Tibialis anterior muscle

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Tibialis anterior muscle
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Tibialis anterior
Tibialis anterior muscle - animation.gif
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Details
Pronunciation /ˌtɪbiˈlɪs/ or /ˌtɪbiˈælɪs/
Origin From the upper 1/2 or 2/3 of the lateral surface of the tibia and the adjacent interosseous membrane
Insertion Medial cuneiform and the base of first metatarsal bone of the foot
Artery Anterior tibial artery
Nerve Deep Fibular (peroneal) nerve (L5)
Actions Dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot
Antagonist Fibularis longus, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Plantaris, Tibialis posterior
Identifiers
Latin musculus tibialis anterior
TA98 A04.7.02.037
TA2 2644
FMA 22532
Anatomical terms of muscle

The tibialis anterior muscle is a muscle in humans that originates along the upper two-thirds of the lateral (outside) surface of the tibia and inserts into the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the foot. It acts to dorsiflex and invert the foot. This muscle is mostly located near the shin.

Contents

It is situated on the lateral side of the tibia; it is thick and fleshy above, tendinous below. The tibialis anterior overlaps the anterior tibial vessels and deep peroneal nerve in the upper part of the leg.

Structure

The tibialis anterior muscle arises from:

The fibers of this circumpennate muscle are relatively parallel to the plane of insertion, ending in a tendon, apparent on the anteriomedial dorsal aspect of the foot close to the ankle.

It passes through the most medial compartments of the transverse and cruciate crural ligaments. It is inserted into the medial and under surface of the medial cuneiform bone and the base of the first metatarsal bone. [2]

Nerve supply

The tibialis anterior muscle is supplied by the deep fibular nerve (L4, L5), a branch of common fibular nerve. [1] [3]

Variation

A deep portion of the muscle is rarely inserted into the talus, or a tendinous slip may pass to the head of the first metatarsal bone or the base of the first phalanx of the great toe.

The tibiofascialis anterior, a small muscle from the lower part of the tibia to the transverse or cruciate crural ligaments or deep fascia.[ clarification needed ]

Function

The tibialis anterior muscle is the most medial muscle of the anterior compartment of the leg. It is responsible for dorsiflexing and inverting the foot, and is the largest dorsiflexor of the foot. [1] The muscle has two origins, one being the lateral tibial condyle and the other being the upper lateral surface of the tibia, and inserts on the medial surface of the medial cuneiform and adjoining part of base of the first metatarsal of the foot allowing the toe to be pulled up and held in a locked position. It also allows for the ankle to be inverted giving the ankle horizontal movement allowing for some cushion if the ankle were to be rolled. It is innervated by the deep peroneal nerve and acts as both an antagonist and a synergist of the tibialis posterior. However, the most accurate antagonist of the tibialis anterior is the peroneus longus. The tibialis anterior aides in the activities of walking, running, hiking, kicking a ball, or any activity that requires moving the leg or keeping the leg vertical. It functions to stabilize the ankle as the foot hits the ground during the contact phase of walking (eccentric contraction) and acts later to pull the foot clear of the ground during the swing phase (concentric contraction). It also functions to 'lock' the ankle, as in toe-kicking a ball, when held in an isometric contraction. [4]

Antagonists are plantar-flexors of the posterior compartment such as soleus and gastrocnemius.

The movements of tibialis anterior are dorsiflexion and inversion of the ankle. However, actions of tibialis anterior are dependent on whether the foot is weight bearing or not (closed or open kinetic chain). When the foot is on the ground, the muscle helps to balance the leg and talus on the other tarsal bones so that the leg is kept vertical even when walking on uneven ground.

Clinical significance

Some clinicians attempt to treat tibialis anterior muscle issues with acupuncture techniques, such as dry needling. [1] There is significant bias in studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture versus medical treatments, [5] and the decision to use acupuncture should be made carefully.

A tibialis anterior hernia is a rare type of hernia in which fat or other material protrudes through a defect in the tibialis anterior muscle. [6] It may be caused by trauma, such as an inadvertent kick to the lower leg from an opposing player in a football match.

Additional images

medial view of dissected ankle has two muscles

See also

Related Research Articles

Foot Anatomical structure found in vertebrates

The foot is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates. It is the terminal portion of a limb which bears weight and allows locomotion. In many animals with feet, the foot is a separate organ at the terminal part of the leg made up of one or more segments or bones, generally including claws or nails.

Human leg Lower extremity or limb of the human body (foot, lower leg, thigh and hip)

The human leg, in the general word sense, is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region. However, the definition in human anatomy refers only to the section of the lower limb extending from the knee to the ankle, also known as the crus or, especially in non-technical use, the shank. Legs are used for standing, and all forms of locomotion including recreational such as dancing, and constitute a significant portion of a person's mass. Female legs generally have greater hip anteversion and tibiofemoral angles, but shorter femur and tibial lengths than those in males.

Fibularis longus Superficial muscle in the lateral compartment of the leg

In human anatomy, the fibularis longus is a superficial muscle in the lateral compartment of the leg. It acts to tilt the sole of the foot away from the midline of the body (eversion) and to extend the foot downward away from the body at the ankle.

Cuboid bone

In the human body, the cuboid bone is one of the seven tarsal bones of the foot.

Tibia Long bone of the lower leg

The tibia, also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates, and it connects the knee with the ankle bones. The tibia is found on the medial side of the leg next to the fibula and closer to the median plane or centre-line. The tibia is connected to the fibula by the interosseous membrane of leg, forming a type of fibrous joint called a syndesmosis with very little movement. The tibia is named for the flute tibia. It is the second largest bone in the human body next to the femur. The leg bones are the strongest long bones as they support the rest of the body.

Fibula Leg bone on the lateral side of the tibia

The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone on the lateral side of the tibia, to which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones and, in proportion to its length, the most slender of all the long bones. Its upper extremity is small, placed toward the back of the head of the tibia, below the knee joint and excluded from the formation of this joint. Its lower extremity inclines a little forward, so as to be on a plane anterior to that of the upper end; it projects below the tibia and forms the lateral part of the ankle joint.

Ankle Region where the foot and the leg meet

The ankle, or the talocrural region, or the jumping bone (informal) is the area where the foot and the leg meet. The ankle includes three joints: the ankle joint proper or talocrural joint, the subtalar joint, and the inferior tibiofibular joint. The movements produced at this joint are dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the foot. In common usage, the term ankle refers exclusively to the ankle region. In medical terminology, "ankle" can refer broadly to the region or specifically to the talocrural joint.

Extensor hallucis longus muscle Thin muscle, situated between the tibialis anterior and the extensor digitorum longus

The extensor hallucis longus muscle is a thin skeletal muscle, situated between the tibialis anterior and the extensor digitorum longus. It extends the big toe and dorsiflects the foot. It also assists with foot eversion and inversion.

Tibialis posterior muscle Muscle in the most central of all the leg muscles

The tibialis posterior muscle is the most central of all the leg muscles, and is located in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. It is the key stabilizing muscle of the lower leg.

The anterior tibial artery is an artery of the leg. It carries blood to the anterior compartment of the leg and dorsal surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery.

Tibial nerve Branch of the sciatic nerve

The tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus.

Flexor hallucis longus muscle One of the three deep muscles in the lower leg

The flexor hallucis longus muscle (FHL) is one of the three deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg that attaches to the plantar surface of the distal phalanx of the great toe. The other deep muscles are the flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior; the tibialis posterior is the most powerful of these deep muscles. All three muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve which comprises half of the sciatic nerve.

Flexor digitorum longus muscle Muscle located on the tibial side of the leg

The flexor digitorum longus muscle is situated on the tibial side of the leg. At its origin it is thin and pointed, but it gradually increases in size as it descends. It serves to flex the second, third, fourth, and fifth toes.

Extensor digitorum longus muscle Pennate muscle, situated at the lateral part of the front of the leg

The extensor digitorum longus is a pennate muscle, situated at the lateral part of the front of the leg.

Fibularis brevis Shorter and smaller of the fibularis (peroneus) muscles

In human anatomy, the fibularis brevis is a muscle that lies underneath the fibularis longus within the lateral compartment of the leg. It acts to tilt the sole of the foot away from the midline of the body (eversion) and to extend the foot downward away from the body at the ankle.

Fibularis tertius Muscle of the human body located in the lower limb

In human anatomy, the fibularis tertius is a muscle in the anterior compartment of the leg. It acts to tilt the sole of the foot away from the midline of the body (eversion) and to pull the foot upward toward the body (dorsiflexion).

Deep fibular nerve

The deep fibular nerve begins at the bifurcation of the common fibular nerve between the fibula and upper part of the fibularis longus, passes infero-medially, deep to the extensor digitorum longus, to the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane, and comes into relation with the anterior tibial artery above the middle of the leg; it then descends with the artery to the front of the ankle-joint, where it divides into a lateral and a medial terminal branch.

Superior extensor retinaculum of foot Upper part of the extensor retinaculum of foot

The superior extensor retinaculum of the foot is the upper part of the extensor retinaculum of foot which extends from the ankle to the heelbone.

First metatarsal bone

The first metatarsal bone is the bone in the foot just behind the big toe. The first metatarsal bone is the shortest of the metatarsal bones and by far the thickest and strongest of them.

Deep fascia of leg Forms a complete investment to the muscles

The deep fascia of leg, or crural fascia forms a complete investment to the muscles, and is fused with the periosteum over the subcutaneous surfaces of the bones.

References

PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text in the public domain from page 480 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

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