Demographics of Botswana

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Botswana population pyramid in 2020 Botswana single age population pyramid 2020.png
Botswana population pyramid in 2020

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Botswana, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Contents

Demographics of Botswana, Data of FAO, year 2008; Number of inhabitants in thousands. Botswana-demography.svg
Demographics of Botswana, Data of FAO, year 2008; Number of inhabitants in thousands.
A type of house in Botswana Botswanahouse.jpg
A type of house in Botswana

Botswana, like many nations in southern Africa, suffers from a high HIV infection rate, estimated among adults ages 15 to 49 to be 20.7%. [1]

Population

Census results

Botswana Population and Housing Census
YearPop.±% p.a.
1904 120,776    
1911 124,350+0.42%
1921 152,983+2.09%
1936 265,756+3.75%
1946 296,310+1.09%
1956 309,175+0.43%
1964 549,510+7.45%
1971 596,994+1.19%
1981 941,027+4.66%
1991 1,326,796+3.50%
2001 1,680,863+2.39%
2011 2,024,787+1.88%
[2] [3] [4]

Bechuanaland Protectorate

The seven censuses of Botswana before its independence happened irregularly. Due to the Anglo-Boer War, the first census of Bechuanaland Protectorate, originally set to occur in 1901, took place on 17 April 1904. [2] The 1931 census was postponed to 1936 because of the Great Depression. [2] The early censuses were unreliable and took several years to tabulate; the results were outdated by the time they were calculated.

Post-independence

There have been five censuses after the independence of Botswana, each occurring every ten years in the year ending in 1 (i.e. 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, and 2011). The 1971 census was the first census in Botswana to use de facto enumeration; this method counts people based on how many people spent census night at a specific location. Previously, the citizens were counted based on their usual place of residence. The 2001 census was the first census in Botswana to comply with the SADC 2000 Census Project, the guidelines of which unify the demographic statistics in southern Africa. The most recent census was the 2011 Botswana Population and Housing Census, which occurred in August 2011.

UN estimates

According to the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects [5] [6] the total population was 2,254,068 in 2018, compared to only 413,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2020 was about 33.4%, 62.1% were between 15 and 65 years of age, while 4.5% of the population were 65 years or older. [7]

Total populationPopulation aged 0–14 (%)Population aged 15–64 (%)Population aged 65+ (%)
1950413 00040.954.84.4
1955463 00041.753.94.3
1960503 00043.652.14.3
1965560 00046.849.34.0
1970628 00047.848.33.9
1975741 00048.048.53.5
1980898 00048.548.13.4
19851 070 00047.949.03.1
19901 287 00045.051.73.3
19951 469 00042.254.63.3
20001 643 00038.758.13.3
20051 799 00036.560.33.1
20101 987 00035.061.73.3
20152 121 00034.961.23.8
20202 352 00033.462.14.5

Vital statistics

Registration of vital events is in Botswana not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [7]

PeriodLive births per yearDeaths per yearNatural change per yearCBR*CDR*NC*TFR*IMR*
1950–195520 8009 00011 80047.420.726.76.50128
1955–196023 0009 00014 00047.718.729.06.58112
1960–196524 8008 80016 00046.616.630.06.6599
1965–197027 2008 80018 40045.714.731.06.7085
1970–197530 6008 60022 00044.712.732.06.5571
1975–198036 4008 80027 60044.510.633.96.3556
1980–198542 2009 00033 20042.99.133.95.9544
1985–199043 8009 60034 20037.18.228.94.9036
1990–199545 60014 00031 60033.110.223.04.1342
1995–200046 40019 00027 40029.812.217.73.4956
2000–200550 20024 40025 80029.114.215.03.1957
2005–201053 40021 20032 20028.211.217.03.0344
2010–201556 40015 00041 40027.57.320.13.0135
2015–202056 20013 00043 20025.15.819.32.8930
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000; CBR-CDR); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births (deaths under 1 year of age)

Births and deaths [8] [9]

YearPopulationLive birthsDeathsNatural increaseCrude birth rateCrude death rateRate of natural increaseTFR
1964514 876
1971574 09445.313.731.66.5
1981941 02745 02612 83532 19148.713.934.86.6
19911 326 79652 35115 22137 13039.311.527.84.2
19921 358 63952 41615 34437 07238.611.327.34.2
19931 391 24552 43715 57836 85937.711.226.54.1
19941 424 63652 59815 82236 77636.911.125.84.1
19951 458 82852 75915 92636 83333.711.022.74.1
19961 495 99352 92116 03136 89032.410.921.54.0
19971 533 39353 08316 13736 94632.310.821.54.0
19981 571 72853 24516 24437 00132.210.721.54.0
19991 611 02153 40716 35237 05532.110.621.53.9
20011 680 86241 08020 82320 25728.912.416.53.3
20021 667 487
20031 691 39041 20624.4
20041 711 33437 94722.2
20051 727 37246 94527.2
20061 739 55644 05019 08824 96229.811.218.63.2
20071 756 65144 45225.3
20081 776 28344 96125.3
20091 798 37246 62425.9
20101 822 85850 32827.6
20112 024 90451 87113 30138 57025.76.319.42.89
20122 068 52950 04812 27037 77824.25.918.3
20132 110 05049 83911 96737 87223.65.618.0
20142 149 25547 47812 17735 30122.15.616.5
20152 185 90357 48013 03044 45026.36.020.3
20162 219 73254 26712 82541,44224.45.818.6
20172 254 02152 35812 38639 97223.25.517.73.1
20182 288 65154 02312 60941 41423.65.518.12.656
20192 323 49354 10013 18540 01523.35.717.62.648
20202 374 697

Source: Vital Statistics Report 2012.

Life expectancy at birth

Life expectancy from 1950 to 2020 (UN World Population Prospects): [10]

PeriodLife expectancy in

Years

1950–195544.89
1955–1960Increase2.svg 47.82
1960–1965Increase2.svg 50.42
1965–1970Increase2.svg 52.67
1970–1975Increase2.svg 55.09
1975–1980Increase2.svg 57.92
1980–1985Increase2.svg 60.11
1985–1990Increase2.svg 61.09
1990–1995Decrease2.svg 56.43
1995–2000Decrease2.svg 52.63
2000–2005Decrease2.svg 50.06
2005–2010Increase2.svg 55.86
2010–2015Increase2.svg 64.45
2015–2020Increase2.svg 69.09

Ethnic groups

Tswana or Setswana 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, Other 7% (including Kgalagadi, Indians and Whites [11] )

Languages

Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagari 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, sotho1% Sembukushu 1.6%j, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.) [11]

Religions

Christian 79.1%, Badimo 4.1%, Other 1.4% (includes the Baháʼí Faith, Hindu, Islam, Rastafari), None 15.2%, Unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.) [11]

Other demographic statistics

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019. [12]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook.

Population

2,350,667 (July 2021 est.)
2,214,858 (July 2017 est.)

Age structure

Pyramid population of Botswana in 2017 Botswanapop.svg
Pyramid population of Botswana in 2017
0-14 years: 30.54% (male 357,065/female 350,550)
15-24 years: 18.31% (male 208,824/female 215,462)
25-54 years: 39.67% (male 434,258/female 484,922)
55-64 years: 5.92% (male 59,399/female 77,886)
65 years and over: 5.56% (male 53,708/female 75,159) (2020 est.)

Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate is 2.42 children born/woman (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 74th

Population growth rate

1.43% (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 67th
1.55% (2017 est.)

Birth rate

20.6 births/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 71st
22.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Death rate

9.12 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 61st
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Median age

Total: 25.7 years. Country comparison to the world: 157th
Male: 24.5 years
Female: 26.7 years (2020 est.)
Total: 24.5 years
Male: 23.5 years
Female: 25.6 years (2017 est.)

Net migration rate

2.85 migrants/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 38th
note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into Botswana and South Africa in search of better economic opportunities. Refer to below section on Migration.

Urbanization

Urban population: 70.9% of total population (2020)
Rate of urbanization: 2.87% annual rate of change (2015–20 est.)

Sex ratio

At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

Total population: 65.2 years
Male: 63.2 years
Female: 67.3 years (2021 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

144 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 59th

HIV/AIDS

Adult prevalence rate: 22.2% (2019 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 380,000 (2019 est.)
Deaths due to AIDS: 5,000 (2019 est.) Country comparison to the world: 25th

Physicians density

0.53 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

18.9% (2016)

Major infectious diseases

Degree of risk: high (2020)
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne disease: malaria

Nationality

Noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Literacy

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 88.5%
Male: 88%
Female: 88.9% (2015 est.)

Education expenditure

8.7% of total GDP (2007)

Sanitation facility access

Improved:
Urban: 92.9% of population
Rural: 60.8% of population
Total: 82.8% of population
Unimproved:
Urban: 7.1% of population
Rural: 39.2% of population
Total: 17.2% of population (2017 est.)

Migrants

According to the United Nations, there were 110,596 international migrants in Botswana in 2019. Their most common countries of origin were as follows:

International migrants in Botswana in 2019
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe
64,477
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
5,751
Flag of India.svg  India
5,668
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
4,792
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia
4,429
Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi
1,484
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1,320
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria
1,238
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya
1,215
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo
1,133
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka
992
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia
992
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
923
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania
818
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola
782
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
640
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland
629
Flag of Eswatini.svg  Eswatini
611
Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique
607
Source: United Nations "Migrant Stock by Origin and Destination". 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2021.

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References

  1. "HIV & Aids in Botswana". AVERT International HIV & Aids Charity. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  2. 1 2 3 "History". Central Statistics Office. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  3. "TABLE 1: 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001 CENSUS DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS; BOTSWANA" (PDF). Gaborone: Central Statistics Office. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  4. "The Population of Towns, Villages and Associated Localities" (PDF). 2011 Population and Housing Census. Gaborone: Statistics Botswana. June 2012. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  5. ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  6. ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  7. 1 2 "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: Data Query Tool". un.org. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  8. "Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2020-01-27.
  9. "Demographic Statistics Statsbots". statsbots.org.bw. Retrieved 2020-01-27.
  10. "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations" . Retrieved 2021-01-27.
  11. 1 2 3 "Africa :: BOTSWANA". CIA The World Factbook.
  12. "Botswana Population 2019", World Population Review

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document: "2009 edition".