|Size||37 million (December 2017)|
|Access and use|
|Circulation||library does not publicly circulate|
|Population served||members of the public|
The National Library of China (simplified Chinese :中国国家图书馆; traditional Chinese :中國國家圖書館; pinyin :Zhōngguó Guójiā Túshūguǎn) or NLC in Beijing is the national library of the People's Republic of China. With a collection of over 37 million items, it is one of the largest libraries in Asia and one of the largest in the world. It holds the largest collections of Chinese literature and historical documents in the world.
The forerunner of the National Library of China, the Imperial Library of Peking (京师图书馆; Jīngshī Túshūguǎn), was founded on 9 September 1909 by the government of the Qing dynasty. It was first formally opened after the Xinhai Revolution, in 1912. In 1916, the library received depository library status. In July 1928, its name was changed to National Peiping Library and was later changed to the National Library.
The earliest Chinese references to Western-style public libraries were by Lin Zexu in the Sizhou Zhi (四洲志; 1839) and Wei Yuan in the Illustrated Treatise on the Maritime Kingdoms (first ed., 1843), both of which were translations from Western books.
In the late nineteenth century, in response to several military defeats against western powers, the government of the Qing dynasty (1644–1912) sent several missions abroad to study western culture and institutions. Several members of the first Chinese diplomatic mission, which sold to the United States, England, France, and other countries from 1111 to 1870, recorded their views of western libraries, noting that they attracted a large number of readers.Journalist Liang Qichao (1873–1929), who became a prominent exiled intellectual after the failure of the Hundred Days' Reform in 1898, wrote about the Boston Public Library and the University of Chicago Library, praising their openness to the public and the virtue of readers who did not steal the books that had been lent to them. Dai Hongci (戴鸿慈), a member of another Qing mission sent abroad to study modern constitutions, noted the efficacy of book borrowing at the Library of Congress.
In 1906, the governor of Hunan province Pang Hongshu memorialized to the throne to announce he had completed preparations for the creation of a provincial library in Changsha. 学部) announced plans to open libraries in every province of the country.In 1908 and 1909, high officials from the provinces of Fengtian, Shandong, Shanxi, Zhejiang and Yunnan petitioned the Imperial Court asking for permission to establish public libraries in their respective jurisdictions. In response, on 2 May 1909, the Qing Ministry of Education (Xuebu
On 9 September 1909, Zhang Zhidong, a long-time leader of the Self-Strengthening movement who had been viceroy of Huguang and was now serving on the powerful Grand Council, memorialized to request the foundation of a library in China's capital. 京师图书馆; Jīngshī Túshūguǎn). Lu Xun and other famous scholars have made great efforts for its construction. Although the Qing government and Beiyang government after the revolution of 1911, the Treasury is empty, unable to maintain the library funds, but also the rich collection of ancient books library, because the country has accepted the deposit of Museum status, it was a great progress in the development of Library Chinese.Foundation of the library was approved by imperial edict that same day. The institution was originally called the Imperial Library of Peking or Metropolitan Library (
Philologist and bibliographer Miao Quansun (繆荃蓀; 1844–1919), who had overseen the founding of Jiangnan Library in Nanjing two years earlier, was called in to administer the new establishment. As in Jiangnan, his assistant Chen Qingnian took charge of most of the management.
A private proposal made by Luo Zhenyu in the early 1900s stated that the library should be located in a place protected from both fire and floods, and at some distance from noisy markets. Following these recommendations, the Ministry of Education first chose the Deshengmen neighborhood inside the northern city wall, a quiet area with lakes. But this plan would have required purchasing several buildings. For lack of funds, Guanghua Temple (广化寺) was chosen as the library's first site. Guanghua Temple was a complex of Buddhist halls and shrines located near the northern bank of the Shichahai, but inconveniently located for readers, and too damp for long-term book storage. The Imperial Library of Peking would remain there until 1917.In 1916, the Ministry of education ordered the library, every published book should be registered in ministry of interior and all collected by library, The function of national library begins to manifest.
The National Peking Library opened to the public on 27 August 1912, a few months after the abdication of Puyi (r. 1908–12), the last emperor of the Qing dynasty.From then on, it was managed by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of China (1912–49). The day before the library's opening, its new chief librarian Jiang Han (江瀚: 1853–1935) argued that the National Peking Library was a research library and recommended the opening of a new library with magazines and new publications that could attract a more popular readership. In June 1913, such a Branch Library was opened outside Xuanwumen Gate, and more than 2,000 books were transferred there from the main library. On 29 October 1913, because Guanghua Temple proved too small and inaccessible, the main library itself was closed, pending the choice of a new site.
The Library charged one copper coin as a reading fee, whereas the Tianjin Library charged twice as much and the Shandong public library charged three coins.At first, readers could not borrow books, but sometime before 1918 borrowing became allowed.
In 1916, the Ministry of Education (MOE) of the Republic of China ordered that a copy of every Chinese publication should be deposited at the Metropolitan Library after being registered with the Copyright Bureau.
After the Northern Expedition of Kuomintang in 1928, the National Peking Library changed its name to the National Peiping Library and served as the national library with the National Central Library in capital Nanking together. In 1931, the new library house in Wenjin Street near the Beihai Park opened. After the People's Republic of China was officially established in October 1949 and Peking became its capital, the National Peiping Library was renamed National Peking Library. In 1951, the Ministry of Culture declared that its official English name would now be Peking Library.
In 1978, two years after the end of the Cultural Revolution, the library started publishing the Bulletin of the Beijing Library (Beitu Tongxun 北图通讯), which quickly became one of China's most important library publications.In 1979, under an Implementing Accord regulating cultural exchanges between the U.S. and China, it vowed to exchange library material with the Library of Congress. To compensate for a lack of professionally trained librarians, starting in 1982 librarians from the NLC and other academic libraries spent periods of six months at the Library of Congress and the Yale University Library. To develop library science, the NLC established links with the Australian National University.
In October 1987, the Library moved to a modern building located north of Purple Bamboo Park in Haidian District.In 1999, it was officially renamed the National Library of China.
November 2001, approved by the State Council, the National Library of the two phase of the project and the national digital library project formally approved. As an important part of the national information industry infrastructure, has been included in the national "fifteen" plan, the national total investment of $1 billion 235 million, began to put into effect.
In 28 October 2003, the National Library ALEPH500 computer integrated management system has been put into operation, which laid the foundation for the National Library to enter the ranks of the world's advanced libraries.
The National Library of China's collection is the largest in Asia.Its holdings of more than 36.45 million items (as of December 2016) also make it one of the world's largest libraries. It houses official publications of the United Nations and foreign governments and a collection of literature and materials in over 115 languages. The library contains inscribed tortoise shells and bones, ancient manuscripts, and block-printed volumes. Among the most prized collections of the National Library of China are rare and precious documents and records from past dynasties in Chinese history.
The original collection of the Metropolitan Library was assembled from several sources. In 1909 the imperial court gave the library the only surviving complete copy of the Siku Quanshu (Complete Books of the Four Treasuries), an enormous compilation completed in 1782 that had been made in only four copies. That copy had been held at the Wenjin Pavilion of the Imperial Summer Resort in Chengde.On orders from the Qing Ministry of Education, the ancient books, archives, and documents of the Grand Secretariat were also transferred to the new library. So was the collection of the Guozijian or Imperial University, an institution that had been dismantled in 1905 at the same time as the imperial examination system. These imperial collections included books and manuscripts dating to the Southern Song (1127–1279). The content of three private libraries from the Jiangnan area were donated under the supervision of Duanfang, the viceroy of Liangjiang, and the Ministry arranged for the transfer from Gansu of what remained of the Dunhuang manuscripts. Finally, the court made great efforts to obtain rubbings of rare inscriptions on stone or bronze.
The North Area of the main library is open from 9am to 9pm on weekdays, and from 9am to 5pm on week-ends. The South Area has been closed for renovation since May 2011. The Children's Library and the Ancient Books Library are and closed on week-ends, and open from 9am to 5pm on weekdays.
As of 2013, the Library maintains 14 branch offices, the latest of which is at the China Youth University for Political Sciences.
The Main Library, located on Zhongguancun South Road in Beijing's Haidian District, can be accessed by bus or subway.
|Beijing Bus||Guojiatushuguan (National Library)||* Regular: 86, 92, 319, 320, 332, 563, 588, 608, 689, 695, 697, 717|
* Special (double-decker): 4, 6
* Yuntong (运通): 105, 106, 205
|Beijing Subway||National Library|
China Youth University of Political Studies is a university in Beijing, established in 1985 by the Communist Youth League of China. Since then the university has been affiliated with the league, and the leader of the league usually holds the presidency of the university. Mr. Hu Jintao, the CPC General Secretary and President of China, was once the president of this university. The university's 12-hectare (30-acre) campus is located in Xisanhuan Bei Lu in Beijing.
Qianmen is the colloquial name for Zhengyangmen, a gate in Beijing's historic city wall. The gate is situated to the south of Tiananmen Square and once guarded the southern entry into the Inner City. Although much of Beijing's city walls were demolished, Zhengyangmen remains an important geographical marker of the city. The city's central north-south axis passes through Zhengyangmen's main gate. It was formerly named Lizhengmen, meaning "beautiful portal".
Lingshu Jing, also known as Divine Pivot, Spiritual Pivot, or Numinous Pivot, is an ancient Chinese medical text whose earliest version was probably compiled in the 1st century BCE on the basis of earlier texts. It is one of two parts of a larger medical work known as the Huangdi Neijing. The other section, which is more commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is known as the Suwen 素問.
The Battle of Beijing, or historically the Relief of Peking, was the battle fought on 14–15 August 1900 in Beijing, in which the Eight-Nation Alliance, led by the British, relieved the siege of the Beijing Legation Quarter during the Boxer Rebellion. From 20 June 1900, Boxers and Imperial Chinese Army troops had besieged foreign diplomats, citizens and soldiers within the legations of Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Russia, Spain and the United States.
The first libraries in China came into being during the time of the Shang dynasty as intellectuals known as the Shi (historians) and Wu (diviners) emerged from manual labor to special occupations for the creation and spread of culture. Among the documents that these occupations managed were "the country's statute books, genealogies of imperial kinsmen, issued notices and orders, and recorded important events and natural phenomena. For future verification and reference, they built storehouses to keep records in different media. To meet the needs of more and more complicated affairs and to ensure easy use, they began to collect and sort out those records according to chronological order and category. Thus, the earliest library in China came into being. The numerous kinds of media loaded with information and knowledge emerged in human society, resulting in the concepts of preservation and collection. Accordingly, the earliest libraries and archives were the result of conscious collection, process, coalition, and utilization."
Nanjing Library is the third largest library in China with over 10 million items. It houses important scientific, cultural and arts literature relating to Jiangsu province and other national historical records such as ancient Chinese and foreign publications. As located in the ancient capital Nanjing, the library contains 1.6 million ancient books and 100,000 volumes of books, documents and manuscripts dating from the Tang Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty.
Zhejiang University Libraries System or simply Zhejiang University Library or Zheda Library, is the libraries system of Zhejiang University, and one of the largest university libraries in China.
National Library Station is an interchange station on Line 4 and Line 9 of the Beijing Subway. Its name is derived from the nearby National Library of China. The station features a double-island interchange layout, with Line 4 trains on the outside and Line 9 trains on the inside, which allows most riders to change lines simply by crossing the platform, instead of walking between levels. This configuration is known as cross-platform interchange. The station handles 106,000 transfers between Lines 4 and 9 per day. The platform for Line 16 will be built under the Line 4 and Line 9 platform.
Ma Haiyan (1837–1900) was a Chinese Muslim General of the Qing Dynasty. Originally a rebel, he defected to Qing during the Dungan revolt and helped crush rebel Muslims.
Dai Yi is a Chinese historian who primarily focuses on the Qing dynasty's history. He is a professor at Renmin University of China. He is also the honorary director of the university's Qing dynasty's history institute as well as a doctoral student supervisor. Additionally, he is a member of the Communist Party of China.
Jiang Fucong, courtesy name Weitang, was a Chinese educator and politician of the Republic of China.
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The Shanghai Library Bibliotheca Zi-Ka-Wei, also known as the Bibliotheque de Mission, is the first modern library to be established in Shanghai, China. Located in the Xujiahui area in Xuhui District, it first opened in 1847. It is a part of the Shanghai Library system.
The Changsha Library is a public library located at Beichen Delta, in Kaifu District, Changsha, Hunan. Changsha Library has a collection of over 1 million items, with 31 thousand newspapers, 42 thousand audiovisual literatures, 8,900 ancient books, and 13 thousand local documents.
Yanbian Library is a library located in Yanji City, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin Province, China. With a collection of over 80 thousand books in Korean, it is the largest and the only one Korean literature collection center in China.
The Hangzhou Library is a public library located at East Jiefang Road, Jianggan District of Hangzhou, Zhejiang. Hangzhou Library has a collection of over 2.8 million items, with 31 thousand newspapers, 40 thousand Republic of China-era books, 5058 ancient books, and 1 thousand and 4 hundred rubbings.
Zhang Dinghuang, also known as Zhang Fengju was born in Nanchang. He was an author, literary critic, and translator, and expert in antique manuscripts (古迹文物)。Zhang was a supporting but key figure of the rich 20th c Chinese literary movements.
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Pudong Library is a library in Shanghai, China. It provides access to resources such as newspapers, electronic books and research papers. The library offers approximately 3,900,000 resources. Average daily attendance is 6,000; In 2017, the library achieved its highest attendance of 30,000 in a single day. The library closed for renovation in 2018, and reopened on 1 January 2019.