# Truncated 5-cell

Last updated
 5-cell Truncated 5-cell Bitruncated 5-cell Schlegel diagrams centered on [3,3] (cells at opposite at [3,3])

In geometry, a truncated 5-cell is a uniform 4-polytope (4-dimensional uniform polytope) formed as the truncation of the regular 5-cell.

## Contents

There are two degrees of truncations, including a bitruncation.

## Truncated 5-cell

Truncated 5-cell

Schlegel diagram
(tetrahedron cells visible)
Type Uniform 4-polytope
Schläfli symbol t0,1{3,3,3}
t{3,3,3}
Coxeter diagram
Cells105 (3.3.3)
5 (3.6.6)
Faces3020 {3}
10 {6}
Edges40
Vertices20
Vertex figure
Equilateral-triangular pyramid
Symmetry group A4, [3,3,3], order 120
Properties convex, isogonal
Uniform index 2 3 4

The truncated 5-cell, truncated pentachoron or truncated 4-simplex is bounded by 10 cells: 5 tetrahedra, and 5 truncated tetrahedra. Each vertex is surrounded by 3 truncated tetrahedra and one tetrahedron; the vertex figure is an elongated tetrahedron.

### Construction

The truncated 5-cell may be constructed from the 5-cell by truncating its vertices at 1/3 of its edge length. This transforms the 5 tetrahedral cells into truncated tetrahedra, and introduces 5 new tetrahedral cells positioned near the original vertices.

### Structure

The truncated tetrahedra are joined to each other at their hexagonal faces, and to the tetrahedra at their triangular faces.

Seen in a configuration matrix, all incidence counts between elements are shown. The diagonal f-vector numbers are derived through the Wythoff construction, dividing the full group order of a subgroup order by removing one mirror at a time. [1]

A4 k-face fkf0f1f2f3 k-figure Notes
A2( )f020133331 {3}v( ) A4/A2 = 5!/3! = 20
A2A1{ }f1210*3030 {3} A4/A2A1 = 5!/3!/2 = 10
A1A12*301221 { }v( ) A4/A1A1 = 5!/2/2 = 30
A2A1 t{3} f263310*20{ }A4/A2A1 = 5!/3!/2 = 10
A2 {3} 303*2011A4/A2 = 5!/3! = 20
A3 t{3,3} f312612445*( )A4/A3 = 5!/4! = 5
{3,3} 40604*5

### Projections

The truncated tetrahedron-first Schlegel diagram projection of the truncated 5-cell into 3-dimensional space has the following structure:

• The projection envelope is a truncated tetrahedron.
• One of the truncated tetrahedral cells project onto the entire envelope.
• One of the tetrahedral cells project onto a tetrahedron lying at the center of the envelope.
• Four flattened tetrahedra are joined to the triangular faces of the envelope, and connected to the central tetrahedron via 4 radial edges. These are the images of the remaining 4 tetrahedral cells.
• Between the central tetrahedron and the 4 hexagonal faces of the envelope are 4 irregular truncated tetrahedral volumes, which are the images of the 4 remaining truncated tetrahedral cells.

This layout of cells in projection is analogous to the layout of faces in the face-first projection of the truncated tetrahedron into 2-dimensional space. The truncated 5-cell is the 4-dimensional analogue of the truncated tetrahedron.

### Images

orthographic projections
Ak
Coxeter plane
A4A3A2
Graph
Dihedral symmetry [5][4][3]

### Alternate names

• Truncated pentatope
• Truncated 4-simplex
• Truncated pentachoron (Acronym: tip) (Jonathan Bowers)

### Coordinates

The Cartesian coordinates for the vertices of an origin-centered truncated 5-cell having edge length 2 are:

 ${\displaystyle \left({\frac {3}{\sqrt {10}}},\ {\sqrt {3 \over 2}},\ \pm {\sqrt {3}},\ \pm 1\right)}$${\displaystyle \left({\frac {3}{\sqrt {10}}},\ {\sqrt {3 \over 2}},\ 0,\ \pm 2\right)}$${\displaystyle \left({\frac {3}{\sqrt {10}}},\ {\frac {-1}{\sqrt {6}}},\ {\frac {2}{\sqrt {3}}},\ \pm 2\right)}$${\displaystyle \left({\frac {3}{\sqrt {10}}},\ {\frac {-1}{\sqrt {6}}},\ {\frac {-4}{\sqrt {3}}},\ 0\right)}$${\displaystyle \left({\frac {3}{\sqrt {10}}},\ {\frac {-5}{\sqrt {6}}},\ {\frac {1}{\sqrt {3}}},\ \pm 1\right)}$${\displaystyle \left({\frac {3}{\sqrt {10}}},\ {\frac {-5}{\sqrt {6}}},\ {\frac {-2}{\sqrt {3}}},\ 0\right)}$ ${\displaystyle \left(-{\sqrt {2 \over 5}},\ {\sqrt {2 \over 3}},\ {\frac {2}{\sqrt {3}}},\ \pm 2\right)}$${\displaystyle \left(-{\sqrt {2 \over 5}},\ {\sqrt {2 \over 3}},\ {\frac {-4}{\sqrt {3}}},\ 0\right)}$${\displaystyle \left(-{\sqrt {2 \over 5}},\ -{\sqrt {6}},\ 0,\ 0\right)}$${\displaystyle \left({\frac {-7}{\sqrt {10}}},\ {\frac {1}{\sqrt {6}}},\ {\frac {1}{\sqrt {3}}},\ \pm 1\right)}$${\displaystyle \left({\frac {-7}{\sqrt {10}}},\ {\frac {1}{\sqrt {6}}},\ {\frac {-2}{\sqrt {3}}},\ 0\right)}$${\displaystyle \left({\frac {-7}{\sqrt {10}}},\ -{\sqrt {3 \over 2}},\ 0,\ 0\right)}$

More simply, the vertices of the truncated 5-cell can be constructed on a hyperplane in 5-space as permutations of (0,0,0,1,2) or of (0,1,2,2,2). These coordinates come from positive orthant facets of the truncated pentacross and bitruncated penteract respectively.

The convex hull of the truncated 5-cell and its dual (assuming that they are congruent) is a nonuniform polychoron composed of 60 cells: 10 tetrahedra, 20 octahedra (as triangular antiprisms), 30 tetrahedra (as tetragonal disphenoids), and 40 vertices. Its vertex figure is a hexakis triangular cupola.

## Bitruncated 5-cell

Bitruncated 5-cell

Schlegel diagram with alternate cells hidden.
Type Uniform 4-polytope
Schläfli symbol t1,2{3,3,3}
2t{3,3,3}
Coxeter diagram
or or
Cells10 (3.6.6)
Faces4020 {3}
20 {6}
Edges60
Vertices30
Vertex figure
({ }v{ })
dual polytope Disphenoidal 30-cell
Symmetry group Aut(A4), [[3,3,3]], order 240
Properties convex, isogonal, isotoxal, isochoric
Uniform index 5 6 7

The bitruncated 5-cell (also called a bitruncated pentachoron, decachoron and 10-cell) is a 4-dimensional polytope, or 4-polytope, composed of 10 cells in the shape of truncated tetrahedra.

Topologically, under its highest symmetry, [[3,3,3]], there is only one geometrical form, containing 10 uniform truncated tetrahedra. The hexagons are always regular because of the polychoron's inversion symmetry, of which the regular hexagon is the only such case among ditrigons (an isogonal hexagon with 3-fold symmetry).

E. L. Elte identified it in 1912 as a semiregular polytope.

Each hexagonal face of the truncated tetrahedra is joined in complementary orientation to the neighboring truncated tetrahedron. Each edge is shared by two hexagons and one triangle. Each vertex is surrounded by 4 truncated tetrahedral cells in a tetragonal disphenoid vertex figure.

The bitruncated 5-cell is the intersection of two pentachora in dual configuration. As such, it is also the intersection of a penteract with the hyperplane that bisects the penteract's long diagonal orthogonally. In this sense it is a 4-dimensional analog of the regular octahedron (intersection of regular tetrahedra in dual configuration / tesseract bisection on long diagonal) and the regular hexagon (equilateral triangles / cube). The 5-dimensional analog is the birectified 5-simplex, and the ${\displaystyle n}$-dimensional analog is the polytope whose Coxeter–Dynkin diagram is linear with rings on the middle one or two nodes.

The bitruncated 5-cell is one of the two non-regular uniform 4-polytopes which are cell-transitive. The other is the bitruncated 24-cell, which is composed of 48 truncated cubes.

### Symmetry

This 4-polytope has a higher extended pentachoric symmetry (2×A4, [[3,3,3]]), doubled to order 240, because the element corresponding to any element of the underlying 5-cell can be exchanged with one of those corresponding to an element of its dual.

### Images

orthographic projections
Ak
Coxeter plane
A4A3A2
Graph
Dihedral symmetry [[5]] = [10][4][[3]] = [6]
 stereographic projection of spherical 4-polytope (centred on a hexagon face) Net (polytope)

### Coordinates

The Cartesian coordinates of an origin-centered bitruncated 5-cell having edge length 2 are:

More simply, the vertices of the bitruncated 5-cell can be constructed on a hyperplane in 5-space as permutations of (0,0,1,2,2). These represent positive orthant facets of the bitruncated pentacross. Another 5-space construction, centered on the origin are all 20 permutations of (-1,-1,0,1,1).

The bitruncated 5-cell can be seen as the intersection of two regular 5-cells in dual positions. = .

Isotopic uniform truncated simplices
Dim.2345678
Name
Coxeter
Hexagon
=
t{3} = {6}
Octahedron
=
r{3,3} = {31,1} = {3,4}
${\displaystyle \left\{{\begin{array}{l}3\\3\end{array}}\right\}}$
Decachoron

2t{33}
Dodecateron

2r{34} = {32,2}
${\displaystyle \left\{{\begin{array}{l}3,3\\3,3\end{array}}\right\}}$

3t{35}

3r{36} = {33,3}
${\displaystyle \left\{{\begin{array}{l}3,3,3\\3,3,3\end{array}}\right\}}$

4t{37}
Images
Vertex figure( )v( )
{ }×{ }

{ }v{ }

{3}×{3}

{3}v{3}
{3,3}x{3,3}
{3,3}v{3,3}
Facets {3} t{3,3} r{3,3,3} 2t{3,3,3,3} 2r{3,3,3,3,3} 3t{3,3,3,3,3,3}
As
intersecting
dual
simplexes

The regular skew polyhedron, {6,4|3}, exists in 4-space with 4 hexagonal around each vertex, in a zig-zagging nonplanar vertex figure. These hexagonal faces can be seen on the bitruncated 5-cell, using all 60 edges and 30 vertices. The 20 triangular faces of the bitruncated 5-cell can be seen as removed. The dual regular skew polyhedron, {4,6|3}, is similarly related to the square faces of the runcinated 5-cell.

### Disphenoidal 30-cell

Disphenoidal 30-cell
Typeperfect [2] polychoron
Symbolf1,2A4 [2]
Coxeter
Cells30 congruent tetragonal disphenoids
Faces60 congruent isosceles
(2 short edges)
Edges4020 of length ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle 1}$
20 of length ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\sqrt {3/5}}}$
Vertices10
Vertex figure
(Triakis tetrahedron)
Dual Bitruncated 5-cell
Coxeter group Aut(A4), [[3,3,3]], order 240
Orbit vector(1, 2, 1, 1)
Properties convex, isochoric

The disphenoidal 30-cell is the dual of the bitruncated 5-cell. It is a 4-dimensional polytope (or polychoron) derived from the 5-cell. It is the convex hull of two 5-cells in opposite orientations.

Being the dual of a uniform polychoron, it is cell-transitive, consisting of 30 congruent tetragonal disphenoids. In addition, it is vertex-transitive under the group Aut(A4).

These polytope are from a set of 9 uniform 4-polytope constructed from the [3,3,3] Coxeter group.

Name 5-cell truncated 5-cell rectified 5-cell cantellated 5-cell bitruncated 5-cell cantitruncated 5-cell runcinated 5-cell runcitruncated 5-cell omnitruncated 5-cell
Schläfli
symbol
{3,3,3}
3r{3,3,3}
t{3,3,3}
2t{3,3,3}
r{3,3,3}
2r{3,3,3}
rr{3,3,3}
r2r{3,3,3}
2t{3,3,3}tr{3,3,3}
t2r{3,3,3}
t0,3{3,3,3}t0,1,3{3,3,3}
t0,2,3{3,3,3}
t0,1,2,3{3,3,3}
Coxeter
diagram

Schlegel
diagram
A4
Coxeter plane
Graph
A3 Coxeter plane
Graph
A2 Coxeter plane
Graph

## Related Research Articles

A cuboctahedron is a polyhedron with 8 triangular faces and 6 square faces. A cuboctahedron has 12 identical vertices, with 2 triangles and 2 squares meeting at each, and 24 identical edges, each separating a triangle from a square. As such, it is a quasiregular polyhedron, i.e. an Archimedean solid that is not only vertex-transitive but also edge-transitive. It is radially equilateral.

In geometry, the truncated tetrahedron is an Archimedean solid. It has 4 regular hexagonal faces, 4 equilateral triangle faces, 12 vertices and 18 edges. It can be constructed by truncating all 4 vertices of a regular tetrahedron at one third of the original edge length.

In geometry, the 5-cell is the convex 4-polytope with Schläfli symbol {3,3,3}. It is a 5-vertex four-dimensional object bounded by five tetrahedral cells. It is also known as a C5, pentachoron, pentatope, pentahedroid, or tetrahedral pyramid. It is the 4-simplex (Coxeter's polytope), the simplest possible convex 4-polytope, and is analogous to the tetrahedron in three dimensions and the triangle in two dimensions. The 5-cell is a 4-dimensional pyramid with a tetrahedral base and four tetrahedral sides.

In four-dimensional geometry, a runcinated 5-cell is a convex uniform 4-polytope, being a runcination of the regular 5-cell.

In four-dimensional geometry, the rectified 5-cell is a uniform 4-polytope composed of 5 regular tetrahedral and 5 regular octahedral cells. Each edge has one tetrahedron and two octahedra. Each vertex has two tetrahedra and three octahedra. In total it has 30 triangle faces, 30 edges, and 10 vertices. Each vertex is surrounded by 3 octahedra and 2 tetrahedra; the vertex figure is a triangular prism.

The cubic honeycomb or cubic cellulation is the only proper regular space-filling tessellation in Euclidean 3-space made up of cubic cells. It has 4 cubes around every edge, and 8 cubes around each vertex. Its vertex figure is a regular octahedron. It is a self-dual tessellation with Schläfli symbol {4,3,4}. John Horton Conway called this honeycomb a cubille.

The tetrahedral-octahedral honeycomb, alternated cubic honeycomb is a quasiregular space-filling tessellation in Euclidean 3-space. It is composed of alternating regular octahedra and tetrahedra in a ratio of 1:2.

The bitruncated cubic honeycomb is a space-filling tessellation in Euclidean 3-space made up of truncated octahedra. It has 4 truncated octahedra around each vertex. Being composed entirely of truncated octahedra, it is cell-transitive. It is also edge-transitive, with 2 hexagons and one square on each edge, and vertex-transitive. It is one of 28 uniform honeycombs.

The icosahedral honeycomb is one of four compact regular space-filling tessellations in hyperbolic 3-space. With Schläfli symbol {3,5,3}, there are three icosahedra around each edge, and 12 icosahedra around each vertex, in a regular dodecahedral vertex figure.

In geometry, a truncated 24-cell is a uniform 4-polytope formed as the truncation of the regular 24-cell.

In geometry, a truncated tesseract is a uniform 4-polytope formed as the truncation of the regular tesseract.

In four-dimensional geometry, a cantellated 5-cell is a convex uniform 4-polytope, being a cantellation of the regular 5-cell.

In four-dimensional geometry, a runcinated 24-cell is a convex uniform 4-polytope, being a runcination of the regular 24-cell.

In geometry, a truncated 120-cell is a uniform 4-polytope formed as the truncation of the regular 120-cell.

In geometry, a rhombicuboctahedral prism is a convex uniform polychoron.

In the field of hyperbolic geometry, the hexagonal tiling honeycomb is one of 11 regular paracompact honeycombs in 3-dimensional hyperbolic space. It is paracompact because it has cells composed of an infinite number of faces. Each cell is a hexagonal tiling whose vertices lie on a horosphere, a surface in hyperbolic space that approaches a single ideal point at infinity.

In hyperbolic 3-space, the order-6 tetrahedral honeycomb is a paracompact regular space-filling tessellation. It is paracompact because it has vertex figures composed of an infinite number of faces, and has all vertices as ideal points at infinity. With Schläfli symbol {3,3,6}, the order-6 tetrahedral honeycomb has six ideal tetrahedra around each edge. All vertices are ideal, with infinitely many tetrahedra existing around each vertex in a triangular tiling vertex figure.

The order-6 cubic honeycomb is a paracompact regular space-filling tessellation in hyperbolic 3-space. It is paracompact because it has vertex figures composed of an infinite number of facets, with all vertices as ideal points at infinity. With Schläfli symbol {4,3,6}, the honeycomb has six ideal cubes meeting along each edge. Its vertex figure is an infinite triangular tiling. Its dual is the order-4 hexagonal tiling honeycomb.

The triangular tiling honeycomb is one of 11 paracompact regular space-filling tessellations in hyperbolic 3-space. It is called paracompact because it has infinite cells and vertex figures, with all vertices as ideal points at infinity. It has Schläfli symbol {3,6,3}, being composed of triangular tiling cells. Each edge of the honeycomb is surrounded by three cells, and each vertex is ideal with infinitely many cells meeting there. Its vertex figure is a hexagonal tiling.

In geometry of 4 dimensions, a 4-6 duoprism, a duoprism and 4-polytope resulting from the Cartesian product of a square and a hexagon.

## References

• H.S.M. Coxeter:
• H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, 3rd Edition, Dover New York, 1973
• Kaleidoscopes: Selected Writings of H.S.M. Coxeter, edited by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, Anthony C. Thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1995, ISBN   978-0-471-01003-6
• (Paper 22) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi Regular Polytopes I, [Math. Zeit. 46 (1940) 380-407, MR 2,10]
• (Paper 23) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes II, [Math. Zeit. 188 (1985) 559-591]
• (Paper 24) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes III, [Math. Zeit. 200 (1988) 3-45]
• Coxeter, The Beauty of Geometry: Twelve Essays, Dover Publications, 1999, ISBN   0-486-40919-8 p. 88 (Chapter 5: Regular Skew Polyhedra in three and four dimensions and their topological analogues, Proceedings of the London Mathematics Society, Ser. 2, Vol 43, 1937.)
• Coxeter, H. S. M. Regular Skew Polyhedra in Three and Four Dimensions. Proc. London Math. Soc. 43, 33-62, 1937.
• Norman Johnson Uniform Polytopes, Manuscript (1991)
• N.W. Johnson: The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs, Ph.D. (1966)
• 1. Convex uniform polychora based on the pentachoron - Model 3 , George Olshevsky.
• Klitzing, Richard. "4D uniform polytopes (polychora)". x3x3o3o - tip, o3x3x3o - deca
Specific
1. Klitzing, Richard. "x3x4o3o - tip".
2. On Perfect 4-Polytopes Gabor Gévay Contributions to Algebra and Geometry Volume 43 (2002), No. 1, 243-259 ] Table 2, page 252
Family An Bn I2(p) / Dn E6 / E7 / E8 / / Hn
Regular polygon Triangle Square p-gon Hexagon Pentagon
Uniform polyhedron Tetrahedron OctahedronCube Demicube DodecahedronIcosahedron
Uniform polychoron Pentachoron 16-cellTesseract Demitesseract 24-cell 120-cell600-cell
Uniform 5-polytope 5-simplex 5-orthoplex5-cube 5-demicube
Uniform 6-polytope 6-simplex 6-orthoplex6-cube 6-demicube 122221
Uniform 7-polytope 7-simplex 7-orthoplex7-cube 7-demicube 132231321
Uniform 8-polytope 8-simplex 8-orthoplex8-cube 8-demicube 142241421
Uniform 9-polytope 9-simplex 9-orthoplex9-cube 9-demicube
Uniform 10-polytope 10-simplex 10-orthoplex10-cube 10-demicube
Uniform n-polytope n-simplex n-orthoplexn-cube n-demicube 1k22k1k21 n-pentagonal polytope
Topics: Polytope familiesRegular polytopeList of regular polytopes and compounds