Unintended consequences

Last updated
An erosion gully in Australia caused by rabbits, an unintended consequence of their introduction as game animals. Rabbit-erosion.jpg
An erosion gully in Australia caused by rabbits, an unintended consequence of their introduction as game animals.

In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes of a purposeful action that are not intended or foreseen. The term was popularised in the twentieth century by American sociologist Robert K. Merton. [1]

Contents

Unintended consequences can be grouped into three types:

History

John Locke

The idea of unintended consequences dates back at least to John Locke who discussed the unintended consequences of interest rate regulation in his letter to Sir John Somers, Member of Parliament. [2]

Adam Smith

The idea was also discussed by Adam Smith, the Scottish Enlightenment, and consequentialism (judging by results). [3]

Robert K. Merton

Sociologist Robert K. Merton popularised this concept in the twentieth century. [1] [4] [5] [6]

In "The Unanticipated Consequences of Purposive Social Action" (1936), Merton tried to apply a systematic analysis to the problem of unintended consequences of deliberate acts intended to cause social change. He emphasized that his term purposive action, "[was exclusively] concerned with 'conduct' as distinct from 'behavior.' That is, with action that involves motives and consequently a choice between various alternatives". [6] Merton's usage included deviations from what Max Weber defined as rational social action: instrumentally rational and value rational. [7] Merton also stated that "no blanket statement categorically affirming or denying the practical feasibility of all social planning is warranted." [8]

Everyday usage

More recently, the law of unintended consequences has come to be used as an adage or idiomatic warning that an intervention in a complex system tends to create unanticipated and often undesirable outcomes. [9] [10] [11] [12]

Akin to Murphy's law, it is commonly used as a wry or humorous warning against the hubristic belief that humans can fully control the world around them.

Causes

Possible causes of unintended consequences include the world's inherent complexity (parts of a system responding to changes in the environment), perverse incentives, human stupidity, self-deception, failure to account for human nature, or other cognitive or emotional biases. As a sub-component of complexity (in the scientific sense), the chaotic nature of the universe—and especially its quality of having small, apparently insignificant changes with far-reaching effects (e.g., the butterfly effect)—applies.

In 1936, Robert K. Merton listed five possible causes of unanticipated consequences: [13]

  1. Ignorance, making it impossible to anticipate everything, thereby leading to incomplete analysis.
  2. Errors in analysis of the problem or following habits that worked in the past but may not apply to the current situation.
  3. Immediate interests overriding long-term interests.
  4. Basic values which may require or prohibit certain actions even if the long-term result might be unfavourable (these long-term consequences may eventually cause changes in basic values).
  5. Self-defeating prophecy, or, the fear of some consequence which drives people to find solutions before the problem occurs, thus the non-occurrence of the problem is not anticipated.

In addition to Merton's causes, psychologist Stuart Vyse has noted that groupthink, described by Irving Janis, has been blamed for some decisions that result in unintended consequences. [14]

Examples

Unexpected benefits

The creation of "no-man's lands" during the Cold War, in places such as the border between Eastern and Western Europe, and the Korean Demilitarized Zone, has led to large natural habitats. [15] [16] [17]

The sinking of ships in shallow waters during wartime has created many artificial coral reefs, which can be scientifically valuable and have become an attraction for recreational divers. Retired ships have been purposely sunk in recent years, in an effort to replace coral reefs lost to global warming and other factors. [18] [19] [20] [21] [22]

In medicine, most drugs have unintended consequences ('side effects') associated with their use. However, some are beneficial. For instance, aspirin, a pain reliever, is also an anticoagulant that can help prevent heart attacks and reduce the severity and damage from thrombotic strokes. [23] The existence of beneficial side effects also leads to off-label use—prescription or use of a drug for an unlicensed purpose. Famously, the drug Viagra was developed to lower blood pressure, with its use for treating erectile dysfunction being discovered as a side effect in clinical trials.

Unexpected drawbacks

The implementation of a profanity filter by AOL in 1996 had the unintended consequence of blocking residents of Scunthorpe, North Lincolnshire, England from creating accounts due to a false positive. [24] The accidental censorship of innocent language, known as the Scunthorpe problem, has been repeated and widely documented. [25] [26] [27]

In 1990, the Australian state of Victoria made safety helmets mandatory for all bicycle riders. While there was a reduction in the number of head injuries, there was also an unintended reduction in the number of juvenile cyclists—fewer cyclists obviously leads to fewer injuries, assuming all else being equal. The risk of death and serious injury per cyclist seems to have increased, possibly due to risk compensation. [28] Research by Vulcan, et al. found that the reduction in juvenile cyclists was because the youths considered wearing a bicycle helmet unfashionable. [29] A health-benefit model developed at Macquarie University in Sydney suggests that, while helmet use reduces "the risk of head or brain injury by approximately two-thirds or more", the decrease in exercise caused by reduced cycling as a result of helmet laws is counterproductive in terms of net health. [30]

Prohibition in the 1920s United States, originally enacted to suppress the alcohol trade, drove many small-time alcohol suppliers out of business and consolidated the hold of large-scale organized crime over the illegal alcohol industry. Since alcohol was still popular, criminal organisations producing alcohol were well-funded and hence also increased their other activities. Similarly, the War on Drugs, intended to suppress the illegal drug trade, instead increased the power and profitability of drug cartels who became the primary source of the products. [31] [32] [33] [34]

In CIA jargon, "blowback" describes the unintended, undesirable consequences of covert operations, such as the funding of the Afghan Mujahideen and the destabilization of Afghanistan contributing to the rise of the Taliban and Al-Qaeda. [35] [36] [37]

The introduction of exotic animals and plants for food, for decorative purposes, or to control unwanted species often leads to more harm than good done by the introduced species.

The protection of the steel industry in the United States reduced production of steel in the United States, increased costs to users, and increased unemployment in associated industries. [43] [44]

Perverse results

In 2003, Barbra Streisand unsuccessfully sued Kenneth Adelman and Pictopia.com for posting a photograph of her home online. [45] Before the lawsuit had been filed, only 6 people had downloaded the file, two of them Streisand's attorneys. [46] The lawsuit drew attention to the image, resulting in 420,000 people visiting the site. [47] The Streisand effect was named after this incident, describing when an attempt to censor or remove a certain piece of information instead draws attention to the material being suppressed, resulting in the material instead becoming widely known, reported on, and distributed. [48]

Passenger-side airbags in motorcars were intended as a safety feature, but led to an increase in child fatalities in the mid-1990s as small children were being hit by deploying airbags during collisions. The supposed solution to this problem, moving the child seat to the back of the vehicle, led to an increase in the number of children forgotten in unattended vehicles, some of whom died under extreme temperature conditions. [49]

Risk compensation, or the Peltzman effect, occurs after implementation of safety measures intended to reduce injury or death (e.g. bike helmets, seatbelts, etc.). People may feel safer than they really are and take additional risks which they would not have taken without the safety measures in place. This may result in no change, or even an increase, in morbidity or mortality, rather than a decrease as intended.

According to an anecdote, the British government, concerned about the number of venomous cobra snakes in Delhi, offered a bounty for every dead cobra. This was a successful strategy as large numbers of snakes were killed for the reward. Eventually, enterprising people began breeding cobras for the income. When the government became aware of this, they scrapped the reward program, causing the cobra breeders to set the now-worthless snakes free. As a result, the wild cobra population further increased. The apparent solution for the problem made the situation even worse, becoming known as the Cobra effect.

Theobald Mathew's temperance campaign in 19th-century Ireland resulted in thousands of people vowing never to drink alcohol again. This led to the consumption of diethyl ether, a much more dangerous intoxicant — due to its high flammability — by those seeking to become intoxicated without breaking the letter of their pledge. [50] [51]

It was thought that adding south-facing conservatories to British houses would reduce energy consumption by providing extra insulation and warmth from the sun. However, people tended to use the conservatories as living areas, installing heating and ultimately increasing overall energy consumption. [52]

A reward for lost nets found along the Normandy coast was offered by the French government between 1980 and 1981. This resulted in people vandalizing nets to collect the reward. [53]

Beginning in the 1940s and continuing into the 1960s, the Canadian federal government gave the Catholic Church in Quebec $2.25 per day per psychiatric patient for their cost of care, but only $0.75 a day per orphan. The perverse result is that the orphan children were diagnosed as mentally ill so the church could receive the larger amount of money. This psychiatric misdiagnosis affected up to 20,000 people, and the children are known as the Duplessis Orphans. [54] [55] [56]

There have been attempts to curb the consumption of sugary beverages by imposing a tax on them. However, a study found that the reduced consumption was only temporary. Also, there was an increase in the consumption of beer among households. [57]

The New Jersey Childproof Handgun Law, which was intended to protect children from accidental discharge of firearms by forcing all future firearms sold in New Jersey to contain "smart" safety features, has delayed, if not stopped entirely, the introduction of such firearms to New Jersey markets. The wording of the law caused significant public backlash, [58] fuelled by gun rights lobbyists, [59] [60] and several shop owners offering such guns received death threats and stopped stocking them [61] [62] In 2014, 12 years after the law was passed, it was suggested the law be repealed if gun rights lobbyists agree not to resist the introduction of "smart" firearms. [63]

Drug prohibition can lead drug traffickers to prefer stronger, more dangerous substances, that can be more easily smuggled and distributed than other, less concentrated substances. [64]

Televised drug prevention advertisements may lead to increased drug use. [65]

Increasing usage of search engines, also including recent image search features, has contributed in the ease of which media is consumed. Some abnormalities in usage may have shifted preferences for pornographic film actors, as the producers began using common search queries or tags to label the actors in new roles. [66]

The passage of the Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act has led to a reported increase in risky behaviors by sex workers as a result of quashing their ability to seek and screen clients online, forcing them back onto the streets or into the dark web. The ads posted were previously an avenue for advocates to reach out to those wanting to escape the trade. [67]

The legalization of commercial Cannabis growth in California, meant in part to decrease the risk of violence to users and growers, reportedly led to an increase in murders in Humboldt County, which is responsible for the majority of cannabis produced in the US. [68]

Other

According to Lynn White, the invention of the horse stirrup enabled new patterns of warfare that eventually led to the development of feudalism (see Great Stirrup Controversy). [69]

Environmental intervention

Most modern technologies have negative consequences that are both unavoidable and unpredictable. For example, almost all environmental problems, from chemical pollution to global warming, are the unexpected consequences of the application of modern technologies. Traffic congestion, deaths and injuries from car accidents, air pollution, and global warming are unintended consequences of the invention and large scale adoption of the automobile. Hospital infections are the unexpected side-effect of antibiotic resistance, and even human overpopulation is the side effect of various technological (i.e., agricultural and industrial) revolutions. [70]

Because of the complexity of ecosystems, deliberate changes to an ecosystem or other environmental interventions will often have (usually negative) unintended consequences. Sometimes, these effects cause permanent irreversible changes. Examples include:

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Robert K. Merton, Versatile Sociologist and Father of the Focus Group, Dies at 92, Michael T. Kaufman, The New York Times
  2. John Locke, The Works of John Locke in Nine Volumes, (London: Rivington, 1824 12th ed.). Vol. 4.
  3. Smith, Adam. "The Theory of Moral Sentiments". p. 93.
  4. "Renowned Columbia Sociologist and National Medal of Science Winner Robert K. Merton Dies at 92". Columbia News.
  5. Robert K. Merton Remembered Footnotes, American Sociological Association
  6. 1 2 Merton, Robert K. (1936). "The Unanticipated Consequences of Purposive Social Action" (PDF). American Sociological Review. 1 (6): 895. doi:10.2307/2084615. JSTOR   2084615 . Retrieved 2008-05-30.
  7. Weber, Max (1978). Economy and Society . University of California Press. pp.  24–25.
  8. Merton, Robert K. (1936). "The Unanticipated Consequences of Purposive Social Action" (PDF). American Sociological Review. 1 (6): 904. doi:10.2307/2084615. JSTOR   2084615 . Retrieved 2008-05-30.
  9. Norton, Rob (2008). "Unintended Consequences". In David R. Henderson (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (2nd ed.). Indianapolis: Library of Economics and Liberty. ISBN   978-0865976658. OCLC   237794267.
  10. Schwartz, Victor E.; Tedesco, Rochelle M. "The Law of Unintended Consequences in Asbestos Litigation: How Efforts to Streamline the Litigation Have Fueled More Claims". Mississippi Law Journal. HeinOnline. 71: 531. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  11. Mascharka, Christopher (1993-06-18). "28 Florida State University Law Review 2000–2001 Mandatory Minimum Sentences: Exemplifying the Law of Unintended Consequences Comment". Florida State University Law Review. Heinonline.org. 28: 935. Retrieved 2012-11-21.
  12. Sims, Joe; Herman, Deborah P. "The Effect of Twenty Years of Hart-Scott-Rodino on Merger Practice: A Case Study in the Law of Unintended Consequences Applied to Antitrust Legislation". Antitrust Law Journal. HeinOnline. 65: 865. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  13. Merton, Robert K (1996). On Social Structure and Science. The University of Chicago Press . Retrieved 2018-05-16.
  14. Vyse, Stuart (2017). "Can Anything Save Us from Unintended Consequences?". Skeptical Inquirer . 41 (4): 20–23. Archived from the original on 2018-09-19. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  15. "From Iron Curtain to Green Belt: How new life came to the death strip". London: Independent.co.uk. 2009-05-17. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  16. Kate Connolly (2009-07-04). "From Iron Curtain to Green Belt". Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  17. "European Green Belt". European Green Belt. Archived from the original on 2010-01-29. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  18. "Maryland Artificial Reef Initiative Celebrates 1 Year Anniversary". Dnr.maryland.gov. 2008-02-07. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  19. "Sinking ships will boost tourism, group says – News – NBC News". NBC News. 2007-05-25. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  20. "Life after death on the ocean floor – The National Newspaper". Thenational.ae. 2009-09-21. Archived from the original on 2015-05-09. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  21. "Sea Life Flourishing On Vandenberg Wreck Off Keys". cbs4.com. 2009-10-15. Archived from the original on 2009-12-27. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  22. "CDNN : Diver Wants to Sink Old Navy Ships off California Coast". Cdnn.info. 2006-12-27. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  23. "BBC 15 February 2001, Aspirin heart warning". BBC News. 2001-02-15. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  24. Clive Feather (25 April 1996). Peter G. Neumann (ed.). "AOL censors British town's name!". The Risks Digest. ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy.
  25. Cockburn, Craig (9 March 2010). "BBC fail – my correct name is not permitted". blog.siliconglen.com. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  26. Moore, Matthew (2 September 2008). "The Clbuttic Mistake: When obscenity filters go wrong". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  27. "F-Word Town's Name Gets Censored By Internet Filter" . Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  28. "Evaluating Head Injuries and Helmet Laws in Australia and New Zealand".
  29. Cameron, Maxwell H.; Vulcan, A. Peter; Finch, Caroline F.; Newstead, Stuart V. (June 1994). "Mandatory bicycle helmet use following a decade of helmet promotion in Victoria, Australia—an evaluation". Accident Analysis and Prevention. 26 (3): 325–37. doi:10.1016/0001-4575(94)90006-X. PMID   8011045.
  30. de Jong. Piet (2012), "Evaluating the Health Benefit of Mandatory Bicycle Helmet Laws", Risk Analysis, Vol.32, No.5, p.782-790.
  31. Juan Forero, "Colombia's Coca Survives U.S. plan to uproot it", The New York Times, August 19, 2006
  32. Don Podesta and Douglas Farah, "Drug Policy in Andes Called Failure," Washington Post , March 27, 1993
  33. Dominic Streatfeild (June 2000). "Source Material for Cocaine: An Unauthorized Biography: Interview between Milton Friedman and Dominic Streatfeild". Dominicstratfeild. Archived from the original on 2012-11-13. Retrieved 2012-11-21.
  34. "An open letter". Prohibition Costs. Archived from the original on 2006-01-10. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
  35. "Bin Laden comes home to roost". Archived from the original on December 2, 1998. Retrieved 2009-12-30.
  36. "Blowback – 96.05". Theatlantic.com. May 1996. Retrieved 2012-11-21.
  37. Peter Beaumont (2002-09-08). "Why 'blowback' is the hidden danger of war | World news". The Guardian. The Observer. Retrieved 2012-11-21.
  38. "The State Barrier Fence of Western Australia". The State Barrier Fence Project. Archived from the original on 2005-07-22. Retrieved 2009-10-09.
  39. "Rabbits: Introduction into New Zealand". Christchurch City Libraries. Retrieved 2009-10-09.
  40. Smithsonian Magazine Kudzu: Love It or Run
  41. Molly McElroy (2005). "Fast-growing kudzu making inroads in Illinois, authorities warn". News Bureau, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Archived from the original on July 6, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
  42. Richard J. Blaustein (2001). "Kudzu's invasion into Southern United States life and culture" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
  43. "The Unintended Consequences of Increased Steel Tariffs on American Manufacturers". Committee on Small Business, House of Representatives, 107th United States Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (Serial No. 107–66). July 23, 2002. Retrieved October 26, 2014.
  44. Francois, Dr. Joseph; Baughman, Laura M. (February 4, 2003). "The Unintended Consequences of U.S. Steel Import Tariffs: A Quantification of the Impact During 2002" (PDF). Washington DC: CITAC Foundation/Trade Partnership Worldwide, LLC. Retrieved October 26, 2014.
  45. Parkinson, Justin (2014-07-31). "The perils of the Streisand effect". BBC News. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  46. Tentative ruling, page 6, stating, "Image 3850 was download six times, twice to the Internet address of counsel for plaintiff". In addition, two prints of the picture were ordered — one by Streisand's counsel and one by Streisand's neighbor. http://www.californiacoastline.org/streisand/slapp-ruling-tentative.pdf
  47. Rogers, Paul (2003-06-24). "Photo of Streisand home becomes an Internet hit". San Jose Mercury News, mirrored at californiacoastline.org. Retrieved 2007-06-15.
  48. Canton, David (November 5, 2005). "Today's Business Law: Attempt to suppress can backfire". London Free Press . Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved July 21, 2007. The "Streisand effect" is what happens when someone tries to suppress something and the opposite occurs. The act of suppressing it raises the profile, making it much more well known than it ever would have been
  49. Worland/Ridgefield, Justin (2014-09-02). "Who's To Blame For Hot Car Deaths?". Time.
  50. "Etheromaniac". World Wide Words. 2006-09-09. Retrieved 2012-11-21.
  51. "Substitutions - The Temperance Movement and Ether - Unintended Consequences". Unintended Consequences. 2018-09-16. Retrieved 2018-09-16.
  52. "Our innate ability to think of new ways to use energy" Professor Tadj Oreszczyn. Summer 2009 edition of ‘palette’, UCL’s journal of sustainable cities.
  53. Andres, Von Brandt (1984) Fish catching methods of the world ISBN   978-0-685-63409-7.
  54. "The Spokesman-Review". google.com. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  55. "Sarasota Herald-Tribune". google.com. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  56. "The Prescott Courier". google.com. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  57. Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R. (2012-05-26). "From Coke to Coors: A Field Study of a Fat Tax and Its Unintended Consequences". SSRN   2079840 .Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  58. Joseph Steinberg (January 11, 2016). "Smartguns: What You Need to Know". Inc. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
  59. Trumbly, Katie (15 October 2014). "Why the NRA Opposes Smart Guns" . Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  60. Jeffries, Adrianne (5 May 2014). "Gun control: the NRA wants to take America's smart guns away". The Verge . Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  61. Rosenwald, Michael S. (6 March 2014). "Calif. store backs away from smart guns after outcry from 2nd Amendment activists". The Washington Post.
  62. Rosenwald, Michael S. (1 May 2014). "Maryland dealer, under pressure from gun-rights activists, drops plan to sell smart gun". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  63. Montopoli, Brian (2014-05-02). "N.J. Democrat: We will reverse smart gun law if NRA plays ball". MSNBC. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  64. Kassam, Ashifa (2017-11-12). "'Dose as small as a grain of sand can kill you': alarm after Canada carfentanil bust". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 2017-11-12.
  65. Hornik, Robert; Jacobsohn, Lela; Orwin, Robert; Piesse, Andrea; Kalton, Graham (December 2008). "Effects of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign on Youths". American Journal of Public Health. 98 (12): 2229–2236. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.125849. ISSN   0090-0036. PMC   2636541 . PMID   18923126.
  66. Kline, Matthew. "How SEO has changed the porn industry". Mashable. Retrieved 2017-08-12.
  67. "New Law Forces Sex-Trafficking Victims to Streets, Dark Web". 2018-05-25.
  68. Joshua Zeman (Director) (2018). Murder Mountain. Netflix.
  69. Lynn White, Jr. (1962). Medieval technology and social change . Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN   978-0195002669. OCLC   390344.
  70. Dikotter, Frank (2010). Mao's Great Famine. New York: Walker & Co. p. 188.
  71. Moote, Lloyd and Dorothy: The Great Plague: the Story of London's most Deadly Year, Baltimore, 2004. p. 115.
  72. Likens, G. E.; Wright, R. F.; Galloway, J. N.; Butler, T. J. (1979). "Acid rain". Sci. Am. 241 (4): 43–51. Bibcode:1979SciAm.241d..43L. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1079-43.
  73. Likens, G. E. (1984). "Acid rain: the smokestack is the "smoking gun". Garden. 8 (4): 12–18.
  74. Joyce, Christopher. "How The Smokey Bear Effect Led To Raging Wildfires". npr.org. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  75. Vidal, John (2014-02-25). "Geoengineering side effects could be potentially disastrous, research shows". the Guardian. Retrieved 2019-09-23.
  76. Yang, Huiyi; Dobbie, Steven; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Feng, Kuishuang; Challinor, Andrew J.; Chen, Bing; Gao, Yao; Lee, Lindsay; Yin, Yan; Sun, Laixiang; Watson, James; Koehler, Ann-Kristin; Fan, Tingting; Ghosh, Sat (2016-11-19). "Potential negative consequences of geoengineering on crop production: A study of Indian groundnut". Geophysical Research Letters. American Geophysical Union (AGU). 43 (22): 11, 786–11, 795. Bibcode:2016GeoRL..4311786Y. doi: 10.1002/2016gl071209 . ISSN   0094-8276. PMC   5267972 . PMID   28190903.
  77. "Mosquito nets: Are they catching more fishes than insects?". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2020-04-05.

Related Research Articles

Network effect positive effect that an additional user of a good or service has on the value of that product to others

A network effect is the effect described in economics and business that an additional user of goods or services has on the value of that product to others. When a network effect is present, the value of a product or service increases according to the number of others using it.

A perverse incentive is an incentive that has an unintended and undesirable result that is contrary to the intentions of its designers. Perverse incentives are a type of negative unintended consequence. A classic example of a perverse incentive occurred when the British government offered a bounty for dead cobras with the intent of decreasing the wild cobra population. However, enterprising people began to breed cobras for the income. When the government became aware of this, the reward program was scrapped, causing the cobra breeders to set the now-worthless snakes free. As a result, the wild cobra population further increased. The term cobra effect was coined to describe a situation where an attempted solution to a problem actually makes the problem worse.

In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug. Developing drugs is a complicated process, because no two people are exactly the same, so even drugs that have virtually no side effects, might be difficult for some people. Also, it is difficult to make a drug that targets one part of the body but that doesn't affect other parts, the fact that increases the risk of side effects in the untargeted parts.

Robert K. Merton American sociologist

Robert King Merton was an American sociologist. He spent most of his career teaching at Columbia University, where he attained the rank of University Professor. In 1994 he was awarded the National Medal of Science for his contributions to the field and for having founded the sociology of science. He is considered a founding father of modern sociology and a major contributor to criminology.

Technological utopianism is any ideology based on the premise that advances in science and technology could and should bring about a utopia, or at least help to fulfill one or another utopian ideal.

A nocebo effect is said to occur when negative expectations of the patient regarding a treatment cause the treatment to have a more negative effect than it otherwise would have. For example, when a patient anticipates a side effect of a medication, they can suffer that effect even if the "medication" is actually an inert substance. The complementary concept, the placebo effect, is said to occur when positive expectations improve an outcome. Both placebo and nocebo effects are presumably psychogenic, but they can induce measurable changes in the body. One article that reviewed 31 studies on nocebo effects reported a wide range of symptoms that could manifest as nocebo effects including nausea, stomach pains, itching, bloating, depression, sleep problems, loss of appetite, sexual dysfunction and severe hypotension.

Social responsibility is an ethical framework and suggests that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act for the benefit of society at large. Social responsibility is a duty every individual has to perform so as to maintain a balance between the economy and the ecosystems. A trade-off may exist between economic development, in the material sense, and the welfare of the society and environment, though this has been challenged by many reports over the past decade. Social responsibility means sustaining the equilibrium between the two. It pertains not only to business organizations but also to everyone whose any action impacts the environment. It is a concept that aims to ensure secure healthcare for the people living in rural areas and eliminate all barriers like distance, financial condition, etc. This responsibility can be passive, by avoiding engaging in socially harmful acts, or active, by performing activities that directly advance social goals. Social responsibility must be intergenerational since the actions of one generation have consequences on those following.

Neo-Luddism or new Luddism is a philosophy opposing many forms of modern technology. The word Luddite is generally used as a derogatory term applied to people showing technophobic leanings. The name is based on the historical legacy of the English Luddites, who were active between 1811 and 1816.

Alcohol education is the practice of disseminating information about the effects of alcohol on health, as well as society and the family unit. It was introduced into the public schools by temperance organizations such as the Woman's Christian Temperance Union in the late 19th century. Initially, alcohol education focused on how the consumption of alcoholic beverages affected society, as well as the family unit. In the 1930s, this came to also incorporate education pertaining to alcohol's effects on health. For example, even light and moderate alcohol consumption increases cancer risk in individuals. Organizations such as the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the United States were founded to promulgate alcohol education alongside those of the temperance movement, such as the American Council on Alcohol Problems.

Social shaping of technology

According to Robin A. Williams and David Edge (1996), "Central to social shaping of technology (SST) is the concept that there are choices inherent in both the design of individual artifacts and systems, and in the direction or trajectory of innovation programs."

Middle-range theory, developed by Robert K. Merton, is an approach to sociological theorizing aimed at integrating theory and empirical research. It is currently the de facto dominant approach to sociological theory construction, especially in the United States. Middle-range theory starts with an empirical phenomenon and abstracts from it to create general statements that can be verified by data. This approach stands in contrast to the earlier "grand" theorizing of social theory, such as functionalism and many conflict theories. Raymond Boudon has argued that "middle-range" theory is the same concept that most other sciences simply call "theory". The analytical sociology movement has as its aim the unification of such theories into a coherent paradigm at a greater level of abstraction.

Manifest and latent functions and dysfunctions

Manifest and latent functions are social scientific concepts created by anthropologist, Bronislaw Malinowski in 1922 while studying the Trobiand Islanders in the Western Pacific. It was later modified for sociology by Robert K. Merton. Merton appeared interested in sharpening the conceptual tools to be employed in a functional analysis.

Free Speech Flag A flag symbolizing the freedom of speech, designed by John Marcotte in 2007, encoding a cryptographic key (09 F9 11 02 9D 74 E3 5B D8 41 56 C5 63 56 88 C0) enabling unauthorized copying of HD DVD and Blu-Ray disc

The Free Speech Flag is a symbol of personal liberty used to promote freedom of speech. Designed by artist John Marcotte, the flag and its colors correspond to a cryptographic key which enabled users to copy HD DVDs and Blu-ray Discs. It was created on May 1, 2007, during the AACS encryption key controversy.

Prescription cascade is the process whereby the side effects of drugs are misdiagnosed as symptoms of another problem, resulting in further prescriptions and further side effects and unanticipated drug interactions, which itself may lead recursively to further misdiagnoses and further symptoms. This is a pharmacological example of a feedback loop. Such cascades can be reversed through deprescribing.

Streisand effect Social phenomenon that occurs when an attempt to hide information has the opposite effect, attracting more attention to said information

The Streisand effect is a social phenomenon that occurs when an attempt to hide, remove, or censor information has the unintended consequence of further publicizing that information, often via the Internet. It is named after American entertainer Barbra Streisand, whose attempt to suppress photographs of her residence in Malibu, California inadvertently drew further attention to it in 2003.

Cobra effect The case of a solution unintendedly making the problem worse

The cobra effect occurs when an attempted solution to a problem makes the problem worse, as a type of unintended consequence. The term is used to illustrate the causes of incorrect stimulation in economy and politics.

The Matthew effect of accumulated advantage, Matthew principle, or Matthew effect for short, is sometimes summarized by the adage "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer". The concept is applicable to matters of fame or status, but may also be applied literally to cumulative advantage of economic capital. In the beginning, Matthew effects were primarily focused on the inequality in the way scientists were recognized for their work. However, Norman Storer, of Columbia University, led a new wave of research. He believed he discovered that the inequality that existed in the social sciences also existed in other institutions.

In social psychology, the boomerang effect refers to the unintended consequences of an attempt to persuade resulting in the adoption of an opposing position instead. It is sometimes also referred to "the theory of psychological reactance", stating that attempts to restrict a person's freedom often produce an "anticonformity boomerang effect".

Hydra effect paradox originating from the Greek legend of the Lernaean Hydra

The hydra effect or hydra paradox owes its name to the Greek legend of the Lernaean Hydra which grew two heads for each one cut off, and is used figuratively for counter-intuitive effects of actions to reduce a problem which result in stimulating its multiplication. Most notably scientists have proposed that ecological systems can exhibit a hydra effect when "a higher death rate in a particular species ultimately increases the size of its population". The hypothesis is suggested to have implications for the eradication of pests, and resource management. There are also said to be indications that reducing the death rate can shrink a population.

Disulfiram-like drug substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages

A disulfiram-like drug is a drug that causes an adverse reaction to alcohol leading to nausea, vomiting, flushing, dizziness, throbbing headache, chest and abdominal discomfort, and general hangover-like symptoms among others. These effects are caused by accumulation of acetaldehyde, a major but toxic metabolite of alcohol formed by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. The reaction has been variously termed a disulfiram-like reaction, alcohol intolerance, and acetaldehyde syndrome.

References