Gluteus maximus

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Gluteus Maximus
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The gluteus maximus, with surrounding fascia. Right buttock, viewed from behind, skin covering removed.
Posterior Hip Muscles 3.PNG
The gluteus medius and nearby muscles.
Details
Origin Gluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament
Insertion Greater trochanter of the femur and iliotibial tract
Artery Superior and inferior gluteal arteries
Nerve Inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1 and S2 nerve roots)
Actions External rotation and extension of the hip joint, supports the extended knee through the iliotibial tract, chief antigravity muscle in sitting and abduction of the hip
Antagonist Iliacus, psoas major and psoas minor
Identifiers
Latin Musculus glutaeus maximus
TA A04.7.02.006
FMA 22314
Anatomical terms of muscle

The gluteus maximus is the main extensor muscle of the hip. It is the largest and outermost of the three gluteal muscles and makes up a large part of the shape and appearance of each side of the hips. Its thick fleshy mass, in a quadrilateral shape, forms the prominence of the buttocks. The other gluteal muscles are the medius and minimus, and sometimes informally these are collectively referred to as the "glutes".

Contents

Its large size is one of the most characteristic features of the muscular system in humans, [1] connected as it is with the power of maintaining the trunk in the erect posture. Other primates have much flatter hips and can not sustain standing erectly.

The muscle is made up of muscle fascicles lying parallel with one another, and collected together into larger bundles separated by fibrous septa.

Structure

Muscles of the gluteal and posterior femoral regions, showing origin and insertion of gluteus maximus muscle. Gluteus maximus muscle.PNG
Muscles of the gluteal and posterior femoral regions, showing origin and insertion of gluteus maximus muscle.

The gluteus maximus is the outermost muscle of the buttocks. It arises from connections to nearby structures in this area. It arises from the posterior gluteal line of the inner upper ilium, a bone of the pelvis, as well as above it to the iliac crest and slightly below it; from the lower part of the sacrum and the side of the coccyx, the tailbone; from the aponeurosis of the erector spinae (lumbodorsal fascia), the sacrotuberous ligament, and the fascia covering the gluteus medius (gluteal aponeurosis). [2]

The fibers are directed obliquely downward and lateralward;

The gluteus maximus ends in two main areas:

Bursae

Three bursae are usually found in relation with the deep surface of this muscle:

Function

The gluteus maximus straightens the leg at the hip; when the leg is flexed at the hip, the gluteus maximus extends it to bring the leg into a straight line with the body. [2]

Taking its fixed point from below, it acts upon the pelvis, supporting it and the trunk upon the head of the femur; this is particularly obvious in standing on one leg.

Its most powerful action is to cause the body to regain the erect position after stooping, by drawing the pelvis backward, being assisted in this action by the biceps femoris (long head), semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and adductor magnus.

The gluteus maximus is a tensor of the fascia lata, and by its connection with the iliotibial band steadies the femur on the articular surfaces of the tibia during standing, when the extensor muscles are relaxed.

The lower part of the muscle also acts as an adductor and external rotator of the limb. The upper fibers act as abductors of the hip joints.

Society and culture

Training

The gluteus maximus is involved in a number of sports, from running to weight-lifting. A number of exercises focus on the gluteus maximus as well as other muscles of the upper leg.

Clinical significance

Functional assessment can be useful in assessing injuries to the gluteus maximus and surrounding muscles. These tests include:

30 second chair to stand test

This test measures a participant's ability to stand up from a seated position as many times as possible in a thirty-second period of time. [3] Testing the number of times a person can stand up in a thirty-second period helps assess strength, flexibility, pain, and endurance, [3] which can help determine how far along a person is in rehabilitation, or how much work is still to be done.

Passive piriformis stretch.

The piriformis test measures flexibility of the gluteus maximus. This requires a trained professional and is based on the angle of external and internal rotation in relation to normal range of motion without injury or impingement. [4]

Other animals

The gluteus maximus is larger in size and thicker than in other primates. [2] Its large size is one of the most characteristic features of the muscular system in humans, [5] connected as it is with the power of maintaining the trunk in the erect posture. Other primates have much flatter hips and can not sustain standing erectly.[ citation needed ]

In other primates, gluteus maximus consists of ischiofemoralis, a small muscle that corresponds to the human gluteus maximus and originates from the ilium and the sacroiliac ligament, and gluteus maximus proprius, a large muscle that extends from the ischial tuberosity to a relatively more distant insertion on the femur. In adapting to bipedal gait, reorganization of the attachment of the muscle as well as the moment arm was required. [6]

Additional images

See also

Related Research Articles

Human leg lower extremity or limb of the human body (foot, lower leg, thigh and hip)

The human leg, in the general word sense, is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region. However, the definition in human anatomy refers only to the section of the lower limb extending from the knee to the ankle, also known as the crus. Legs are used for standing, and all forms of locomotion including recreational such as dancing, and constitute a significant portion of a person's mass. Female legs generally have greater hip anteversion and tibiofemoral angles, but shorter femur and tibial lengths than those in males.

Gluteus medius one of the three gluteal muscles

The gluteus medius, one of the three gluteal muscles, is a broad, thick, radiating muscle. It is situated on the outer surface of the pelvis.

Gluteus minimus smallest of the three gluteal muscles

The gluteus minimus, or glutæus minimus, the smallest of the three gluteal muscles, is situated immediately beneath the gluteus medius.

Greater trochanter

The greater trochanter of the femur is a large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence and a part of the skeletal system.

Piriformis muscle One of six small hip muscles in the lateral rotator group

The piriformis is a muscle in the gluteal region of the lower limbs. It is one of the six muscles in the lateral rotator group.

Hip anatomical region

In vertebrate anatomy, hip refers to either an anatomical region or a joint.

The biceps femoris is a muscle of the thigh located to the posterior, or back. As its name implies, it has two parts, one of which forms part of the hamstrings muscle group.

External obturator muscle One of six small hip muscles in the lateral rotator group

The external obturator muscle, obturator externus muscle is a flat, triangular muscle, which covers the outer surface of the anterior wall of the pelvis.

Adductor magnus muscle muscle in the thigh

The adductor magnus is a large triangular muscle, situated on the medial side of the thigh.

Vastus lateralis muscle Human muscle

The vastus lateralis, also called the ''vastus externus'' is the largest and most powerful part of the quadriceps femoris, a muscle in the thigh. Together with other muscles of the quadriceps group, it serves to extend the knee joint, moving the lower leg forward. It arises from a series of flat, broad tendons attached to the femur, and attaches to the outer border of the patella. It ultimately joins with the other muscles that make up the quadriceps in the quadriceps tendon, which travels over the knee to connect to the tibia. The vastus lateralis is the recommended site for intramuscular injection in infants less than 7 months old and those unable to walk, with loss of muscular tone.

Iliopsoas Muscle

The iliopsoas refers to the joined psoas and the iliacus muscles. The two muscles are separate in the abdomen, but usually merge in the thigh. As such, they are usually given the common name iliopsoas. The iliopsoas muscle joins to the femur at the lesser trochanter. It acts as the strongest flexor of the hip.

Tensor fasciae latae muscle TFL Muscle

The tensor fasciae latae is a muscle of the thigh. Together with the gluteus maximus, it acts on the iliotibial band and is continuous with the iliotibial tract, which attaches to the tibia. The muscle assists in keeping the balance of the pelvis while standing, walking, or running.

Gluteal muscles pictures

The gluteal muscles are a group of three muscles which make up the buttocks: the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus. The three muscles originate from the ilium and sacrum and insert on the femur. The functions of the muscles include extension, abduction, external rotation, and internal rotation of the hip joint.

Muscles of the hip

In human anatomy, the muscles of the hip joint are those muscles that cause movement in the hip. Most modern anatomists define 17 of these muscles, although some additional muscles may sometimes be considered. These are often divided into four groups according to their orientation around the hip joint: the gluteal group; the lateral rotator group; the adductor group; and the iliopsoas group.

Inferior gluteal nerve

The inferior gluteal nerve is the main motor neuron that innervates the gluteus maximus muscle. It is responsible for the movement of the gluteus maximus in activities requiring the hip to extend the thigh, such as climbing stairs. Injury to this nerve is rare but often occurs as a complication of posterior approach to the hip during hip replacement. When damaged, one would develop gluteus maximus lurch, which is a gait abnormality which causes the individual to 'lurch' backwards to compensate lack in hip extension.

Superior gluteal artery largest branch of the internal iliac artery

The superior gluteal artery is the largest branch of the internal iliac artery, and appears to be the continuation of the posterior division of that vessel. It is a short artery which runs backward between the lumbosacral trunk and the first sacral nerve, and divides into a superficial and a deep branch after passing out of the pelvis above the upper border of the piriformis muscle.

Inferior gluteal artery one of two terminal branches of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery

The inferior gluteal artery, the smaller of the two terminal branches of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery, is distributed chiefly to the buttock and back of the thigh.

The gluteal aponeurosis is a fibrous membrane, from the fascia lata, that lies between the iliac crest and the superior border of the gluteus maximus. A part of the gluteus medius arises from this membrane.

Hip bone bone of the pelvis

The hip bone is a large irregular bone, constricted in the center and expanded above and below. In some vertebrates it is composed of three parts: the ilium, ischium, and the pubis.

Pelvis Lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs

The pelvis is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs or the skeleton embedded in it.

References

This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 474 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. Norman Eizenberg et al., General Anatomy: Principles and Applications (2008), p. 17.
  2. 1 2 3 Standring, Susan, ed. (2016). ""Pelvic girdle, gluteal region and thigh: gluteus maximus". Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice (41st ed.). Philadelphia. pp. 1357–8. ISBN   9780702052309. OCLC   920806541.
  3. 1 2 Dobson, F.; Bennell, K.; Hinman, R.; Abbott, H.; Roos, E. "OARSI recommended performance-based tests to assess physical function in people diagnosed with hip or knee osteoarthritis" (PDF). PMID   23680877.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. "Passive Piriformis ROM" . Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  5. Norman Eizenberg et al., General Anatomy: Principles and Applications (2008), p. 17.
  6. Hogervorst T, Vereecke EE (2015). "Evolution of the human hip. Part 2: muscling the double extension". Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery. 2 (1): 3–14. doi:10.1093/jhps/hnu014. PMC   4718477 . PMID   27011809.