medial muscle of the anterior compartment of the leg. [1] [ better source needed ]

The muslce ends in a tendon which is apparent on the anteriomedial dorsal aspect of the foot close to the ankle.[ citation needed ] Its tendon is ensheathed in a synovial sheath. The tendon passes through the medial compartment superior and inferior extensor retinacula of the foot. [2]


The tibialis anterior muscle arises from the upper 2/3 of the lateral surface of the tibia and [3] [ better source needed ] the adjoining part of the interosseous membrane and deep fascia overlying it, [2] and the intermuscular septum between this muscle and the extensor digitorum longus.[ citation needed ]


It is inserted into the medial and inferior surface of the medial cuneiform bone, and adjacent portion of the first metatarsal bone. [2] '

Nerve supply

The tibialis anterior muscle is innervated by the deep fibular nerve, and recurrent genicular nerve (L4). [2]


A deep portion of the muscle is rarely inserted into the talus, or a tendinous slip may pass to the head of the first metatarsal bone or the base of the first phalanx of the great toe.[ citation needed ]

The tibiofascialis anterior, a small muscle from the lower part of the tibia to the transverse or cruciate crural ligaments or deep fascia.[ clarification needed ]


The muscle acts to dorsiflex and invert the foot. [2] It is the largest dorsiflexor of the foot. [1] The muscle also contributes to deceleration. [4] [ better source needed ]


The muscle helps maintain the medial longitudinal arch of the foot. [2] It draws up and holds the toe in a locked position. The tibialis anterior aids in any activity that requires moving the leg or keeping the leg vertical. It functions to stabilize the ankle as the foot hits the ground during the contact phase of walking (eccentric contraction) and acts later to pull the foot clear of the ground during the swing phase (concentric contraction). It also functions to 'lock' the ankle, as in toe-kicking a ball, when held in an isometric contraction. [5] [ better source needed ]

The movements of tibialis anterior are dorsiflexion and inversion of the ankle. However, actions of tibialis anterior are dependent on whether the foot is weight bearing or not (closed or open kinetic chain). When the foot is on the ground, the muscle helps to balance the leg and talus on the other tarsal bones so that the leg is kept vertical even when walking on uneven ground.[ citation needed ]

Clinical significance

A tibialis anterior hernia is a rare type of hernia in which fat or other material protrudes through a defect in the tibialis anterior muscle. [6] It may be caused by trauma, such as an inadvertent kick to the lower leg from an opposing player in a football match.[ citation needed ]

Additional images

medial view of dissected ankle has two muscles

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Foot</span> Anatomical structure found in vertebrates

The foot is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates. It is the terminal portion of a limb which bears weight and allows locomotion. In many animals with feet, the foot is a separate organ at the terminal part of the leg made up of one or more segments or bones, generally including claws and/or nails.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Human leg</span> Lower extremity or limb of the human body (foot, lower leg, thigh and hip)

The human leg is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh or sometimes even the hip or buttock region. The major bones of the leg are the femur, tibia, and adjacent fibula. The thigh is between the hip and knee, while the calf (rear) and shin (front) are between the knee and foot.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fibularis longus</span> Superficial muscle in the lateral compartment of the leg

In human anatomy, the fibularis longus is a superficial muscle in the lateral compartment of the leg. It acts to tilt the sole of the foot away from the midline of the body (eversion) and to extend the foot downward away from the body at the ankle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tibia</span> Leg bone in vertebrates

The tibia, also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates ; it connects the knee with the ankle. The tibia is found on the medial side of the leg next to the fibula and closer to the median plane. The tibia is connected to the fibula by the interosseous membrane of leg, forming a type of fibrous joint called a syndesmosis with very little movement. The tibia is named for the flute tibia. It is the second largest bone in the human body, after the femur. The leg bones are the strongest long bones as they support the rest of the body.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fibula</span> Leg bone in vertebrates

The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone on the lateral side of the tibia, to which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones and, in proportion to its length, the most slender of all the long bones. Its upper extremity is small, placed toward the back of the head of the tibia, below the knee joint and excluded from the formation of this joint. Its lower extremity inclines a little forward, so as to be on a plane anterior to that of the upper end; it projects below the tibia and forms the lateral part of the ankle joint.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ankle</span> Region where the foot and the leg meet

The ankle, or the talocrural region, or the jumping bone (informal) is the area where the foot and the leg meet. The ankle includes three joints: the ankle joint proper or talocrural joint, the subtalar joint, and the inferior tibiofibular joint. The movements produced at this joint are dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the foot. In common usage, the term ankle refers exclusively to the ankle region. In medical terminology, "ankle" can refer broadly to the region or specifically to the talocrural joint.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Extensor hallucis longus muscle</span> Thin muscle, situated between the tibialis anterior and the extensor digitorum longus

The extensor hallucis longus muscle is a thin skeletal muscle, situated between the tibialis anterior and the extensor digitorum longus. It extends the big toe and dorsiflects the foot. It also assists with foot eversion and inversion.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tibialis posterior muscle</span> Muscle in the most central of all the leg muscles

The tibialis posterior muscle is the most central of all the leg muscles, and is located in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. It is the key stabilizing muscle of the lower leg.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gastrocnemius muscle</span> Calf muscle

The gastrocnemius muscle is a superficial two-headed muscle that is in the back part of the lower leg of humans. It is located superficial to the soleus in the posterior (back) compartment of the leg. It runs from its two heads just above the knee to the heel, extending across a total of three joints.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tibial nerve</span> Branch of the sciatic nerve

The tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flexor hallucis longus muscle</span> One of the three deep muscles in the lower leg

The flexor hallucis longus muscle (FHL) attaches to the plantar surface of phalanx of the great toe and is responsible for flexing that toe. The FHL is one of the three deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg, the others being the flexor digitorum longus and the tibialis posterior. The tibialis posterior is the most powerful of these deep muscles. All three muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve which comprises half of the sciatic nerve.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flexor digitorum longus muscle</span> Muscle located on the tibial side of the leg

The flexor digitorum longus muscle is situated on the tibial side of the leg. At its origin it is thin and pointed, but it gradually increases in size as it descends. It serves to flex the second, third, fourth, and fifth toes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Extensor digitorum longus muscle</span> Pennate muscle, situated at the lateral part of the front of the leg

The extensor digitorum longus is a pennate muscle, situated at the lateral part of the front of the leg.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fibularis brevis</span> Shorter and smaller of the fibularis (peroneus) muscles

In human anatomy, the fibularis brevis is a muscle that lies underneath the fibularis longus within the lateral compartment of the leg. It acts to tilt the sole of the foot away from the midline of the body (eversion) and to extend the foot downward away from the body at the ankle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fibularis tertius</span> Muscle of the human body located in the lower limb

In human anatomy, the fibularis tertius is a muscle in the anterior compartment of the leg. It acts to tilt the sole of the foot away from the midline of the body (eversion) and to pull the foot upward toward the body (dorsiflexion).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deep fibular nerve</span>

The deep fibular nerve begins at the bifurcation of the common fibular nerve between the fibula and upper part of the fibularis longus, passes infero-medially, deep to the extensor digitorum longus, to the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane, and comes into relation with the anterior tibial artery above the middle of the leg; it then descends with the artery to the front of the ankle-joint, where it divides into a lateral and a medial terminal branch.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sole (foot)</span> Bottom part of foot

The sole is the bottom of the foot.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Superior extensor retinaculum of foot</span> Upper part of the extensor retinaculum of foot

The superior extensor retinaculum of the foot is the upper part of the extensor retinaculum of foot which extends from the ankle to the heelbone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Malleolus</span> Ankle bone protrusion

A malleolus is the bony prominence on each side of the human ankle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">First metatarsal bone</span>

The first metatarsal bone is the bone in the foot just behind the big toe. The first metatarsal bone is the shortest of the metatarsal bones and by far the thickest and strongest of them.


PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text in the public domain from page 480 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

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