Tick paralysis

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Tick paralysis
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Tick paralysis is the only tick-borne disease that is not caused by an infectious organism. The illness is caused by a neurotoxin produced in the tick's salivary gland. After prolonged attachment, the engorged tick transmits the toxin to its host. The incidence of tick paralysis is unknown. Patients can experience severe respiratory distress (similar to anaphylaxis).

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Tick paralysis results from injection of a toxin from tick salivary glands during a blood meal. The toxin causes symptoms within 2–7 days, beginning with weakness in both legs that progresses to paralysis. The paralysis ascends to the trunk, arms, and head within hours and may lead to respiratory failure and death. The disease can present as acute ataxia without muscle weakness.

Patients may report minor sensory symptoms, such as local numbness, but constitutional signs are usually absent. Deep tendon reflexes are usually decreased or absent, and ophthalmoplegia and bulbar palsy can occur.

Electromyographic (EMG) studies usually show a variable reduction in the amplitude of compound muscle action potentials, but no abnormalities of repetitive nerve stimulation studies. These appear to result from a failure of acetylcholine release at the motor nerve terminal level. There may be subtle abnormalities of motor nerve conduction velocity and sensory action potentials.

Pathogenesis

Tick paralysis is believed to be due to toxins found in the tick's saliva that enter the bloodstream while the tick is feeding. The two ticks most commonly associated with North American tick paralysis are the Rocky Mountain wood tick ( Dermacentor andersoni ) and the American dog tick ( Dermacentor variabilis ); however, 43 tick species have been implicated in human disease around the world. [1] Most North American cases of tick paralysis occur from April to June, when adult Dermacentor ticks emerge from hibernation and actively seek hosts. [2] In Australia, tick paralysis is caused by the tick Ixodes holocyclus . Prior to 1989, 20 fatal cases were reported in Australia. [3]

Although tick paralysis is of concern in domestic animals and livestock in the United States as well, human cases are rare and usually occur in children under the age of 10.

Tick paralysis occurs when an engorged and gravid (egg-laden) female tick produces a neurotoxin in its salivary glands and transmits it to its host during feeding. Experiments have indicated that the greatest amount of toxin is produced between the fifth and seventh day of attachment (often initiating or increasing the severity of symptoms), although the timing may vary depending on the species of tick.

Unlike Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis, which are caused by the systemic proliferation and expansion of parasites in their hosts long after the offending tick is gone, tick paralysis is chemically induced by the tick and therefore usually only continues in its presence. Once the tick is removed, symptoms usually diminish rapidly. However, in some cases, profound paralysis can develop and even become fatal before anyone becomes aware of a tick's presence.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is based on symptoms and upon finding an embedded tick, usually on the scalp.

In the absence of a tick, the differential diagnosis includes Guillain–Barré syndrome. Early signs of tick poisoning could be a change of an animals' ‘voice’, weakness in the back legs or vomiting.[ citation needed ]

Prevention

No human vaccine is currently available for any tick-borne disease, except for tick-borne encephalitis. Individuals should therefore take precautions when entering tick-infested areas, particularly in the spring and summer months. Preventive measures include avoiding trails that are overgrown with bushy vegetation, wearing light-coloured clothes that allow one to see the ticks more easily, and wearing long pants and closed-toe shoes. Tick repellents containing DEET (N,N, diethyl-m-toluamide) are only marginally effective and can be applied to skin or clothing. Rarely, severe reactions can occur in some people who use DEET-containing products. Young children may be especially vulnerable to these adverse effects. Permethrin, which can only be applied to clothing, is much more effective in preventing tick bites. Permethrin is not a repellent but rather an insecticide; it causes ticks to curl up and fall off the protected clothing.[ weasel words ]

Treatment

Removal of the offending tick usually results in resolution of symptoms within several hours to days. If the tick is not removed, the toxin can be fatal. A 1969 study of children reported mortality rates of 10 – 12 percent, [4] mostly due to respiratory paralysis. The tick is best removed by grasping it as close to the skin as possible and pulling in a firm steady manner. [5] Because the toxin lies in the tick's salivary glands, care must be taken to remove the entire tick (including the head), or symptoms may persist.

It is important to note that, unlike the toxin of other tick species, the toxin of Ixodes holocyclus (Australian paralysis tick) may still be fatal even if the tick is removed.

For affected animals, food and water intake can worsen the outcome, as the toxin can prevent the animal from swallowing properly. If you find a tick on your animal, remove it immediately and seek veterinary assistance if the animal shows any signs of illness. The tick can be placed in a tightly sealed plastic bag and taken to a veterinarian for identification. [6] [7]

Research

Although several attempts have been made to isolate and identify the neurotoxin since the first isolation in 1966, the exact structure of the toxin has still not been published. [8] The 40-80 kDa protein fraction contains the toxin. [9]

The neurotoxin structure and gene, at least for the tick species Ixodes holocyclus have since been identified and are called holocyclotoxins after the species. At least three members (HT-1, [10] HT-3, [11] and HT-12 [12] ) trigger paralysis by presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmitter release via a calcium dependent mechanism resulting in a reduction of quantal content, and loss of effective neuromuscular synaptic transmission. [13]

Culture

In the TV show, Hart of Dixie , Season 1, Episode 2, a patient is diagnosed with tick paralysis who has been deer hunting.

In the TV show, Emergency! , Season 5, Episode 4, "Equipment" (first aired Oct. 4, 1975), Dr. Joe Early diagnoses a young boy who has fallen from a tree with tick paralysis, after eliminating polio as a cause. [14]

In the TV show, House , Season 2, Episode 16, "Safe", Dr House diagnoses a patient (played by Michelle Trachtenberg) with tick paralysis. [15]

In the TV show, Remedy , Season 1 Episode 7, "Tomorrow, the Green Grass", Rebecca is diagnosed with tick paralysis.

In the TV show, Royal Pains , Season 1 Episode 3, "Strategic Planning", a US Senator's teenage son is diagnosed with and overcomes tick paralysis.

In the TV show, Chicago Med , Season 3, Episode 5, "Mountains and Molehills", a young girl returning from Australia with increasing paralysis is diagnosed with tick paralysis.

See also

Related Research Articles

Paralysis is a loss of motor function in one or more muscles. Paralysis can be accompanied by a loss of feeling in the affected area if there is sensory damage as well as motor. In the United States, roughly 1 in 50 people have been diagnosed with some form of permanent or transient paralysis. The word comes from the Greek παράλυσις, "disabling of the nerves", itself from παρά (para), "beside, by" and λύσις (lysis), "making loose". A paralysis accompanied by involuntary tremors is usually called "palsy".

<i>Clostridium botulinum</i>

Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum.

Tick Order of arachnids in the arthropod phylum

Ticks are parasitic arachnids that are part of the superorder Parasitiformes. Along with mites, they constitute the subclass Acari. Adult ticks are approximately 3 to 5 mm in length depending on age, sex, species, and "fullness". Ticks are external parasites, living by feeding on the blood of mammals, birds, and sometimes reptiles and amphibians. It is estimated ticks originated during the Late Cretaceous period, approximately 120 MYA, the earliest tick fossil in New Jersey amber is dated at 90-94 million years old. Ticks are widely distributed around the world, especially in warm, humid climates.

Ixodidae

The Ixodidae are the family of hard ticks or scale ticks, one of the three families of ticks, consisting of over 700 species. They are known as 'hard ticks' because they have a scutum or hard shield, which the other big family of ticks, the 'soft ticks' (Argasidae), lack. They are ectoparasites of a wide range of host species, and some are vectors of pathogens that can cause human disease.

Lyme disease Infectious disease caused by Borrelia bacteria, spread by ticks

Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by the Borrelia bacterium which is spread by ticks. The most common sign of infection is an expanding red rash, known as erythema migrans, that appears at the site of the tick bite about a week after it occurred. The rash is typically neither itchy nor painful. Approximately 70–80% of infected people develop a rash. Other early symptoms may include fever, headache and tiredness. If untreated, symptoms may include loss of the ability to move one or both sides of the face, joint pains, severe headaches with neck stiffness, or heart palpitations, among others. Months to years later, repeated episodes of joint pain and swelling may occur. Occasionally, people develop shooting pains or tingling in their arms and legs. Despite appropriate treatment, about 10 to 20% of people develop joint pains, memory problems, and tiredness for at least six months.

<i>Rickettsia rickettsii</i>

Rickettsia rickettsii is a Gram-negative, intracellular, coccobacillus bacterium that is around 0.8 to 2.0 μm long. R. rickettsii is the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. R. rickettsii is one of the most pathogenic Rickettsia strains. It affects a large majority of the Western Hemisphere and small portions of the Eastern Hemisphere.

Tick-borne diseases, which afflict humans and other animals, are caused by infectious agents transmitted by tick bites. They are caused by infection with a variety of pathogens, including rickettsia and other types of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Because individual ticks can harbor more than one disease-causing agent, patients can be infected with more than one pathogen at the same time, compounding the difficulty in diagnosis and treatment. 16 tick-borne diseases of humans are known, of which four have been discovered since 2013.

Parotitis

Parotitis is an inflammation of one or both parotid glands, the major salivary glands located on either side of the face, in humans. The parotid gland is the salivary gland most commonly affected by inflammation.

<i>Borrelia burgdorferi</i> Species of bacteria

Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and until 2016 was the only known cause of Lyme disease in North America. Borrelia species are considered gram-negative.

<i>Ixodes holocyclus</i>

Ixodes holocyclus, commonly known as the Australian paralysis tick, is one of about 75 species of Australian tick fauna and is considered the most medically important. It can cause paralysis by injecting neurotoxins into its host. It is usually found in a 20-kilometre wide band following the eastern coastline of Australia. Within this range Ixodes holocyclus is the tick most frequently encountered by humans and their pets. As this area also contains the majority of Australia's most densely populated regions, incidents of bites on people, pets and livestock are relatively common.

Polyneuropathy in dogs and cats is a collection of peripheral nerve disorders that often are breed-related in these animals. Polyneuropathy indicates that multiple nerves are involved, unlike mononeuropathy. Polyneuropathy usually involves motor nerve dysfunction, also known as lower motor neuron disease. Symptoms include decreased or absent reflexes and muscle tone, weakness, or paralysis. It often occurs in the rear legs and is bilateral. Most are chronic problems with a slow onset of symptoms, but some occur suddenly.

<i>Dermacentor variabilis</i>

Dermacentor variabilis, also known as the American dog tick or wood tick, is a species of tick that is known to carry bacteria responsible for several diseases in humans, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia. It is one of the best-known hard ticks. Diseases are spread when it sucks blood from the host. It may take several days for the host to experience symptoms.

<i>Babesia</i> Genus of protozoan parasites

Babesia, also called Nuttallia, is an apicomplexan parasite that infects red blood cells and is transmitted by ticks. Originally discovered by the Romanian bacteriologist Victor Babeș, over 100 species of Babesia have since been identified.

Powassan virus (POWV) is a Flavivirus transmitted by ticks, found in North America and in the Russian Far East. It is named after the town of Powassan, Ontario, where it was identified in a young boy who eventually died from it. It can cause encephalitis, an infection of the brain. No approved vaccine or antiviral drug exists. Prevention of tick bites is the best precaution.

Lyme disease microbiology

Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia, which has 52 known species. Three main species are the main causative agents of the disease in humans, while a number of others have been implicated as possibly pathogenic. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with the single species in that complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto which is responsible for all cases of Lyme disease in North America.

<i>Ixodes scapularis</i>

Ixodes scapularis is commonly known as the deer tick or black-legged tick, and in some parts of the US as the bear tick. It is a hard-bodied tick found in the eastern and northern Midwest of the United States as well as in southeastern Canada. It is a vector for several diseases of animals, including humans and is known as the deer tick owing to its habit of parasitizing the white-tailed deer. It is also known to parasitize mice, lizards, migratory birds, etc. especially while the tick is in the larval or nymphal stage.

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne, infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium that is typically transmitted to humans by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus species complex, including Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus in North America. These ticks also transmit Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.

Rickettsia helvetica, previously known as the Swiss agent, is a bacterium found in Dermacentor reticulatus and other ticks, which has been implicated as a suspected but unconfirmed human pathogen. First recognized in 1979 in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Switzerland as a new member of the spotted fever group of Rickettsia, the R. helvetica bacterium was eventually isolated in 1993. Although R. helvetica was initially thought to be harmless in humans and many animal species, some individual case reports suggest that it may be capable of causing a nonspecific fever in humans. In 1997, a man living in eastern France seroconverted to Rickettsia 4 weeks after onset of an unexplained febrile illness. In 2010, a case report indicated that tick-borne R. helvetica can also cause meningitis in humans.

Ticks of domestic animals

Ticks of domestic animals directly cause poor health and loss of production to their hosts. Ticks also transmit numerous kinds of viruses, bacteria, and protozoa between domestic animals. These microbes cause diseases which can be severely debilitating or fatal to domestic animals, and may also affect humans. Ticks are especially important to domestic animals in tropical and subtropical countries, where the warm climate enables many species to flourish. Also, the large populations of wild animals in warm countries provide a reservoir of ticks and infective microbes that spread to domestic animals. Farmers of livestock animals use many methods to control ticks, and related treatments are used to reduce infestation of companion animals.

Ixodes cornuatus, commonly known as the Tasmanian paralysis tick, is one of about 75 species of Australian tick fauna. It is found across Tasmania and Victoria. It has been responsible for several cases of evenomation in humans and the death of one cat.

References

  1. Gothe R, Kunze K, Hoogstraal H (1979). "The mechanisms of pathogenicity in the tick paralyses". J Med Entomol. 16 (5): 357–69. doi:10.1093/jmedent/16.5.357. PMID   232161.
  2. Dworkin MS, Shoemaker PC, Anderson D (1999). "Tick paralysis: 33 human cases in Washington state, 19461996". Clin Infect Dis. 29 (6): 1435–9. doi: 10.1086/313502 . PMID   10585792.
  3. Masina S; Broady K. W. (1999). "Tick paralysis: development of a vaccine". International Journal for Parasitology. 29 (4): 535–541. doi:10.1016/S0020-7519(99)00006-5. PMID   10428629.
  4. Schmitt N, Bowmer EJ, Gregson JD (1969). "Tick paralysis in British Columbia". Can Med Assoc J. 100 (9): 417–21. PMC   1945728 . PMID   5767835.
  5. Needham GR (1985). "Evaluation of five popular methods for tick removal". Pediatrics. 75 (6): 997–1002. PMID   4000801.
  6. Cannon, Michael. "Envenomation: Tick Paralysis" (PDF). Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  7. O’Keefe, Dr Janette. "Australian Paralysis Tick" (PDF). Retrieved June 9, 2018.
  8. Doube B. M. (1975). "Cattle and Paralysis Tick Ixodes-Holocyclus". Australian Veterinary Journal. 51 (11): 511–515. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1975.tb06901.x. PMID   1220655.
  9. B. F. Stone; K. C. Binnington; M. Gauci; J. H. Aylward (1989). "Tick/host interactions forIxodes holocyclus: Role, effects, biosynthesis and nature of its toxic and allergenic oral secretions". Experimental and Applied Acarology. 7 (1): 59–69. doi:10.1007/BF01200453. PMID   2667920.
  10. "Ixodes holocyclus holocyclotoxin-1 (HT1) mRNA, complete cds - Nucleotide - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  11. "Ixodes holocyclus holocyclotoxin 3 (HT3) mRNA, complete cds - Nucleotide - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  12. "Ixodes holocyclus holocyclotoxin 12 (HT12) mRNA, complete cds - Nucleotide - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  13. Chand, Kirat K.; Lee, Kah Meng; Lavidis, Nickolas A.; Rodriguez-Valle, Manuel; Ijaz, Hina; Koehbach, Johannes; Clark, Richard J.; Lew-Tabor, Ala; Noakes, Peter G. (2016-07-08). "Tick holocyclotoxins trigger host paralysis by presynaptic inhibition". Scientific Reports. 6 (1): 29446. Bibcode:2016NatSR...629446C. doi:10.1038/srep29446. ISSN   2045-2322. PMC   4937380 . PMID   27389875.
  14. "IMDB".
  15. "House MD Episode Guide: Season Two #216 'Safe'". housemd-guide.com. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
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