Tibialis anterior muscle

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Tibialis anterior muscle
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Tibialis anterior
Tibialis anterior muscle - animation.gif
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Details
Pronunciation /ˌtɪbiˈlɪs/ or /ˌtɪbiˈælɪs/
Origin From the upper 1/2 or 2/3 of the lateral surface of the tibia and the adjacent interosseous membrane
Insertion Medial cuneiform and the base of first metatarsal bone of the foot
Artery Anterior tibial artery
Nerve Deep Fibular (peroneal) nerve (L5)
Actions Dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot
Antagonist Fibularis longus, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Plantaris, Tibialis posterior
Identifiers
Latin musculus tibialis anterior
TA A04.7.02.037
FMA 22532
Anatomical terms of muscle

The tibialis anterior is a muscle in humans that originates along the upper two-thirds of the lateral (outside) surface of the tibia and inserts into the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the foot. It acts to dorsiflex and invert the foot. This muscle is mostly located near the shin.

Contents

It is situated on the lateral side of the tibia; it is thick and fleshy above, tendinous below. The tibialis anterior overlaps the anterior tibial vessels and deep peroneal nerve in the upper part of the leg.

Structure

It arises from the lateral condyle and upper half or two-thirds of the lateral surface of the body of the tibia; from the adjoining part of the interosseous membrane; from the deep surface of the fascia; and from the intermuscular septum between it and the extensor digitorum longus.

The fibers of this circumpennate muscle are relatively parallel to the plane of insertion, ending in a tendon, apparent on the anteriomedial dorsal aspect of the foot close to the ankle.

After passing through the most medial compartments of the transverse and cruciate crural ligaments, it is inserted into the medial and under surface of the medial cuneiform bone and the base of the first metatarsal bone.

Nerve supply

Deep peroneal (fibular) nerve, branch of common peroneal (fibular) nerve (L4, L5, S1).

Variation

A deep portion of the muscle is rarely inserted into the talus, or a tendinous slip may pass to the head of the first metatarsal bone or the base of the first phalanx of the great toe.

The tibiofascialis anterior, a small muscle from the lower part of the tibia to the transverse or cruciate crural ligaments or deep fascia.[ clarification needed ]

Function

The tibialis anterior muscle is the most medial muscle of the anterior compartment of the leg. It is responsible for dorsiflexing and inverting the foot. The muscle has two origins, one being the lateral tibial condyle and the other being the upper lateral surface of the tibia, and inserts on the medial surface of the medial cuneiform and adjoining part of base of the first metatarsal of the foot allowing the toe to be pulled up and held in a locked position. It also allows for the ankle to be inverted giving the ankle horizontal movement allowing for some cushion if the ankle were to be rolled. It is innervated by the deep peroneal nerve and acts as both an antagonist and a synergist of the tibialis posterior. However, the most accurate antagonist of the tibialis anterior is the peroneus longus. The tibialis anterior aides in the activities of walking, running, hiking, kicking a ball, or any activity that requires moving the leg or keeping the leg vertical. It functions to stabilize the ankle as the foot hits the ground during the contact phase of walking (eccentric contraction) and acts later to pull the foot clear of the ground during the swing phase (concentric contraction). It also functions to 'lock' the ankle, as in toe-kicking a ball, when held in an isometric contraction.

Antagonists are plantar-flexors of the posterior compartment such as soleus and gastrocnemius.

The movements of tibialis anterior are dorsiflexion and inversion of the ankle. However, actions of tibialis anterior are dependent on whether the foot is weight bearing or not (closed or open kinetic chain). When the foot is on the ground, the muscle helps to balance the leg and talus on the other tarsal bones so that the leg is kept vertical even when walking on uneven ground.

Additional images

medial view of dissected ankle has two muscles

Related Research Articles

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Human leg lower extremity or limb of the human body (foot, lower leg, thigh and hip)

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Peroneus longus muscle

In human anatomy, the peroneus longus is a superficial muscle in the lateral compartment of the leg, and acts to evert and plantarflex the ankle.

Cuboid bone bone of the ankle

In the human body, the cuboid bone is one of the seven tarsal bones of the foot.

Fibula smaller of the two bones of the leg below the knee for vertebrates

The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone on the lateral side of the tibia, to which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones and, in proportion to its length, the slenderest of all the long bones. Its upper extremity is small, placed toward the back of the head of the tibia, below the knee joint and excluded from the formation of this joint. Its lower extremity inclines a little forward, so as to be on a plane anterior to that of the upper end; it projects below the tibia and forms the lateral part of the ankle joint.

Extensor hallucis longus muscle

The extensor hallucis longus is a thin muscle, situated between the tibialis anterior and the extensor digitorum longus, that functions to extend the big toe and dorsiflects the foot, and assists with foot eversion and inversion.

Tibialis posterior muscle

The tibialis posterior is the most central of all the leg muscles, and is located in the deep posterior compartment of the leg.

Tibial nerve

The tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus.

Flexor hallucis longus muscle

The flexor hallucis longus muscle (FHL) is one of the three deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg that attaches to the plantar surface of the distal phalanx of the great toe. The other deep muscles are the flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior; the tibialis posterior is the most powerful of these deep muscles. All three muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve which comprises half of the sciatic nerve.

Flexor digitorum longus muscle Muscle

The flexor digitorum longus is situated on the tibial side of the leg. At its origin it is thin and pointed, but it gradually increases in size as it descends. This muscle serves to curl the second, third, fourth, and fifth toes.

Extensor digitorum longus muscle

The extensor digitorum longus is a pennate muscle, situated at the lateral part of the front of the leg.

Peroneus brevis muscle

The peroneus brevis muscle lies under cover of the peroneus longus, and is the shorter and smaller of the peroneus muscles.

Peroneus tertius muscle

The peroneus tertius is a muscle of the human body located in the lower limb.

Superficial peroneal nerve

The superficial peroneal nerve innervates the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis muscles and the skin over the antero-lateral aspect of the leg along with the greater part of the dorsum of the foot.

Deep peroneal nerve

The deep peroneal nerve begins at the bifurcation of the common peroneal nerve between the fibula and upper part of the peroneus longus, passes infero-medially, deep to extensor digitorum longus, to the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane, and comes into relation with the anterior tibial artery above the middle of the leg; it then descends with the artery to the front of the ankle-joint, where it divides into a lateral and a medial terminal branch.

Sole (foot) bottom part of foot

The sole is the bottom of the foot.

Peroneus muscles group of muscles in the leg

The peroneus muscles are a group of muscles in the leg. While the muscle group exists in many variations, it is normally composed of three muscles: peroneus longus, brevis and tertius. The peroneus muscles originates from lower two-third of the lateral surface of the shaft of the fibula and the anterior and posterior inter-muscular septa of the leg. It inserts onto the metatarsals.

Superior extensor retinaculum of foot

The superior extensor retinaculum of the foot is the upper part of the extensor retinaculum of foot which extends from the ankle to the heelbone.

Anterior compartment of leg part of the Fascial compartments of leg

The anterior compartment of the leg is a fascial compartment of the lower limb. It contains muscles that produce dorsiflexion and participate in inversion and eversion of the foot, as well as vascular and nervous elements including the anterior tibial artery and veins, and the deep fibular nerve.

Deep fascia of leg

The deep fascia of leg, or crural fascia forms a complete investment to the muscles, and is fused with the periosteum over the subcutaneous surfaces of the bones.

References

This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 480 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)