This article needs additional citations for verification . (February 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Established||1836 (as Calcutta Public Library) |
30 January 1903 (as Imperial Library)
1 February 1953 (as National Library of India)
|Location||Belvedere Estate, Kolkata, West Bengal|
|Director||Arun Kumar Chakraborty|
The National Library of India on the Belvedere Estate in Alipore, Kolkata, 30-acre (12 ha) Belvedere Estate. It is the largest in India with a collection in excess of 2.2 million books. Before independence, it was the official residence of Governor-General of India.is the largest library in India by volume, and India's library of public record. It is under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India. The library is designated to collect, disseminate and preserve printed material produced in India. The library is situated on the scenic
The National Library of India is the county's largest library and the library of public record. The library "operates under the national government’s Department of Culture and is designated to collect, disseminate, and preserve all printed material produced in India, and all foreign works published about the country—where ‘every work about India…can be seen and read’" (Murray, 2009). The National Library is a result of the merging of the public library with the Imperial Library—several government libraries. The National Library (1953), then the Imperial Library housed several foreign (British) and Indian titles and was open to the public. Of further note, the National Library of India collects book, periodicals, and titles in "virtually all the Indian languages, with Hindi, Kashmiri, Punjabi, Sindhi, Telugu, and Urdu" maintaining the largest stacks (Murray, 2009). The Special Collections in the National Library of India house at least fifteen languages including "Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati...and Tamil with many rare works (Murray, 2009). The Hindi department has books that date back all the way to the nineteenth century and the first ever books printed in that language. The collections break down and consist of 86,000 maps and 3,200 manuscripts.
The history of the National Library began with the formation of the Calcutta Public Library in 1836.
That was a non-governmental institution and was run on a proprietary basis. People contributing ₹300 (US$4.20) in subscription became the proprietors. Prince Dwarkanath Tagore was the first proprietor of that Library. ₹ 300 at that time was a significant amount, so poor students and others were allowed free use of the library for some period of time.
Lord Metcalfe, the Governor General at that time, transferred 4,675 volumes from the library of the College of Fort William, Kolkata to the Calcutta Public Library. This and donations of books from individuals formed the nucleus of the library.
Both Indian and foreign books, especially British, were purchased for the library. Donations were regularly made by individuals as well as by the government.
The Calcutta Public Library had a unique position as the first public library in this part of the world. Such a well-organized and efficiently run library was rare even in Europe during the first half of the 19th century.
Due to the efforts of the Calcutta Public Library, the present National Library has many extremely rare books and journals in its collection. In 1954 accordance to Delivery of Book Act every publishers have to submit 4 copy of their publication for growing up the collection of information sources in library and to preserve it for upcoming generation. Each 4 copies goes into respectively in - 1. Kolkata, 2. Tamil Nadu, 3. Mumbai and 4. Delhi public libraries.
The Imperial Library was formed in 1891 by combining a number of Secretariat libraries in Calcutta. Of those, the most important and interesting was the library of the Home Department, which contained many books formerly belonging to the library of East India College, Fort William and the library of the East India Board in London. But the use of the library was restricted to the superior officers of the Government.Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee was appointed as the president of imperial library council(1910) to which he donated his personal collection of 80,000 books arranged in a separate section.
In 1903, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, the Viceroy of India, conceived the idea of opening a library for the use of the public.
He noticed both the libraries—Imperial Library and Calcutta Public Library—were under-utilized for the want of facilities or restrictions. He decided to amalgamate the rich collection of both of these libraries.
The new amalgamated library, called Imperial Library, was formally opened to the public on 30 January 1903 at Metcalfe Hall, Kolkata. Metcalfe Hall had earlier been the home of the Governor-General; Wellington, Cornwallis and Warren Hastings had lived in the building, and the last-named had fought a duel with a member of his governing committee on its grounds.
The Gazette of London reported, "It is intended that it should be a library of reference, a working place for students and a repository of material for the future historians of India, in which, so far as possible, every work written about India, at any time, can be seen and read."
After independence the Government of India changed the name of the Imperial Library to the National Library, and the collection was transferred from The Esplanade to the present Belvedere Estate. On 1 February 1953 the National Library was opened to the public by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.
In 2010, the Ministry of Culture, the owner of the library, decided to get the library building restored by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). While taking stock of the library building, the conservation engineers discovered a previously unknown room. The secret ground-floor room, about 1000 sq. ft. in size, seems to have no opening of any kind.
The ASI archaeologists tried to search the first floor area (that forms the ceiling of the room) for a trap door, but found nothing. Since the building is of historical and cultural importance, ASI has decided to bore a hole through the wall instead of breaking it. There are speculations about the room being a punishment room used by Warren Hastings and other British officials, or a place to store treasure.
In 2011, the researchers announced that the room was filled entirely with mud, probably in an effort to stabilize the building.
The National Library is located on Belvedere Road in Alipore, Calcutta. It is open between 9 am and 8 pm on all working days and between 9.30 am and 6.00 pm on Saturdays, Sundays and Government of India holidays.It remains closed on three national holidays, 26 January *(Republic Day), 15 August (Independence Day) and 2 October (Birthday of Mahatma Gandhi).
Access to the National Library main reading room (Bhasha Bhavan) is strictly controlled. Visitors need to have an approved Reader's pass to enter it. For that they need to fill in an application form (available on the National Library website) and get it attested by a Government Gazetted officer. The reader's passes are issued only between 11.00 am and 1.00 pm, and between 3.00 pm and 4.00 pm, from Monday to Friday, excluding a string of National and State holiday.
Kolkata is the "cultural capital" of India and the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city; the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the suburb population brought the total to 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. Kolkata Megalopolis is the area surrounding Kolkata Metropolitan city with additional population. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River approximately 80 kilometres (50 mi) west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. The city, nicknamed the "City of Joy" is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India and as of 2019, six Nobel Laureates have been associated with the city. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi.
The University of Calcutta, informally known as Calcutta University (CU), is a collegiate public state university located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. It was established on 24 January 1857, and was one of the first institutions in Asia to be established as a multidisciplinary and Western-style university. Within India it is recognized as a "Five-Star University" and accredited "A" Grade by National Assessment and Accreditation Council. University of Calcutta was awarded the status of "Centre with Potential for Excellence In Particular Area"(CPEPA Status) and "University with potential for excellence"(UPE Status) by the UGC.
The Indian Museum in Kolkata, West Bengal, India, also referred to as the Imperial Museum at Calcutta in colonial-era texts, is the ninth oldest museum of the world, oldest museum in India and the second largest museum in India, after the Madras Museum, and has rare collections of antiques, armour and ornaments, fossils, skeletons, mummies and Mughal paintings. It was founded by the Asiatic Society of Bengal in Kolkata (Calcutta), India, in 1814. The founder curator was Nathaniel Wallich, a Danish botanist.
The Asiatic Society was founded by civil servant Sir William Jones on 15 January 1784 in a meeting presided over by Robert Chambers, Justice of the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William at the Fort William in Calcutta, then capital of the British Raj, to enhance and further the cause of Oriental research. At the time of its foundation, this Society was named as "Asiatick Society". In 1825, the society dropped the antique k without any formal resolution and the Society was renamed as "The Asiatic Society". In 1832 the name was changed to "The Asiatic Society of Bengal" and again in 1936 it was renamed as "The Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal". Finally, on 1 July 1951, the name of the society was changed to its present one. The Society is housed in a building at Park Street in Kolkata (Calcutta). The Society moved into this building during 1808. In 1823, the Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta was formed and all the meetings of this society were held in the Asiatic Society.
Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur is a premier public engineering institution located at Shibpur, Howrah district, West Bengal. In engineering category, it is ranked 19th by the NIRF rankings among all the institutes of the country. It is recognised as an Institute of National Importance under MHRD by the Government of India along with IITs, NITs and other institutes. Established in 1856, IIEST Shibpur is the 2nd oldest engineering institution of the country, after IIT Roorkee.
The Belvedere Estate consists of Belvedere House and the 30-acre (12 ha) grounds surrounding it, in which the National Library of India is housed, since 1948. It is located in Alipore, near the zoo, in Calcutta. Belvedere House was the former palace for the Viceroy of India and later the Governor of Bengal.
The State Library of New South Wales, part of which is known as the Mitchell Library, is a large heritage-listed special collections, reference and research library open to the public. It is the oldest library in Australia, being the first established in the colony of New South Wales in 1826. The library is located on the corner of Macquarie Street and Shakespeare Place, in the Sydney central business district adjacent to the Domain and the Royal Botanic Gardens, in the City of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The library is a member of the National and State Libraries Australasia (NSLA) consortium.
The Calcutta Boys' School was founded by the Rev. James Mills Thoburn, and was opened in 1877. It was endowed by Robert Laidlaw and others interested in the education of the sons of the Anglo-Indian and domiciled European community.
Raj Bhavan is the official residence of the Governor of West Bengal, located in the capital city Kolkata. Built in 1803, it was known as Government House before the independence of India.
Prithwindra Mukherjee retired in 2003 from a career as a researcher in the Human and Social Sciences Department (Ethnomusicology) of the French National Centre of Scientific Research in Paris. He is the author of a number of books and other publications on various subjects.
The India Government Mint, Kolkata was first established in 1757, and was located in a building next to the Black Hole in the old fort – where the GPO stands today. It was called the Calcutta Mint and used to produce coins with the mint name Murshidabad.
Armenian College and Philanthropic Academy (ACPA) is an Armenian school in Kolkata, India. As of 2015 it is the sole Armenian-centred school in the eastern section of the world, and has been so throughout its history. It is commonly known and called Armenian College.
The Zoological Garden, Alipore is India's oldest formally stated zoological park and a big tourist attraction in Kolkata, West Bengal. It has been open as a zoo since 1876, and covers 18.811 ha. It is probably best known as the home of the now expired Aldabra giant tortoise Adwaita, who was reputed to have been over 250 years old when he died in 2006. It is also home to one of the few captive breeding projects involving the Manipur brow-antlered deer. One of the most popular tourist attractions in Kolkata, it draws huge crowds during the winter season, especially during December and January. The highest attendance till date was on January 1, 2018 with 110,000 visitors.
Metcalfe Hall is a heritage building situated in Kolkata, India, at the junction of Strand Road and Hare Street in the heart of the city's business district. The architecture is reflective of the British imperial architecture at the middle of the nineteenth century, and visually similar to ancient Greek temples. It was built between 1840-1844 according to the design prepared by the city magistrate, C.K. Robinson and named after Sir Charles T. Metcalfe, the Governor-General of India, in honour of his efforts towards a free press. The building faces the Hooghly river on the West.
Asutosh College is a college affiliated to the University of Calcutta, situated in Southern Kolkata, close to the Jatin Das Park Metro Station, gate No. 2. It was established in 1916 as the South Suburban College, under the stewardship of educationist Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee, who was the then vice-chancellor of the University of Calcutta. After the death of Sir Mukherjee, the college was renamed as Asutosh College in 1924. The principal of the college is Dr. Dipak Kumar Kar. It is affiliated to the Calcutta University.
Kolkata Town Hall in Roman Doric style, was built in 1813 by the architect and engineer Maj.-Gen. John Garstin (1756–1820) with a fund of 700,000 Rupees raised from a lottery to provide the Europeans with a place for social gatherings.
Uttarpara Jaykrishna Public Library is a district library in Uttarpara, West Bengal, India, and is the first of its kind in Asia. Located in Uttarpara, a small town on the banks of the Hoogly river, this library was established by Babu Jaykrishna Mukherjee and opened to the public in 1859. At present, the library has been declared a Group ‘A’ Library by the West Bengal State Government. Efforts are being made to have it declared an Institution of National Importance.
Maharaja Manindra Chandra College is an undergraduate college in north Kolkata, India, established in 1941, at 20 Ramkanta Bose Street, Kolkata - 700003. It is affiliated under the University of Calcutta. It shares premises with Maharaja Sris Chandra College and Maharani Kasiswari College. The college has a second campus in a new building at 12 Padmanath Lane, Kolkata - 700004, donated by Smt. Bandita Mukherjee, daughter of ex-principal of the college Sri Biswanath Mukherjee.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to National Library of India .|