Sabre Dance

Last updated
The cover of a 1953 record of the "Sabre Dance" by the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra. Khachaturian Sabre Dance cover Indianapolis Symphony 1953.png
The cover of a 1953 record of the "Sabre Dance" by the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra.

"Sabre Dance" (Armenian : Սուսերով պար, Suserov par; Russian : Танец с саблями, Tanets s sablyami) is a movement in the final act of Aram Khachaturian's ballet Gayane (1942), where the dancers display their skill with sabres. [2] It is Khachaturian's best known and most recognizable work. [3] [4] He apparently felt that its popularity "deflected attention from his other works." [5]

Armenian language Indo-European language

The Armenian language is an Indo-European language that is the only language in the Armenian branch. It is the official language of Armenia as well as the de facto Republic of Artsakh. Historically being spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands, today, Armenian is widely spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

A movement is a self-contained part of a musical composition or musical form. While individual or selected movements from a composition are sometimes performed separately, a performance of the complete work requires all the movements to be performed in succession. A movement is a section, "a major structural unit perceived as the result of the coincidence of relatively large numbers of structural phenomena".

A unit of a larger work that may stand by itself as a complete composition. Such divisions are usually self-contained. Most often the sequence of movements is arranged fast-slow-fast or in some other order that provides contrast.

Contents

Its middle section is based on an unnamed Armenian folk song. [2] [6] According to Tigran Mansurian, it is a synthesis of an Armenian wedding dance tune from Gyumri tied in a saxophone counterpoint "that seems to come straight from America." [7]

The music of Armenia has its origins in the Armenian Highlands, where people traditionally sang popular folk songs. Armenia has a long musical tradition that was primarily collected and developed by Komitas, a prominent priest and musicologist, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Armenian music has been presented internationally by composers Aram Khachaturian, Alexander Arutiunian, Arno Babadjanian, Karen Kavaleryan as well as by pop musicians and performers such as duduk player Djivan Gasparyan, composer/instrumentalist Ara Gevorgyan, singers Sirusho, Eva Rivas and many others.

Tigran Mansurian composer

Tigran Yeghiayi Mansurian is a leading Armenian composer of classical music and film scores.

Gyumri Place in Shirak, Armenia

Gyumri, is an urban municipal community and the second largest city in Armenia, serving as the administrative centre of Shirak Province in the northwestern part of the country. By the end of the 19th century, when the city was known as Alexandropol, it was one of the largest cities of Russian-ruled Eastern Armenia with a population similar to that of Yerevan. It was renamed to Leninakan during the Soviet period. The city's population grew above 200,000 prior to the 1988 Spitak earthquake, when it was devastated. As of the 2011 census, the city had a population of 121,976, down from 150,917 reported at the 2001 census.

"Sabre Dance" is considered one of the signature pieces of 20th-century popular music. [8] It was popularized by covers by pop artists, [9] first in the US and later in other countries such as the UK and Germany. Its use in a wide range of films and TV series over the decades have significantly contributed to its renown. [10] Sabre Dance has also been used by a number of figure skaters from at least five countries in their performances. Tom Huizenga of NPR describes it as "one of the catchiest, most familiar—perhaps most maddening—tunes to come out of the 20th century." [11] Billboard magazine calls it "a piece that's known to every pops orchestra in existence." [12]

NPR Non-profit membership media organization

National Public Radio is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. NPR differs from other non-profit membership media organizations, such as AP, in that it was established by an act of Congress and most of its member stations are owned by government entities. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

A pops orchestra is an orchestra that plays popular music and show tunes as well as well-known classical works. Pops orchestras are generally organised in large cities and are distinct from the more "highbrow" symphony or philharmonic orchestras which also may exist in the same city. This is not to say that the distinction is complete; many symphony orchestras put on pops performances with some regularity, while other pops orchestras are actually second identities of the "highbrow" orchestra and composed largely of the same players.

Hit in the U.S.

In 1948 [13] the "Sabre Dance" became a jukebox hit in the United States. [14] [15] Due to its popularity, Newsweek suggested that 1948 could be called "Khachaturian Year in the United States." [16] In 1948, three versions of the "Sabre Dance" reached number one in the Billboard Best-Selling Records by Classical Artists:

Jukebox device to play music singles with

A jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device, usually a coin-operated machine, that will play a patron's selection from self-contained media. The classic jukebox has buttons, with letters and numbers on them, which, when one of each group entered after each other, are used to select a specific record.

Newsweek is an American weekly news magazine founded in 1933.

<i>Billboard</i> (magazine) American music magazine

Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, video, opinion, reviews, events, and style, and is also known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres. It also hosts events, owns a publishing firm, and operates several TV shows.

Chicago Symphony Orchestra American symphony orchestra in Chicago, IL

The Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO) was founded by Theodore Thomas in 1891. The ensemble makes its home at Orchestra Hall in Chicago and plays a summer season at the Ravinia Festival. The music director is Riccardo Muti, who began his tenure in 2010. The CSO is one of five American orchestras commonly referred to as the "Big Five".

Artur Rodziński Polish conductor

Artur Rodziński was a Polish conductor of opera and symphonic music. He is especially noted for his tenures as music director of the Cleveland Orchestra and the New York Philharmonic in the 1930s and 1940s.

New York Philharmonic American symphony orchestra in New York, NY

The New York Philharmonic, officially the Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York, Inc., globally known as New York Philharmonic Orchestra (NYPO) or New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, is a symphony orchestra based in New York City. It is one of the leading American orchestras popularly referred to as the "Big Five". The Philharmonic's home is David Geffen Hall, located in New York's Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts.

These three versions were included in the Year's Top Selling Classical Artists by Billboard in 1948. [21] The "Sabre Dance" became the first million-selling record of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. [22] According to the Current Biography Yearbook , it was Levant's performance that "received popular attention." [23]

Current Biography is an American monthly magazine published by the H. W. Wilson Company of The Bronx, New York, a publisher of reference books, that appears every month except December. Current Biography contains profiles of people in the news and includes politicians, athletes, businessmen, and entertainers. Published since 1940, the articles are annually collected into bound volumes called Current Biography Yearbook. A December issue of the magazine is not published because the staff works on the final cumulative volume for the year. Articles in the bound volumes correct any mistakes that may have appeared in the magazine and may include additional relevant information about the subject that became available since publication of the original article. The work is a standard reference source in American libraries and the publisher keeps in print the older volumes. Wilson also issues cumulative indexes to the set, and an online version is available as a subscription database.

Hit in the U.K.

The version by Love Sculpture reached No. 5 in the UK Singles Chart in December 1968. [24]

Covers

The Sabre dance is heard for 2 minutes in one part of Jean-Michel Jarre's Oxygène.

The "Sabre Dance" has been used in numerous films, animated films, TV series, video games and commercials over the years, oftentimes for humorous effects. [66] The piece's popular familiarity has been enhanced by its traditional use as accompaniment by travelling circuses and on television variety shows such as The Ed Sullivan Show when novelty acts such as plate spinners appeared. [11]

Some notable TV shows that have used it include The Jack Benny Program (1961), A Piano in the House from The Twilight Zone (1962), The Onedin Line (1971 and 1972), The Benny Hill Show (1985), Our Very First Telethon episode of Full House (1990), The Simpsons (1991), Two and a Half Men (2004), What's New, Scooby-Doo? (2004), "Peterotica" episode of Family Guy (2006), SpongeBob SquarePants (2007), and The Big Bang Theory (2009). [67]

On June 6, 2013 on the 110th anniversary of Khachaturian’s birthday a modern take of the Sabre Dance—Sabre Dance on the Street—was performed at Yerevan Cascade by Barekamutyun dance ensemble and Armenian Philharmonic Orchestra. [68] [69] [70]

Films

Films in which the "Sabre Dance" was used include The Barkleys of Broadway (1949), One, Two, Three (1961), The System (1964), Amarcord (1973), Nu, pogodi! 6th episode "Countryside" (1973), Pee-wee's Big Adventure (1985), Jumpin' Jack Flash (1986), Repentance (1987), Punchline (1988), Hocus Pocus (1993) Radioland Murders (1994), The Hudsucker Proxy (1994), [71] Don't Drink the Water (1994), I Married a Strange Person! (1997), Vegas Vacation (1997), A Simple Wish (1997), Blues Brothers 2000 (1998), The Lion King 1½ (2004), Kung Fu Hustle (2005), Scoop (2006), Sicko (2007), Ghost Town (2008), Witless Protection (2008), Le Concert (2009), Pájaros de papel (2010), Sabre Dance (2015). [66] In his frenzied comedy One, Two, Three , director Billy Wilder used the dance repeatedly for comic effect, including a crazed chase through East Berlin, and the chaotic closing ride to the airport featuring James Cagney and Horst Bucholz. It was also played briefly in Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted .

Video games

Video games in which the "Sabre Dance" was used include:

In sports

The National Hockey League (NHL)'s Buffalo Sabres have used the piece as a theme song since the team was established in 1970. [72] After a hiatus, the "Sabre Dance" was again made their theme song in 2011. [73] [74]

In 2010–13, the "Sabre Dance" became popular in the city of Donetsk, Ukraine, because it was played in Donbass Arena, the venue of FC Shakhtar Donetsk, whenever the Armenian football player Henrikh Mkhitaryan scored a goal. [75]

The "Sabre Dance" was featured in the 2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony held in Fisht Olympic Stadium, Sochi, Russia on February 7. [76] [77]

Figure skating

The "Sabre Dance" has been used by numerous figure skaters, including:

Season(s)Athlete(s)CountryCompetitionRef
1981–82 Natalia Bestemianova Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union free skating
1986 Suzanne Semanick
Scott Gregory
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 1986 U.S. Figure Skating Championships [78]
1986–88 Debi Thomas Flag of the United States.svg United States [79]
1994 Scott Hamilton Flag of the United States.svg United States [80]
1993–94 Michelle Kwan Flag of the United States.svg United States short program [81]
1998–99 Johnny Weir Flag of the United States.svg United Statesshort program [82]
1999–00 Evgeni Plushenko Flag of Russia.svg  Russia short program [83]
2001–02 Stanislav Morozov
Aliona Savchenko
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine short program [84]
2001–02 Takahiko Kozuka Flag of Japan.svg  Japan short program [85]
2004–05Stanislav Morozov
Tatiana Volosozhar
Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine free skating [86]
2004–05 Daisuke Takahashi Flag of Japan.svg Japanshort program [87] [88]
2005–06 Takahito Mura Flag of Japan.svg Japanshort program [89]
2006–07 Maximin Coia
Adeline Canac
Flag of France.svg  France free skating [90]
2007–08 Ryuju Hino Flag of Japan.svg Japanshort program
2012–13 Yulia Lipnitskaya Flag of Russia.svg Russiashort program [91] [92]
2013–14exhibition [93]

Related Research Articles

Aram Khachaturian Armenian composer and conductor

Aram Il'yich Khachaturian was a Soviet Armenian composer and conductor. He is considered one of the leading Soviet composers.

Mer Hayrenik national anthem

"Mer Hayrenik" is the national anthem of Armenia. Barsegh Kanachyan composed the music, while the lyrics were authored by Mikayel Nalbandian. First adopted in 1918 as the anthem of the short-lived First Republic of Armenia, it was subsequently banned after the country was invaded and incorporated into the Soviet Union. Following the dissolution of the USSR and the restoration of sovereignty in 1991, the song was re-adopted as the national anthem of the newly-independent state, albeit with slightly modified lyrics.

<i>Gayane</i> (ballet) Ballet by Khachaturian

Gayane is a four-act ballet with music by Aram Khachaturian. Originally composed in or before 1939, when it was first produced as Happiness. Revised in 1941–42 to a libretto by Konstantin Derzhavin and with choreography by Nina Aleksandrovna Anisimova, the score was revised in 1952 and in 1957, with a new plot. The stage design was by Nathan Altman (scenery) and Tatyana Bruni (costumes).

Anthem of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic national anthem

The State Anthem of the Armenian SSR was the national anthem of Armenia when it was a republic of the Soviet Union and known as the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. It was used between 1944 and 1991. Its music was composed by world-famous Armenian composer Aram Khachaturian and the lyrics were written by Sarmen".

<i>Spartacus</i> (ballet) ballet by Aram Khachaturian

Spartacus is a ballet by Aram Khachaturian (1903–1978). The work follows the exploits of Spartacus, the leader of the slave uprising against the Romans known as the Third Servile War, although the ballet's storyline takes considerable liberties with the historical record. Khachaturian composed Spartacus in 1954, and was awarded a Lenin Prize for the composition that same year. It was first staged, with choreography by Leonid Yakobson, in Leningrad 1956, but only with qualified success since Yakobson abandoned conventional pointe in his choreography. The ballet received its first staging at the Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow in 1958, choreographed by Igor Moiseyev; however it was the 1968 production, choreographed by Yury Grigorovich, which achieved the greatest acclaim for the ballet. It remains one of Khachaturian's best known works and is prominent within the repertoires of the Bolshoi Theatre and other ballet companies in Russia and the former Soviet Union.

Alexander Arutiunian Armenian composer, pianist

Alexander Grigori Arutiunian, also known as Arutunian, Arutyunyan, Arutjunjan, Harutyunian or Harutiunian, was a Soviet and Armenian composer and pianist, widely known for his 1950 trumpet concerto. A professor at Yerevan State Conservatory, he was recognized with many awards for his work, including the Stalin Prize in 1949 and People's Artist of the USSR in 1970, as well as numerous honors from his homeland of Armenia.

Nina Makarova Russian composer

Nina Vladimirovna Makarova was a Russian composer who had great interest in Russian and Mari folksongs. She studied under Nikolai Myaskovsky, like composer Aram Khachaturian, whom she married in 1933. Her nickname was "Gayane" (Гаянэ). She conducted her symphony in Moscow on 12 June 1947. She also co-composed several pieces with her husband, including the Music to M. Aliger's Play "A Tale of Truth" (1947) and Music to Yu. Chepurin's Play "Spring Stream" (1953).

National Chamber Orchestra of Armenia

The origin of the National Chamber Orchestra of Armenia (NCOA) dates back to the Soviet era. It was founded by the violinist Zareh Sahakiants as the Armenian State Chamber Orchestra in 1962. In 1997 it was merged with the Yerevan Chamber Orchestra to form the new NCOA. As of September 2010 the Principal Conductor and Music Director is Vahan Mardirossian.

Aram Khachaturian's Piano Concerto in D-flat major, Op. 38, was composed in 1936. It was his first work to bring him recognition in the West, and it immediately entered the repertoire of many notable pianists.

The soundtrack to the film Kung Fu Hustle was released in 2004 and 2005 in conjunction with the 2004 Hong Kong-Chinese martial arts film directed by and starring Stephen Chow. The majority of the film's original score was composed by Raymond Wong and performed by the Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra. The score imitates traditional Chinese music in 1940s swordplay films. Along with Wong's compositions and various traditional Chinese songs, classical compositions are featured in the score, including excerpts from Zigeunerweisen by Pablo de Sarasate and "Sabre Dance" by Aram Khachaturian.

Masquerade was written in 1941 by Aram Khachaturian as incidental music for a production of the play of the same name by Russian poet and playwright Mikhail Lermontov. It premiered on 21 June 1941 in the Vakhtangov Theatre in Moscow. The music is better known in the form of a five-movement suite.

Michelle Ekizian is an American composer of Armenian heritage.

Gayane Chebotaryan was an Armenian composer and musicologist. She was born in Rostov-on-Don, Russia, and graduated from the Leningrad Conservatory. She studied composition with K'usnaryan and piano with Moisei Khalfin. In 1947 she took a teaching position with the Yerevan Komitas State Conservatory where she was appointed professor in 1977. She was made an Honored Art Worker of the Armenian SSR in 1965, and published a work on the polyphonic characteristics of Aram Khachaturian in 1969.

The Comedians, Op. 26, is an orchestral suite of ten numbers by Dmitry Kabalevsky. It is one of his best-known and best-loved works.

<i>2001: A Space Odyssey</i> (soundtrack) 1968 soundtrack album by Various artists

2001: A Space Odyssey is a soundtrack album to the film of the same name, released in 1968. The soundtrack is known for its use of many classical and orchestral pieces, and credited for giving many classical pieces resurgences in popularity, such as Johann Strauss II's 1866 Blue Danube Waltz, Richard Strauss' symphonic poem Also sprach Zarathustra, and György Ligeti's Atmosphères. The soundtrack has been re-issued multiple times, including a 1996 version and a digitally remastered version in 2010.

Symphony No. 2 (Khachaturian) symphony

The Symphony No. 2 in E minor, is one of the Armenian composer Aram Khachaturian's most well-known pieces of music. Completed in 1944, it was nicknamed The Bell or Symphony with Bells by Georgi Khubov for its bell motif that begins and ends the piece. A typical performance lasts about 50 minutes.

Julietta Vardanyan is an Armenian pianist, harpsichordist, and organist.

Aram Talalyan is an Armenian cellist and conductor.

References

Notes
    Citations
    1. "Classical Selections of EP Singles ...". Billboard. August 29, 1953. p.  29.
    2. 1 2 "2011–2012 Concerts for Young People: Aram Khachaturian (1903–1978) "Sabre Dance" from Gayane" (PDF). Atlanta Symphony Orchestra. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 12, 2014. The "Sabre Dance" is in the final act. It is where the dancers display their skills with sabres. Its middle section is based on an Armenian folk song ...Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    3. Frolova-Walker, Marina (Summer 1998). ""National in Form, Socialist in Content": Musical Nation-Building in the Soviet Republics". Journal of the American Musicological Society . University of California Press on behalf of the American Musicological Society. 51 (2): 362. doi:10.2307/831980. JSTOR   831980. ... Khachaturian's most popular piece, the Sabre Dance ...
    4. Robinson, Harlow (2013). "The Caucasian Connection: National Identity in the Ballets of Aram Khachaturian". In Kanet, Roger E. (ed.). Identities, Nations and Politics After Communism. Routledge. p. 23. ISBN   9781317968665. ...particularly the "Sabre Dance," which became the single most recognized piece of Khachaturian...
    5. "Khachaturian, a Leading Soviet Composer, Dies at 74". The New York Times . 3 May 1978. archived
    6. "Sabre Dance from Gayane". Fort Wayne Philharmonic Orchestra. Archived from the original on 11 September 2014. The well-known “Sabre Dance” is one of these: an aggressive Armenian war-dance with flashing sabres brandished throughout. The outer sections are based upon a wild ostinato figure punctuated by trombone smears. There is a brief moment of contrast at the center, with a quotation of an Armenian folk song.
    7. In the documentary Khachaturian (2003, directed by Peter Rosen), Tigran Mansurian states: "What an interesting synthesis! He's taken a melody from Gyumri, an Armenian wedding dance tune ... and he's tied in a saxophone counterpoint that seems to come straight from America. The relationship between the two seems so organic, so interesting!" The film is available online here Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine . Mansurian appears at around 33:00.
    8. Adalian, Rouben Paul (2010). Historical Dictionary of Armenia. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 381. ISBN   978-0-8108-7450-3. As for the Sabre Dance from Gayane, it has entered the realm of popular music as one of the 20th century's signature pieces.
    9. Staines, Joe (2010). The Rough Guide to Classical Music. Penguin. ISBN   9781405383219. Filled with a sparkling array of folk-inspired tunes, its most famous episode, the manic “Sabre Dance”, has had a life of its own, even materializing as a pop single.
    10. "Khachaturian: "Sabre Dance" from Gayaneh". University of North Georgia Department of Music. 15 October 2013. Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. "The Sabre Dance" from the ballet suite Gayne [GUY-nuh] by Aram Khachaturian is by far this 20th Century Armenian composer's most famous work. Sabre Dance has been used in numerous films, animated films, TV series, video games and commercials over the years.
    11. 1 2 Huizenga, Tom (5 June 2003). "The 'Sabre Dance' Man". NPR. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
    12. "Casey At The Bat". Billboard. 15 September 2007. p.  103.
    13. "Soviets throw book at Beria". Life . New York. December 28, 1957. p. 17. Meanwhile a musical revolt was stirred up in Russia by Aram Khachaturian, one of the U.S.S.R.'s leading composers, who wrote the U.S. juke box favorite of 1948, Sabre Dance.
    14. Taruskin, Richard (2009). Music in the Late Twentieth Century: The Oxford History of Western Music. Oxford University Press. p.  9. ISBN   978-0-19-979600-7. Khachaturian .. famous in the West for some colorful concertos and a ballet suite containing a rousing "Sabre Dance" that became a jukebox hit.
    15. Petrak, Albert M., ed. (1985). "Khachaturian, Aram Ilyich". David Mason Greene's Biographical Encyclopedia of Composers (1st ed.). Garden City, New York: Reproducing Piano Roll Foundation. pp.  1329–30. ISBN   978-0-385-14278-6. Meanwhile its flashy "Sabre Dance" had conquered the U.S.S.R.'s new American allies and at one time was a standard on juke-boxes.
    16. "Juke-Box Red". Music. Newsweek. 31. New York. 1948. p. 72. ...the music agenda in this country shows plenty to indicate that 1948 may be Khachaturian Year in the United States.
    17. "Retail Record Sales: Best-Selling Records by Classical Artists". Billboard . 10 April 1948. p.  30.
    18. "Retail Record Sales: Best-Selling Records by Classical Artists". Billboard . 26 June 1948. p.  27.
    19. "Retail Record Sales: Best-Selling Records by Classical Artists". Billboard . 10 April 1948. p.  39.
    20. "Retail Record Sales: Best-Selling Records by Classical Artists". Billboard . 15 May 1948. p.  25.
    21. "The Year's Top Selling Classical Artists Over Retail Counters". Billboard . 1 January 1949. p.  19.
    22. Hoffman, Frank, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound, Volume 1: A-L. New York: Routledge. p.  184. ISBN   978-0-203-48427-2.
    23. "Khachaturian, Aram". Current Biography Yearbook . New York: H. W. Wilson Company. 9: 345. 1949. The music is available on records, however, and as a result of its performance by Oscar Levant, the "Sabre Dance," a part of the suite, has received popular attention. Played in four-quarter rather than the three-quarter time in which it was written, "Sabre Dance" is "a juke-box sensation"; an adaptation, "Sabre Dance Boogie," has also been introduced.
    24. "Sabre Dance". Official Charts Company . Retrieved 7 December 2010.
    25. Faris, Jocelyn (1994). Ginger Rogers: A Bio-bibliography. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p.  186. ISBN   978-0-313-29177-7.
    26. Birnbaum, Larry (2013). Before Elvis: The Prehistory of Rock 'n' Roll. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p.  116. ISBN   978-0-8108-8638-4.
    27. Tyler, Don (2008). Music of the Postwar Era. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p.  35. ISBN   978-0-313-34191-5.
    28. "Decca Buyers Guide – Week Ending March 24". Billboard . 27 March 1948. p. 28.
    29. Nimmo, H. Arlo (2004). The Andrews Sisters: A Biography and Career Record. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. p.  425. ISBN   978-0-7864-1731-5.
    30. Sforza, John. Swing It! : The Andrews Sisters Story. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. p.  115. ISBN   978-0-8131-9099-0.
    31. "Lyrics Pal-Yat-Chee". Mudcat Café . Retrieved 6 January 2017.
    32. "Liberace Plays the Saber Dance". EVTV1. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014.
    33. "Georges Cziffra: Ses Enregistrements Studio, 1956–1986 Danse du Sabre (after Khatchaturian's Gayaneh), for piano". AllMusic . Retrieved 9 April 2014.
    34. Richie Unterberger. "Ultra-Lounge, Vol. 3: Space Capades". AllMusic . Archived from the original on 8 April 2014.
    35. "The King Brothers – Sabre Dance". 45cat.com. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
    36. "Jerry Murad's Harmonicats – Peg O' My Heart". Discogs . Retrieved 8 April 2014.
    37. "Japanese Surf Versions of Classical Themes (MP3s) – WFMU's Beware of the Blog" . Retrieved 15 March 2017.
    38. Prown, Pete; Newquist, H. P. (1997). Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Corporation. p.  93. ISBN   978-0-7935-4042-6.
    39. "Ekseption – Ekseption". Discogs . Retrieved 26 October 2014.
    40. "AllMusic – Record Reviews, Streaming Songs, Genres & Bands" . Retrieved 15 March 2017.
    41. "Ekseption – Bingo". Discogs . Retrieved 8 April 2014.
    42. "The Boys To Hell with the Boys". AllMusic . Archived from the original on 8 April 2014.
    43. covered it during 1979 live shows, a recording appears on the two disc 2006 reissue of their eponymous debut album audio
    44. "The Sabre Dance – Serge Camps". YouTube. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014.
    45. "Nina Hagen – In Ekstasy". Discogs . Retrieved 8 April 2014. The Lord's Prayer Written By [Inserts From Sabre Dance] – Aram Khatchaturian
    46. "The Listener's Club".
    47. Valdivia, Victor W. "U.K. Subs Killing Time". AllMusic . Archived from the original on 8 April 2014.
    48. "Toy Dolls – Wakey Wakey!". Discogs . Retrieved 8 April 2014.
    49. "Skaz - Balastroika (CD, Album) at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
    50. Calum Jensen (25 June 2009). "Mekong Delta-Sabre Dance" . Retrieved 15 March 2017 via YouTube.
    51. "James Galway Dances for Flute". AllMusic . Retrieved 29 June 2014.
    52. Henkelmann, Carsten. "Deep Purple: Sabre Dance – DVD, Bootleg, Live" . Retrieved 15 March 2017.
    53. "Budapest Gypsy Orchestra The Budapest Gypsy Orchestra". AllMusic . Retrieved 9 April 2014.
    54. "Musical Mayhem and The Black Fire Concerto". Black Gate. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Aram Khachaturian's "Sabre Dance" in the midst of "Sodom and Gomorrah" from their way underrated album Death Row.Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
    55. "Master's Hammer – Šlágry". Discogs . Retrieved 8 April 2014. Šavlový Tanec Written-By – Aram Chačaturjan*, Master's Hammer
    56. "Skyclad – Irrational Anthems". Discogs . Retrieved 8 April 2014. Sabre Dance Arranged By [Deranged By] – G. English* Composed By – A. Khachaturian*
    57. "Vanessa-Mae Choreography". AllMusic . Retrieved 9 April 2014.
    58. Loftus, Johnny. "Bond Classified". AllMusic . Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. "Highly Strung," for example, tries to marry Khachaturian's manic Sabre Dance to spy movie guitar and chattering electronics, the result being more garishly cartoonish than interpretive.
    59. "Tony Levin – Resonator". Discogs . Retrieved 29 June 2014.
    60. "Wolfgang's Big Night Out Sabre Dance, for electric guitar & jazz ensemble (after Khachaturian)". AllMusic . Archived from the original on 9 April 2014.
    61. "André Rieu in Wonderland:Synopsis". MSN Entertainment. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.
    62. "Sabre Dance by Les Fradkin". SecondHandSongs. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
    63. "Jelonek "Revenge"" (in Polish). Rock Magazyn. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
    64. "Richard Galliano & Cadence Ensemble (Aram Khachaturian – Sabre Dance)". 14 January 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
    65. "Ռիշար Գալիանոյի համերգը` մարտի 5-ին [Richard Galliano's concert on March 5]" (in Armenian). Public Radio of Armenia. 4 March 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2014. Ռիշար Գալիանոն ասում է, որ մեծ հաճույքով նվագում է Արամ Խաչատրյանի «Սուսերով պարը»,
    66. 1 2 "Aram Khachaturyan". IMDb. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
    67. "The Work Song Nanocluster". IMDb.
    68. "Happy Birthday Aram Khachaturian!". Armenian General Benevolent Union. 6 June 2013. Archived from the original on 28 August 2014.
    69. AGBUvideo (6 June 2013). "Saber Dance on the Street: AGBU, APO and Emporium Celebrate 110th Anniversary of Aram Khachaturian" . Retrieved 15 March 2017 via YouTube.
    70. Emporium Armenia (5 June 2013). "Sabre Dance on the Street. Սուսերով պար՝ փողոցում/ Suserov par" . Retrieved 15 March 2017 via YouTube.
    71. Eddie Robson (2003). Coen Brothers. London: Virgin Books. pp. 139–142. ISBN   1-57488-273-2.
    72. Maiorana, Sal (2012). 100 Things Sabres Fans Should Know and Do Before They Die. Triumph Books. p. 22. ISBN   9781623680152.
    73. Dunford, Jen; Bellas, Chrisanne (11 March 2011). "Opening the suggestion box". sabres.nhl.com. Archived from the original on 10 September 2014. This signature song is still typically heard at various times during Sabres games, but many fans suggested a return to the tradition of playing the “Sabre Dance” when the team takes the ice. Beginning Sunday when the Sabres host the Senators, the song will be played when the team takes the ice prior to the second and third periods.
    74. Vogl, John (11 March 2011). "Sabres putting a fan imprint on arena". The Buffalo News . Archived from the original on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2014. Two topics generated significant chatter: music and the team logo. The Sabres will change the tune for their television opening, going from the Scorpions' "Hurricane 2000" to old franchise favorite "Sabre Dance," performed by violinist Vanessa Mae.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    75. Wilson, Jonathan (22 October 2012). "Henrik Mkhitaryan orchestrates Shakhtar Donetsk's great leap forward". The Guardian . Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Aram Khachaturian's Sabre Dance, the Armenian war dance played each time Mkhitaryan scores, may have become the most popular tune at the Donbass Arena this season ...
    76. Wise, Brian (7 February 2014). "Anna Netrebko Performs at the Olympics Opening Ceremony". New York: WQXR-FM . Retrieved 28 August 2014. ...a snippet of Khachaturian’s Saber Dance as Soviet-era cars whizzed around...
    77. "Սոչի-2014. Առնո Բաբաջանյանի եւ Արամ Խաչատրյանի անմահ երաժշտությունը՝ բացման արարողությանը [Sochi 2014: Arno Babajanian's and Aram Khachaturian's music at the opening ceremony]". sport.news.am (in Armenian). 7 February 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014. Հնչեցին հատվածներ Բաբաջանյանի «Աշխարհի լավագույն քաղաքը» երգից եւ Խաչատրյանի «Սուսերով պարից»:
    78. "National Figure Skating Championships : Adair and Roca Lead All the Way and Dance to a Title". Los Angeles Times . 8 February 1986. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
    79. Debi Thomas 1986 Worlds EX
    80. Justine4FS (6 August 2008). "Scott Hamilton – 1994 Canadian Pro SP Sabre Dance" . Retrieved 15 March 2017 via YouTube.
    81. "YouTube" . Retrieved 15 March 2017.
    82. "Johnny Weir". Ice Network. Archived from the original on 7 May 2012.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    83. prednost (23 June 2011). "2000 Euros SP Plushenko – Sabre Dance" . Retrieved 15 March 2017 via YouTube.
    84. "Aliona SAVCHENKO / Stanislav MOROZOV: 2001/2002". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 21 October 2002.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    85. "Takahiko Kozuka". Ice Network. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
    86. "Tatiana VOLOSOZHAR / Stanislav MOROZOV: 2004/2005". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 9 March 2005.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    87. "Daisuke TAKAHASHI: 2004/2005". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 5 December 2004.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    88. rondo (24 June 2007). "Daisuke Takahashi-2004 Eric Bompard SP" . Retrieved 15 March 2017 via YouTube.
    89. "Takahito MURA: 2005/2006". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 16 May 2006.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    90. "Adeline CANAC / Maximin COIA: 2006/2007". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 30 April 2007.
    91. "Julia LIPNITSKAIA: 2012/2013". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    92. orwellsplace (1 March 2013). "Julia Lipnitskaya – 2013 World Junior Championships – SP" . Retrieved 15 March 2017 via YouTube.
    93. "Julia Lipnitskaia (Rusia). "Sabre Dance", A Khatchaturian". 20 January 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2014.