2022 Kazakh unrest

Last updated

2022 Kazakh unrest
Zdanie akimata Almaty.jpg
Povrezhdionnyi protestuiushchimi UAZ Patriot Natsional'noi gvardii MVD RK.jpg
2022 Kazakhstan protests -- Aqtobe, January 4 (01).jpg
CSTO collective peacekeeping forces in Kazakhstan 2022-JAN-12, Tajikistan soldiers in Almaty Power Station-1.jpg
Sluzhebnyi politseiskii avtobus PAZ-3205 sozhzhionnyi protestuiushchimi.jpg
Clockwise from top: Burned out Akimat Residence in Republic Square • Protest in Aktobe on 4 January 2022 • Burned police paddy wagon in AlmatyTajik Armed Forces of the CSTO peacekeeping forces in Almaty Power Station-1 • Overturned police vehicle in Almaty
Date2–11 January 2022
(1 week and 2 days)
Location
Caused by
Goals
Methods
Resulted in
Parties
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakh opposition
Protesters
Lead figures
Units involved
Number
Over +2,000 people [9] [10] [11] [12] [ original research? ]
Flag of the Collective Security Treaty Organization.svg 3,800 [5]
Casualties and losses
238 killed [13]
9,900+ arrested [14]
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg 19 killed [13]
Flag of the Collective Security Treaty Organization.svg No casualties reported

The 2022 Kazakh unrest, also known as January Events (Kazakh : Қаңтар оқиғасы, romanized: Qañtar oqiğasy; Russian : Январские события, romanized: Janvarskie sobytija), [15] [16] [17] Bloody January (Kazakh : Қанды қаңтар, romanized: Qandy qañtar; Russian : Кровавый январь), [18] [19] or the January Tragedy (Kazakh : Қаңтар трагедиясы, romanized: Qañtar tragediasy), [20] [21] was a series of mass protests and civil unrest that began in Kazakhstan on 2 January 2022 after a sudden sharp increase in liquefied petroleum gas prices following the lifting of a government-enforced price cap on 1 January. The protests began peacefully in the oil-producing city of Zhanaozen and quickly spread to other cities in the country, especially the nation's largest city, Almaty, which saw its demonstrations turn into violent riots, fueled by rising dissatisfaction with the government and widespread poverty. [22] [23] During the week-long violent unrest and crackdowns, 227 people were killed and over 9,900 were arrested, according to Kazakh officials. [13] [14]

Contents

Growing discontent with the government and former president Nursultan Nazarbayev, who remained the chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan, also influenced larger demonstrations. As there were no popular opposition groups against the Kazakh government, the unrest appeared to be assembled directly by citizens. In response, President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev declared a state of emergency in Mangystau Region and Almaty, effective from 5 January 2022. The Second Mamin Government resigned the same day, [24] [25] [26] and Nazarbayev himself was also removed from his position of chairman of the Security Council. [27] The state of emergency was shortly extended to the whole country. In response to Tokayev's request, the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) – a military alliance of Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan – agreed to deploy troops in Kazakhstan. [28] The aim was declared to be peacekeeping while some commentators described it as helping the Kazakh government in quelling the unrest. [29] [30] Russian President Vladimir Putin described the intervention as a concerted effort to protect regional allies from what he described as colour revolutions "instigated by foreign interference in allies' internal affairs". [31] CSTO troops were initially deployed to government buildings in the capital city, Astana, and then guarded key infrastructure in Almaty. [32]

As a concession, Tokayev announced that vehicle gas price caps of 50 tenge per litre would be restored for 6 months. [33] [34] [35] On 7 January, he said in a statement that constitutional order had "largely been restored in all regions of the country." [36] [37] [38] He also announced that he had ordered troops to use lethal force against protesters, authorizing instructions to "shoot to kill" without warning, calling the protesters "bandits and terrorists" and saying that the use of force would continue to "destroy the protests." [39] [40] [41] [42]

On 10 January 2022, the government declared a national day of mourning for those who died during the unrest. [43] On 11 January, Tokayev said that order had been restored in Kazakhstan in what he described as an attempted coup d'état. [44] He also announced that CSTO troops would begin withdrawing from the country on 13 January, [14] and they were fully withdrawn by 20 January. [45] In an 11 January speech to the Parliament, Tokayev promised reform and acknowledged public discontent over income inequality and criticized Nazarbayev and his associates over their wealth. [46] The same day, international flights were resumed to and from the country's capital, Astana. [47] He also nominated a new prime minister that day, Älihan Smaiylov, [14] and later fired the defence minister Murat Bektanov on 18 January. [48] On 16 March 2022, Tokayev delivered a State of the Nation Address to both chambers of Parliament in which he outlined a New Kazakhstan program of economic and political reforms. [49]

Background

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, wealthy individuals who had links to the former government of the Soviet Union received preferential treatment, gaining wealth from privatization and their land ownership of areas with valuable resources. [23] Nursultan Nazarbayev became Kazakhstan's first president after the dissolution, ruling the country from 1990 to 2019. [26] During this time, international observers did not recognize any of the elections in Kazakhstan as being free or fair, [26] with Nazarbayev ruling the nation through authoritarianism, nepotism and detaining opponents, according to The Daily Telegraph . [50]

Through this period, Kazakhstan experienced one of the strongest performing economies in Central Asia, with oil production representing a large percentage of its economic growth until oil prices decreased in the mid-2010s. [51] The country also held about 40% of the world's uranium resources within its territory. [23] Despite such growth, none of the economic benefits were shared throughout the population, with the minimum wage in Kazakhstan for the common individual being less than US$100 per month and economic inequality being pervasive. [23] In 2012, the World Economic Forum listed corruption as the biggest problem in doing business in the country, [52] while in 2005 the World Bank listed Kazakhstan as a corruption hotspot, on par with Angola, Bolivia, Kenya, and Libya at that time. [53] In 2013, Aftenposten quoted the human-rights activist and lawyer Denis Jivaga as saying that there is an "oil fund in Kazakhstan, but nobody knows how the income is spent". [54] Following various international banking scandals, wealthy Kazakhs emigrated to foreign countries, especially the United Kingdom. [23] In 2018, Crédit Suisse ranked Kazakhstan 169th out of 174 countries in wealth distribution. [55] By 2022, approximately 162 wealthy Kazakhs held 55% of the nation's wealth. [23]

Zhanaozen strike

Zhanaozen, an oil-producing city in Mangystau Region, has had a history of labour strikes and demonstrations. In 2011, a riot broke out in the city amidst the 20th anniversary of Independence Day that led to 16 deaths and 100 injuries according to official numbers. Kazakh security forces opened fire on protestors who demanded better working conditions. During that time, the price for a litre of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), a mix of butane and propane that is a common vehicle fuel in Zhanaozen, was around 30–35 tenge and has repeatedly risen since then.

Following further protests in 2018 and Nazarbayev's crackdown on the demonstrations, he was made the Chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan for life. [50]

Since January 2019, the Kazakh government phased transition policy to electronic market trading of LPG to gradually end state gas subsidies and allow for the market instead to determine prices, resulting with increased LPG prices according to Eurasianet . [56]

In January 2020, a protest was held in Zhanaozen where city residents demanded a reduction in the price of gas that had risen from 55 to 65 tenge. [57] As the COVID-19 pandemic affected the economy, austerity measures and an inadequate amount of economic stimulus from the government resulted with inflation and stagnant wages. [23]

Since 1 January 2022, according to Zhanaozen protesters, the price of LPG almost doubled, to 120 tenge per litre (0.24 per litre; US$1.06 per gallon), causing outrage amongst citizens. [58] Further discontent with the former leader Nursultan Nazarbayev, the nation's oligarchy, corruption and economic inequality would then spark more widespread protests. [26] [23]

Aims

Aims of the protests reported after the protests had started included calls for major political changes. According to Darkhan Sharipov of the Oyan, Qazaqstan activist group, protestors wanted "real political reforms" and "fair elections", and were angry about "corruption and nepotism". [26] According to The New York Times , protestors wanted heads of local governments ( akims ) to be directly elected rather than appointed by the president. [59]

Protests

2 January

On the morning of 2 January, residents in the city of Zhanaozen in Mangystau Region blocked roads in protest against an increase in gas prices. [60] The demonstrators called on the akim of the region, Nurlan Nogaev, and Zhanaozen akim Maksat Ibagarov to take measures in stabilising prices and preventing fuel shortages. [60] The residents were met with acting Zhanaozen akim Galym Baijanov who advised the crowd to write a complaint letter to the city administration in which the protestors recalled that their complaints were supposedly ignored by the city officials. [60]

3 January

Hundreds of Zhanaozen residents gathered and camped in the city square overnight. [61] As other residents joined the crowd by the afternoon, an estimated 1,000 people were at the square, chanting and demanding direct elections of local leaders. [61] The police officers, while standing at the perimeter of the square during the demonstration, did not intervene. [61] Mangystau akim Nurlan Nogaev and Zhanaozen akim Maksat Ibagarov as well as Kazakh Gas Processing Plant director Nakbergen Tulepov arrived at the square and pledged for the gas prices to be reduced down to 85–90 tenge, which failed to please the demonstrators. [62] Nogaev and his subordinates were forced to flee the square by the angry crowd. [62]

President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev had instructed the government to consider the situation in Mangystau Region by "taking into account economic feasibility in the legal field". [63] He also called on demonstrators to not disturb public order, reminding that Kazakh citizens have the right to publicly express their voice to local and central government in "accordance with the law". [63] A government commission headed by Deputy Prime Minister Eraly Togjanov was formed to consider the socio-economic situation in Mangystau. [64]

Reports of arrests were received from the cities of Astana, Aktobe and Almaty where the Republic Square and Astana Square were closed off and security officers deployed. [65] Other cities witnessed an increased police presence in public areas. [65]

In Aktau, a group of protestors showed up at the Yntymaq Square in front of the city administration building, setting up tents and yurts for the encampment. [66] By evening, an estimated 6,000 demonstrators were at the square, demanding reductions in the cost of gas as well as the resignation of the government. [66] They were joined by other groups of supporters reportedly from neighbouring regions and cities across Kazakhstan. [66] Mangystau akim Nurlan Nogaev visited the rally, reminding the crowd that the Kazakh government had reduced the price of gas and that the Agency for the Protection and Development of Competition had launched an antitrust probe into gas suppliers for a suspected price collusion; he urged the protestors to maintain public order and suggested that they hold a constructive dialogue with the authorities. [67]

Protesters setting up a yurt in Aktobe, 4 January 2022. 2022 Kazakhstan protests -- Aqtobe, January 4 (02).jpg
Protesters setting up a yurt in Aktobe, 4 January 2022.

4 January

On the night of 4 January, around 1,000 marched to the Republic Square in Almaty which was cordoned off by the police. [68] From there, clashes broke out between both parties with the security forces using stun grenades and tear gas to disperse the protesters who in-turn vandalized police cars and setting some of them ablaze. [68] [69] Armoured military vehicles were spotted throughout the streets of Almaty during the night of unrest which videos on social media later showed them fleeing by chasing protesters. [70]

President Tokayev signed decrees to introduce a state of emergency in Mangystau District and Almaty from 5 January 01:30 local time to 19 January 00:00 local time. [71] According to Tokayev, all legitimate demands of protesters will be considered. [68] A special commission, after meeting with protesters, agreed to lower the LPG price to 50 tenges ($0.11) per litre. [58] Internet watchdog organization NetBlocks documented significant internet disruptions with "high impact to mobile services" that were likely to limit the public's ability to express political discontent. [72] [73] People also started protesting in Taldıqorğan.

5 January

Ruling Nur Otan party office in Almaty after being vandalized by protesters Almatinskii filial praviashchei partii Nur-Otan, razgromlennyi protestuiushchimi.jpg
Ruling Nur Otan party office in Almaty after being vandalized by protesters

At 04:00, Almaty akim Bakhytzhan Sagintayev made a video address to the residents, asserting that the situation in the city had been brought under control. [74] From there, he accused of "provocateurs from within and outside" being behind in destabilization and extremist actions and urged people not to succumb to "provocations and lawlessness". [74] In spite of Sagintayev's remarks, explosions of stun grenades were continued to be heard throughout Almaty in early morning with protesters setting up barricades and clashing with the National Guard in central streets. [75] [76]

President Tokayev accepted the government's resignation. On the same day, a Reuters correspondent reported thousands of protesters pressing ahead towards Almaty city centre after security forces failed to disperse them with tear gas and stun grenades. [24] [77] Later on the same day, Tokayev announced that former president Nursultan Nazarbayev has resigned as the Chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan, and Tokayev has assumed this position himself. [78] Digital rights monitor NetBlocks reported that internet disruptions had intensified by 5:00 p.m. local time, leaving Kazakhstan in the "midst of a nation-scale internet blackout" after a day of mobile internet disruptions and partial restrictions. [72] [79] [80] [81]

Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Mayor's building on fire, Almaty, January 5

In Almaty, as the protesters had reached the Republic Square again, the offices of the city mayor were stormed and set aflame. [82] [26] Locations that stored firearms were captured by protesters including the National Security Committee building and were shown to be distributed to others throughout the city. [83] [84] Protests at the Almaty International Airport resulted in cancelled and rerouted flights. [26] The government reported protesters seizing five planes. [83] Two Kazakh army soldiers were reported killed attempting to retake the Almaty airport. [85] Russian state-run media reported that protesters also attacked President Tokayev's home with rifles and grenades, leaving it partially destroyed. [86] In addition, the offices of the ruling Nur Otan party were also set on fire. [87] Atameken, Kazakhstan's business lobby group, reported attacks on banks, stores and restaurants. [88]

The interior ministry reported government buildings were also attacked in the southern cities of Shymkent and Taraz. [89] In Aktobe,

In Taldıqorğan, a statue of former leader Nazarbayev was pulled down and destroyed by demonstrators chanting "Old man, leave!". [90] [86]

In the late afternoon, President Tokayev announced a nationwide state of emergency until 19 January. This would include a curfew from 23:00 to 07:00, temporary restrictions on movement, and a ban on mass gatherings. [91] During a televised address, Tokayev threatened to crackdown on protesters, stating "I plan to act as toughly as possible", and said that he had no intentions of fleeing the country. [26]

By around late evening, chaos had broken out in Almaty as large numbers of riot police began to arrive as automatic gunshots were being heard throughout the city with armed demonstrators and security forces exchanging fire while residents were urged to stay away from the streets by loudspeakers. [92] Various state-media agency buildings stationed in Almaty were burnt down and looting had taken place in which grocery stores, banks, ATMs, and shopping centers were targeted. [93]

6 January

Oil production at Kazakhstan's highest-producing oil field Tengiz was reduced. [94] [95] [96] US oil producer Chevron Corporation holds a 50% stake in Tengizchevroil (TCO) which operates the Tengiz oil field. [97]

Kazakhstan's Interior Ministry issued a statement saying: "Employees of the Almaty police department have launched a mop-up operation in the streets of Karasay-batyr and Masanchi. Measures are being taken to detain the violators. In total, some 2,000 people have been taken to police stations." [98]

Dozens of protesters and at least 12 police officers were killed with one police officer who was found beheaded. [99] Witnesses in Almaty described scenes of chaos with government buildings stormed or set on fire and widespread looting. The interior ministry said 2,298 people had been arrested during the unrest, while the police spokesperson Saltanat Azirbek told state news channel Khabar 24 that "dozens of attackers were liquidated". [100]

3,000 Russian paratroopers arrived in Kazakhstan on the morning of 6 January, after president Tokayev made a formal request for assistance to the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan also sent troops. [101] [102]

Protestors remained in the Aktau town square on 6 January. Six thousand people protested in the centre of Zhanaozen. The akim of Zhanoazen, Maksat Ibagarov, stated that "none of the local activists [would] be persecuted". [103]

National Security Committee chief Karim Massimov was arrested, per the official account, after being detained the previous day on 5 January.

7 January

Burned building in Republic Square, Almaty Sgorevshee zdanie Ploshchad' Respubliki 13.jpg
Burned building in Republic Square, Almaty

On 7 January, as a concession, President Tokayev said that the vehicle fuel price caps of 50 tenge per litre had been restored for 6 months. [33] [34] [35]

Tokayev said in a statement, "Constitutional order has largely been restored in all regions of the country." [36] [37] [38] He also announced that he had ordered troops to shoot without warning at anyone protesting, calling protesters 'bandits and terrorists' and saying use of force will continue. [39] [40] [41] In a speech to the nation, he said, "We hear calls from abroad for the parties to negotiate to find a peaceful solution to the problems, this is just nonsense. What negotiations can there be with criminals and murderers? They need to be destroyed and this will be done." He went on to thank Russia for sending troops to help establish order. [104]

Russia's Defence Ministry stated that more than 70 planes were flying, around the clock, to bring Russian troops into Kazakhstan and that they were helping to control Almaty's main airport. [36] According to several Russian media sources, former president Nursultan Nazarbayev had left the country with his three daughters and their families. It was not clear where Nazarbayev had gone, but he had apparently left the country for health reasons. [105]

A peaceful protest took place in Zhanaozen, where protestors asked for a new government, more freedom for civil rights activists, and a return to the 1993 Kazakh constitution. [106] Protests also continued in Aktau. [107]

The Kazakh government announced that seven additional policemen had been killed in Almaty. [108] [ better source needed ] Levan Kogeashvili, a 22-year-old Israeli national was shot and killed while driving to work in Almaty. The Israeli Foreign Ministry stated that he had been residing in Kazakhstan for several years and his family said that he was not involved in the protests. [109] [110]

8 January

Armed militant patroller on the roof top of the Auezov District Department of Internal Affairs in Almaty, 8 January 2022 Chasovoi na kryshe Auezovskogo ROVD.jpg
Armed militant patroller on the roof top of the Auezov District Department of Internal Affairs in Almaty, 8 January 2022
Kazakh forces in search of anti-government militants, 8 January 2022 Kontrterroristicheskaia operatsiia v Almaty.jpg
Kazakh forces in search of anti-government militants, 8 January 2022

Protests continued in Zhanaozen. [111]

The National Security Committee said that its former chief and former prime minister, Karim Massimov, had been arrested on suspicion of treason. [112]

The Ministry of Internal Affairs announced that 4,404 people had been detained and at least 40 people had died as a result of the protests. [113] [114]

Kazakhstan authorities launched a countrywide antitrust investigation into 180 LNG sellers due to a suspected collusion. [115] [116]

9 January

On 9 January, the interior ministry, said initial estimates put property damage at about 175 million euros, adding that more than 100 businesses and banks had been attacked and looted and about 400 vehicles destroyed. The ministry confirmed that more than 160 people had been killed and more than 5,000 had been arrested for questioning as part of 125 separate investigations into the unrest. [117] The Interior Ministry reported more than 2,200 people sought treatment for injuries from the protests, and about 1,300 security officers were injured. [118] The office of Kazakhstan's president said that in total 5,800 people had been detained. [119] The health ministry said in total 164 people, including two children, had been killed. It also specified that 103 people had died in Kazakhstan's largest city, Almaty. Interior Minister Erlan Turgumbayev held a press conference, saying, "Today the situation is stabilised in all regions of the country ... the counterterror operation is continuing in a bid to re-establish order in the country". [117]

10 January

Electronics store after being ravaged by looters in Almaty, 10 January 2022 Razgrablennyi i sozhzhionnyi marodiorami magazin elektroniki i komp'iuternoi tekhniki.jpg
Electronics store after being ravaged by looters in Almaty, 10 January 2022

On 10 January, the government declared a day of mourning for the victims of the protests. Kazakhstan's Interior Ministry reported that a total of 7,939 people have been detained across the country. The National Security Committee, Kazakhstan's counterintelligence and anti-terrorism agency, said that the situation in the country had "stabilized and is under control." [43] Tokayev called the protests a "coup attempt." [120] The government also stated that "foreign-trained Islamist radicals" were among those who had attacked government buildings and security forces in the last week and that police had then detained almost 8,000 people to bring the situation under control. [121]

Internet service was restored in Almaty following a five-day blackout. [122]

Military general and politician Zhanat Suleimenov committed suicide, at the age of 59, after a criminal case was opened against him during the protests. [123]

11 January

On 11 January, in a speech to an online meeting of the CSTO military alliance by video link, Tokayev said that order had now been restored in Kazakhstan and called the protests over. [44] He announced that the CSTO had completed its mission in Kazakhstan and would begin withdrawing from the country on January 13 and would be fully withdrawn in the next 10 days. [124] Russian President Vladimir Putin claimed victory in defending Kazakhstan from what he described as a "foreign-backed terrorist uprising", and promised leaders of other ex-Soviet states that a Moscow-led alliance (CSTO) would protect them too. [125]

In a speech to parliament regarding the past days, Tokayev promised reform and acknowledged public discontent over income inequality and criticized Nazarbayev and his associates due to their wealth. He said the public discontent was justified and that he wanted associates of the former president, Nursultan Nazarbayev, to share their wealth to the people. Tokayev told parliament, "Thanks to Nazarbayev, a group of very profitable companies emerged in the country as well as a group of people wealthy even by international standards, I think it is time they pay their dues to the people of Kazakhstan and help them on a systemic and regular basis." He went on to say that the financial system is dominated by large business groups, "based on the principle 'everything for friends, and laws for everyone else'". He spoke of initiatives to narrow the wealth gap, raise taxes on the mining sector, and eliminate irregularities in state procurement and areas where associates of Nazarbayev have business interests. [46]

The Interior Ministry mentioned that security forces had detained over 9,900 people in connection with the protests. [14] Tokayev nominated a new prime minister, Älihan Smaiylov. [124] International flights were resumed to and from the country's capital, Astana. [47]

Violence

On 5 January, authorities in Almaty reported that over 400 businesses were damaged from the protests and that 200 people had been arrested; police in Atyrau fired into protesters which resulted in the death of at least one individual. [90] The government reported on 5 January that eight law enforcement personnel were killed and 317 were wounded. [126] A report carried by the French AFP news agency stated that dozens of protestors had been killed, [127] while the Russian TASS news agency aired footage of a heavy gunfight near Almaty's Republic Square. [128] On 6 January, dozens of protestors were killed during an operation, while the number of security forces killed rose to 18. [129] [130] According to local authorities, two of the security officers were found decapitated. [131]

On 7 January, President Tokayev stated that the army and law enforcement agencies had been ordered "to shoot to kill without warning." [132]

By 19 January, the death toll of the unrest reportedly reached 227. [13]

Analysis

Dosym Satpaev, a Kazakh political analyst, said that the Kazakh government would mainly use force to respond to protests, stating: "The authorities are trying everything to calm things down, with a mix of promises and threats, but so far it's not working. ... There will be imitations of dialogue but essentially the regime will respond with force because they have no other tools." [26] Political scientist Arkady Dubnov of the Carnegie Moscow Center observed that such protests were unsettling for the Russian government, with Dubnov saying: "There is no doubt that the Kremlin would not want to see an example of such a regime beginning to talk to the opposition and conceding to their demands." [90]

In an article for Foreign Policy , Eugene Chausovsky wrote that "Tokayev felt the need to get CSTO assistance in order to secure strategic sites and installations, including government buildings and airports in key cities such as Almaty, while Kazakh security forces could focus on handling the demonstrators directly." [133]

Joanna Lillis, writing in Eurasianet on 7 January, described Tokayev's shoot to kill declared policy and his terminology, including "bandits and terrorists ... to be eliminated", as resembling that of Russian president Vladimir Putin. Lillis saw this as a significant change from Tokayev's earlier promises of liberalising the political situation and consulting civil society. [134] She interpreted the dismissal and arrest of Karim Massimov, head of the National Security Committee and close to Nazarbayev, together with a statement by Nazarbayev's former adviser Ermukhamet Ertysbayev that a coup d'état had been attempted, as signs of a significant shift of power within the Kazakh political elites from Nazarbayev to Tokayev. She considered the claims of an attempted coup d'état to be credible. [135] Other analysts dispute this, as no details were provided upon Massimov's arrest on what actions could have represented an attempted overthrow of the government. [136]

Hans-Henning Schröder, a political scientist and expert on Russia, told Deutsche Welle : "All of Russia's major neighbors have been rocked by social unrest. If I were in the Kremlin, I would start to worry about whether Russia could be next." [137]

Daniil Kislov, the founder and General Director of the Ferghana Information Agency, speculated to The New York Times that the violence in Almaty was "all artificially organized by people who really had power in their hands," as a proxy for a power struggle between Tokayev and former president Nazarbayev. Kislov claimed that Nazarbayev's nephew Samat Abish, who was previously deputy head of the Kazakh State Security Service before being ousted by Tokayev, was responsible for orchestrating much of the violence. Galym Ageleulov, a human rights activist in Almaty, stated that the violence only started in Almaty when a crowd that was "clearly organized by crime group marauders" started the march to the City Hall, while at the same time police presence dissipated. [138]

Sergey Khestanov, macroeconomic adviser to the general director of Otkritie-Broker, claimed that the massive protests weren't caused directly due to economic factors, suggesting Kazakhstan's high standard of living within the former Soviet Union comparably to Russia and that the average age in Kazakhstan being relatively young leads to higher social activity, which played role in fueling discontent due to "a sufficiently long, stable and powerful economic growth" being "sharply inhibited". [139]

Economic impact

Global market

As Kazakhstan produces more than 40% of the world's uranium, uranium prices rose after the protests erupted. [140] [141] Canadian uranium company Cameco stated that "any disruption in Kazakhstan could of course be a significant catalyst in the uranium market. If nothing else, it's a reminder for utilities that an over-reliance on any one source of supply is risky." [142] The internet blackout also impacted cryptocurrency mining operations, with the global cryptocurrency computational capacity (hashrate) dropping by 12 per cent. Prior to the protests, Kazakhstan accounted for around 18 per cent of global hashrate for Bitcoin, due to the fact that neighbouring China in 2021 banned the mining of cryptocurrencies and many of the cryptominers moved to Kazakhstan. [143] [144]

Craig Erlam, senior market analyst at OANDA, suggested that further oil production outages during protests could impact global oil prices by reaching the October 2021 peak and possibly three-digit prices as well. [145] According to Chevron Corporation, which operates Tengiz Field, the production of oil was reduced after its contractors had disrupted railway lines in support of the protests. [146] However just days later, Chevron announced that it would be gradually increasing its output again. [147] [ better source needed ]

Economy

During the protests and riot in Kazakhstan, the fortune of four local billionaires shrank by $3 billion according to Forbes. At the same time, the middle daughter and son-in-law of former President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Dinara and Timur Kulibayev, lost $200 million. The couple controls the country's largest bank in terms of assets, Halyk Bank; the fortune of each co-owner is estimated at $3.1 billion. One of the most affected billionaires was Kazakh businessman Vyacheslav Kim, who is the chairman of the board of directors of the fintech company Kaspi Bank. In two days, its shares fell by 30%, from $188 as of 4 January to $87 on 6 January; according to Forbes, decreasing his fortune by $1.4 billion to $4.2 billion. By the end of the week, his assets grew slightly and were estimated at $4.4 billion. The general director of Kaspi.kz, a billionaire from Georgia Mikhail Lomtadze living in Kazakhstan, lost about $1.4 billion. The size of his fortune fell to $3.8 billion. [148] [149] [150]

Reactions

National

Speaking from France, the leader of Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan, Mukhtar Ablyazov, told Reuters on 7 January 2022: "I see myself as the leader of the opposition". Ablyazov also stated that the West should remove Kazakhstan from Russian influence to prevent Russian President Vladimir Putin from incorporating Kazakhstan into "a structure like the Soviet Union". [151]

International

Collective Security Treaty Organization

Member states of the CSTO CSTOMap.png
Member states of the CSTO

Unrest in Kazakhstan caught international observers by surprise. [26] President Tokayev began communications with President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko, who had quashed the 2020–2021 Belarusian protests, and was in discussions with President of Russia Vladimir Putin, calling for the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) to intervene against protesters that he described as "international terrorists". [26] [90] Prime Minister of Armenia Nikol Pashinyan, who had just been made chairman of the CSTO on 3 January 2022, responded to Tokayev's request, stating "As the Chairman of the CPC Assembly Security Council, I am starting immediate consultations with the leaders of the CSTO countries". [86] [152]

On 6 January, the CSTO agreed to intervene in Kazakhstan with a collective group of forces that it described as having the aim of peacekeeping, with the organization citing the Collective Security Treaty's Article 4, which states "In the case of aggression (an armed attack threatening safety, stability, territorial integrity and sovereignty) against any Member States, all other Member States at the request of this Member State shall immediately provide the latter with the necessary aid, including military". [153] [2] Pashinyan said that the CSTO was to be deployed due to "the threats to national security and sovereignty to the Republic of Kazakhstan, including from external interference". [2] A Russian Air Force regiment in Orenburg was reported to be readying itself for deployment to Kazakhstan. [2] Russia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokeswoman Maria Zakharova said: "Peacekeeping forces of the Collective Security Treaty Organization were sent to the Republic of Kazakhstan for a limited time to stabilize and normalize the situation." She confirmed armed forces of Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan were sent to Kazakhstan as part of the wider CSTO effort. [154] According to CSTO, its armed forces are only authorised to participate in the protection of strategic infrastructure facilities, including Almaty International Airport and Russia's Baikonur Cosmodrome in south-central Kazakhstan. [155] Russian State Duma member Leonid Kalashnikov stated that actions in relation to the protesters themselves were to be handled by local Kazakhstani law enforcement. [156]

On 7 January, the Belarusian Telegraph Agency reported that President Lukashenko "discussed in detail the state of affairs in Kazakhstan" via phone with former president and chair of Security Council of Kazakhstan, Nazarbayev. [157]

On 11 January, Tokayev announced that the CSTO had completed its mission in Kazakhstan and would begin withdrawing from the country on January 13; [14] they were fully withdrawn by 19 January. [45]

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

On 7 January, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation's regional anti-terrorist structure announced that it was ready to extend assistance to Kazakhstan upon request, and voiced support for the Kazakh government's security measures. [158]

By country

Yerevan residents protesting against Armenian involvement in the CSTO intervention in Kazakhstan Yerevan protest against CSTO operation in Kazakhstan.jpg
Yerevan residents protesting against Armenian involvement in the CSTO intervention in Kazakhstan

Entities with limited recognition

By international union

Legacy

On December 23, 2022, Kassym-Jomart Tokayev opened a Tagzym memorial dedicated to the victims of the January events (Qantar) in Almaty. [215]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nursultan Nazarbayev</span> President of Kazakhstan from 1990 to 2019

Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev is a Kazakh politician and military officer who served as the first President of Kazakhstan, from the country’s independence in 1991 until his formal resignation in 2019, and as the Chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan from 1991 to 2022.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kassym-Jomart Tokayev</span> Second President of Kazakhstan since 2019

Kassym-Jomart Kemeluly Tokayev is a Kazakh politician and diplomat who has served as the President of Kazakhstan since 2019. Between 20 March and 12 June 2019, he served as acting president after the resignation of Nursultan Nazarbayev, who had been president for nearly three decades.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Erbolat Dosaev</span> Kazakh politician

Erbolat Asqarbekūly Dossaev is a Kazakh politician serving as an äkım of Almaty since 31 January 2022. Prior to that, he was a National Bank of Kazakhstan chairman from 25 February 2019 and served as a Deputy Prime Minister from 29 August 2017 to 25 February 2019. He served as the Minister of Finance from 16 June 2003 to 5 April 2005, headed the Agency for Regulating Natural Monopolies, and later as the Health Minister from 5 April 2004 to 20 September 2006. In January 2013, Dossaev was appointed head of a reorganized Minister of National Economy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Karim Massimov</span> Former Prime Minister of Kazakhstan

Karim Qazhymqanuly Massimov is a politician who served as a Prime Minister of Kazakhstan from 10 January 2007 to 24 September 2012 and again from 2 April 2014 to 8 September 2016.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marat Tajin</span> Kazakh politician

Marat Mukhanbetkazyuly Tajin is a Kazakh politician. He served as the Foreign Minister in the Government of Kazakhstan from 2007 to 2009. He previously served as Secretary of the National Security Committee (NSC). In September 2009 he was named an advisor to President Nursultan Nazarbayev and secretary of Kazakhstan's Security Council. Marat Tajin was appointed First Deputy Head of the Executive Office of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan in January 2017.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kazakhstan–Russia relations</span> Bilateral relations

Kazakhstan–Russia relations are the bilateral foreign relations between Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. Kazakhstan has an embassy in Moscow, a consulate-general in Saint Petersburg, Astrakhan and Omsk. Russia has an embassy in Astana and consulates in Almaty and Oral.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zhanaozen massacre</span> 2011 mass killing of protesters in western Kazakhstan

The Zhanaozen massacre took place in Kazakhstan's western Mangystau Region over the weekend of 16–17 December 2011. At least 14 protestors were killed by police in the oil town of Zhanaozen as they clashed with police on the country's Independence Day, with unrest spreading to other towns in the oil-rich oblys, or region. According to Amnesty International, the massacre was a stark illustration of the country's poor human rights record under President Nursultan Nazarbayev.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Independence Day (Kazakhstan)</span> Holiday in Kazakhstan

Independence Day of Kazakhstan, is the main national holiday in the Republic of Kazakhstan, celebrated annually on 16 December.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2019 Kazakh presidential election</span> Presidential election held in Kazakhstan

Snap presidential elections were held in Kazakhstan on 9 June 2019 to elect the President of Kazakhstan following the resignation of long-term President Nursultan Nazarbayev in March 2019. This was the sixth presidential election held since Kazakhstan's independence. The elections were not free and fair, and were widely denounced as a sham. Acting president Kassym-Jomart Tokayev of Nur Otan won the election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2021 Kazakh legislative election</span>

Legislative elections were held in Kazakhstan on 10 January 2021 to elect the members of the Mäjilis to the 7th Parliament of Kazakhstan. They were the eighth legislative elections in Kazakhstan's history since independence and coincided with the 2021 local elections. The elections were the first to be held under Kassym-Jomart Tokayev's presidency and the first since 2004 to be held at the normally scheduled date, rather than due to an early dissolution of the Mäjilis.

The 2018–2020 Kazakh protests were a series of civil protests that took place in cities across Kazakhstan, commencing in May 2018 and gaining traction after a fire in Nur-Sultan killed five children in February 2019. Some commentators attribute President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev's decision to dismiss the government of Prime Minister Bakhytzhan Sagintayev later that month in part to the protests. Nazarbayev later himself resigned on 19 March 2019 and was replaced as president by Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, the speaker of the upper house of parliament. Nazarbayev continued to hold several political positions. Tokayev called a snap election, the 2019 Kazakh presidential election, which saw him elected with over 70% of the vote. Both the run-up to and the aftermath of the election saw further protests.

The 2016 Protests against land reforms in Kazakhstan were a massive, unauthorized protests that were held in Kazakhstan against the new amendments to the Land Code, which began on 24 April 2016 in the city of Atyrau. Three days later, the rallies were held in the cities of Aktobe and Semey. During the first three rallies, the authorities did not try to harshly suppress the protests, but tried to calm the protesters and offer other forms of dialogue. Only on May 21, the authorities thoroughly prepared to suppress any protests in all administrative centers of the republic. This was the first mass unrest in Kazakhstan since the Zhanaozen massacre in 2011.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Älihan Smaiylov</span> Prime Minister of Kazakhstan since 2022

Älihan Ashanuly Smaiylov is a Kazakh politician who is serving as Prime Minister of Kazakhstan. Previously, he served as the First Deputy Prime Minister of Kazakhstan under Askar Mamin. He at the same time served as the Minister of Finance from September 2018 until May 2020. Smaiylov was nominated as the new prime minister of Kazakhstan by the country's president following the 2022 Kazakh protests. His candidacy was unanimously approved by the country's parliament. Since January 2023, he has been Chairman of the Board of Directors of the JSC National Welfare Fund Samruk-Kazyna.

The Kazakh democracy movement is a series of political movements in Kazakhstan that are supported by opposition groups and civil activists which are seeking for reforms in Kazakhstan's current political system, formed from 1991 after the country gained its independence from the Soviet Union and became a sovereign state by advocating for a democratic, multi-party, parliamentary system.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Presidency of Kassym-Jomart Tokayev</span> Presidency of Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, 2019-

Presidency of Kassym-Jomart Tokayev began on 20 March 2019, when he assumed office shortly after resignation long-time President Nursultan Nazarbayev; as a Senate Chairman, Tokayev became the Presidential Designate in accordance to the Constitution and would serve as an acting head of state. After declaring snap presidential elections Tokayev, endorsed by Nazarbayev, become the candidate for the ruling Nur Otan party and swept 71% of the vote in the race, thus becoming officially the 2nd President of Kazakhstan. After being inaugurated on 12 June 2019, Tokayev pledged to uphold many of the previous policies by Nazarbayev and at the same time, continue and accelerate social and political reforms.

Events of 2022 in Kazakhstan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2022 Kazakh constitutional referendum</span> Republican referendum in Kazakhstan

A constitutional referendum in Kazakhstan, locally called the Republican referendum, was held on 5 June 2022. It was the third referendum since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, and the first since the 1995 referendum that established the current constitution. The amendments followed violent civil unrest in early January caused by worsening economic conditions and subsequent calls for rapid political reform. The referendum changed 33 of the document's 98 articles. Political commentators assessed that amendments would lessen the influence of the executive branch, grant more powers to the Parliament, and eliminate the powers that former president Nursultan Nazarbayev had retained after resigning from office in 2019.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2022 Kazakh presidential election</span>

Snap presidential elections were held in Kazakhstan on 20 November 2022 to elect the President of Kazakhstan. This was the seventh presidential election since Kazakhstan's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Incumbent president Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, an Independent, was re-elected for a second term in a landslide, receiving 81% of the vote. His closest challenger, Jiguli Dairabaev of the Auyl Party, received just 3% of the vote, marking the first time since 2015 that all candidates other than the incumbent president failed to garner 5% or more of the vote. This was the first election since 1999 in which the "against all" option was included on the ballot paper. It received 6% of the total vote. Voter turnout was 69%, the lowest ever in a Kazakh presidential election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2023 Kazakh legislative election</span>

Snap legislative elections were held in Kazakhstan on 19 March 2023 to elect the members of the Mäjilis. This was the ninth legislative election since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991 and the first snap election for the Mäjilis seats since 2016. It was held alongside the local assembly elections.

The Kazakh opposition consists of groups and individuals in Kazakhstan seeking to challenge, from 1986 to 1991 the authorities of Soviet Kazakhstan, and since 1995, after the adoption of a new constitution and the transition from a parliamentary form of government to a presidential one, the leader country Nursultan Nazarbayev. After, Kassym-Jomart Tokayev. Part of Kazakh democracy movement. Supporters of the movement tend to call for a parliamentary democracy based on a Western model, with freedom of speech and political and religious pluralism.

References

  1. The Kazakh government claimed that the CSTO's operations were solely for peacekeeping purposes.
  1. Pikulicka-Wilczewska, Agnieszka. "Do Kazakhstan's protests signal an end to the Nazarbayev era?". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved January 12, 2022. It is important to understand that protesters are never a unified mass. It is not that a single group or political party took to the streets. In all the regions where the protests took place, it was a mixed group of people.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Kucera, Joshua (5 January 2022). "CSTO agrees to intervene in Kazakhstan unrest". Eurasianet . Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  3. "CSTO agrees to intervene in Kazakhstan unrest". Eurasianet. 5 January 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  4. "Commander of the Airborne Forces Serdyukov became the head of the CSTO peacekeepers in Kazakhstan. (In Russian)". Ria Novosti. 7 January 2022.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Pannier, Bruce (6 January 2022). "Analysis: The Consequences Of Inviting Russian-Led CSTO Troops Into Kazakhstan". RFE/RL. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Russia is reportedly sending 3,000 soldiers to Kazakhstan, Belarus some 500, Tajikistan 200, and Armenia 70, with Kyrgyzstan set to decide on January 7.
  6. "Миротворческая рота 103-й воздушно-десантной бригады ССО вылетела в Казахстан". Belteleradio. 6 January 2022. Archived from the original on 8 January 2022.
  7. "Kyrgyzstan to send around 150 soldiers to Kazakhstan – report". akipress.com. AKIpress News Agency. 7 January 2022.
  8. "Armenian peacekeepers left for Kazakhstan". mil.am. Ministry of Defense of Armenia. 7 January 2022. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. ...RA Armed Forces sent a peacekeeping subdivision to the Republic of Kazakhstan (100 servicemen) as part of the CSTO peacekeeping forces.
  9. "Протесты против повышения цены на топливо в Казахстане переросли в столкновения с полицией. Власти начали блокировать интернет". Meduza (in Russian). Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  10. "Протесты". meduza.io. 4 January 2022.
  11. Тойкен, Сания; Мамашулы, Асылхан; Омирбек, Дархан; Иса, Дилара (3 January 2022). "«Акимов должен выбирать народ!» Протест в Жанаозене: от призывов снизить цены до политических требований". Радио Азаттык (in Russian). Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  12. "В Атырау и Уральске сотни человек вышли на митинги в поддержку протестующих в Мангистау - Аналитический интернет-журнал Vласть". vlast.kz (in Russian). 4 January 2022. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  13. 1 2 3 4 "Russia-Led Military Alliance Completes Withdrawal From Kazakhstan". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 19 January 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Kazakh President Announces CSTO Troop Withdrawal, Appoints New PM". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 11 January 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  15. Iskakova, Botagoz. "Озвучены новые подробности о январских событиях". Kapital. Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  16. "Хронология: 2022 жылғы Қаңтар оқиғасы". Báribar (in Kazakh). Almaty. 5 January 2023. Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  17. Gotev, Georgi (23 January 2023). "One year after tragic January events, Kazakhstan says it's changed". Euractiv. Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  18. Imamova, Navbahor (16 February 2022). "Kazakhstan Seeks Lessons From Its Bloody January". VOA. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  19. "Қанды қаңтар: Перзентінен айырылған ата-ана, жетім қалған бала..." inbusiness.kz (in Kazakh). 18 January 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  20. "Қаңтар трагедиясы: Ұрлық пен тонау фактісі бойынша 1674 іс тіркелген". lenta.inform.kz (in Kazakh). 5 February 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  21. "Timeline: January tragedy in Kazakhstan". www.kt.kz. 16 January 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  22. Lillis, Joanna (3 January 2022). "Kazakhstan: Gas price hike fuels Zhanaozen protests". eurasianet.org. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Kantchev, Georgi (7 January 2022). "Kazakhstan's Elite Got Richer on Natural Resources. Then Came the Unrest". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN   0099-9660 . Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  24. 1 2 Auyezov, Olzhas (5 January 2022). "Kazakhstan government's resignation fails to quell protests". Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  25. Walker, Shaun (5 January 2022). "Kazakhstan protests: government resigns amid rare outbreak of unrest". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Shaun, Walker; Bisenov, Naubet (5 January 2022). "Kazakhstan protests: Moscow-led alliance sends 'peacekeeping forces'". The Guardian . Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  27. Jacobs, Harrison (6 January 2022). "Russia-led alliance troops have arrived in Kazakhstan after mass protests". NPR. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  28. Hopkins, Valerie; Nechepurenko, Ivan (5 January 2022). "Russia-Allied Forces to Intervene as Unrest Sweeps Kazakhstan". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  29. Sabin, Lamiat; Sullivan, Rory (6 January 2022). "Russian troops arrive in Kazakhstan to quell unrest as police say officer beheaded" . The Independent. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  30. Rickleton, Chris (21 October 2022). "Russia's Unhappy Club: The CSTO". RFE/RL.
  31. "Vladimir Putin vows to stop 'colour revolutions' after sending troops to Kazakhstan". Financial Times. 10 January 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  32. Auyezov, Olzhas; Gordeyeva, Mariya (13 January 2022). Fletcher, Philippa (ed.). "Russia-led bloc starts Kazakhstan pullout after possible coup bid crushed". Reuters. Archived from the original on 13 January 2022.
  33. 1 2 "Kazakhstan declares state of emergency in protest-hit city, province". Reuters. 5 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  34. 1 2 "Kazakhstan unrest: Government restores fuel price cap after bloodshed". BBC News. 6 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  35. 1 2 Kussainova, Meiramgul (6 January 2022). "Kazakhstan imposes 180-day state regulation on fuel, food prices amid protests". aa.com.tr. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  36. 1 2 3 Auyezov, Olzhas (7 January 2022). "Kazakh president says constitutional order mostly restored". Reuters. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  37. 1 2 "Kazakhstan unrest: Fresh gunfire as president says order largely restored". BBC News. 7 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  38. 1 2 "Kazakh President: Constitutional Order Restored". voanews.com. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  39. 1 2 Child, David; Safdar, Anealla (7 January 2022). "Kazakh leader tells troops to shoot without warning". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  40. 1 2 Walker, Shaun (7 January 2022). "Kazakhstan president says he gave order to 'open fire with lethal force'". the Guardian. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  41. 1 2 Litvinova, Dasha (7 January 2022). "Kazakh leader ordered use of lethal force on 'terrorists'". Associated Press . AP NEWS. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  42. Auyezov, Olzhas (7 January 2022). "Kazakh president gives shoot-to-kill order to put down uprising". Reuters. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  43. 1 2 Litvinova, Dasha (10 January 2022). "Nearly 8,000 detained in Kazakhstan amid unrest". AP NEWS. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  44. 1 2 Vaal, Tamara; Balmforth, Tom (11 January 2022). Osborn, Andrew (ed.). "President of Kazakhstan says he has weathered attempted coup d'état" . Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  45. 1 2 "Post-Soviet security bloc's last peacekeepers depart from Kazakhstan for Moscow". TASS. 19 January 2022.
  46. 1 2 Vaal, Tamara (11 January 2022). "Russian troops to quit Kazakhstan, says president, taking aim at the elite". Reuters. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  47. 1 2 "В Нур-Султане восстановили международное авиасообщение". РБК (in Russian). 11 January 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  48. "Kazakhstan president fires defence minister for lack of leadership during protests" . Reuters. 19 January 2022. Archived from the original on 19 January 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  49. "Kassym-Jomart Tokayev Delivers State-of-the-Nation Address to the People of Kazakhstan". Akorda.kz. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022.
  50. 1 2 Redmayne, Nick (16 December 2021). "The truth about the world's most misunderstood country". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN   0307-1235. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  51. "IMF Executive Board Article IV consultation1 with Kazakhstan". imf.org. International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  52. OECD Investment Policy Reviews Archived 18 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine , p. 112, OECD, 2012
  53. Stodghill, Ron (5 November 2006). "Oil, Cash and Corruption". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 24 March 2023.
  54. Observatører fra tidligere Sovjet jakter på valg-juks Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Aftenposten.no (10 September 2013) Retrieved 8 March 2014
  55. Anthony Shorrocks; Jim Davies; Rodrigo Lluberas (October 2018). "Global Wealth Report". Credit Suisse. Archived from the original on 28 October 2018. October 10, 2018 article: Global Wealth Report 2018: US and China in the lead Archived 25 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine Report [ permanent dead link ]. Databook [ permanent dead link ]. Downloadable data sheets See Table 3.1 (page 114) of databook for mean and median wealth by country
  56. Kumenov, Almaz; Lillis, Joanna (4 January 2022). "Kazakhstan explainer: Why did fuel prices spike, bringing protesters out onto the streets?". eurasianet.org. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  57. Tojken, Sanijash (10 January 2020). "Жанаозенцы вновь пришли в акимат, требуя снижения цен на газ". Радио Азаттык (in Russian). Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  58. 1 2 "В аэропорту Актау в Казахстане задерживается часть рейсов" (in Russian). TASS. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  59. Bilefsky, Dan (5 January 2022). "Revolt in Kazakhstan: Here's What You Need to Know". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  60. 1 2 3 Tojken, Sanijash (2 January 2022). "Жители Жанаозена перекрыли дорогу, протестуя против повышения цен на газ". Радио Азаттык (in Russian). Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  61. 1 2 3 Tojken, Sanija; Mamashuly, Asylhan; Omirbek, Darhan; Isa, Dilara (3 January 2022). ""Акимов должен выбирать народ!" Протест в Жанаозене: от призывов снизить цены до политических требований". Радио Азаттык (in Russian). Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  62. 1 2 ""Мы устали от сказок!" В Жанаозене протестующие прогнали с площади акима области Ногаева". Радио Азаттык (in Russian). 4 January 2022. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  63. 1 2 "Касым-Жомарт Токаев высказался по ситуации в Жанаозене". inbusiness.kz (in Russian). 3 January 2022. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  64. "А. Мамин: Мемлекет басшысы Қ. К. Тоқаевтың тапсырмасы бойынша Үкімет Жаңаөзен қаласындағы жағдайға қатысты шаралар қабылдайды". primeminister.kz (in Kazakh). 3 January 2022. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  65. 1 2 "В Казахстане второй день продолжаются протесты из-за повышения цен на газ, задержаны более 20 человек". Настоящее Время (in Russian). 3 January 2022. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  66. 1 2 3 Tojken, Sanijash (4 January 2022). ""Правительство в отставку!" и "Шал, кет!". В Актау и Жанаозене продолжились митинги". Радио Азаттык (in Russian). Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  67. "Нурлан Ногаев вышел к митингующим в Актау". Tengrinews.kz (in Russian). 4 January 2022. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  68. 1 2 3 "В Алма-Ате проходят задержания протестующих" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 4 January 2022. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  69. Molchanova, Kira (4 January 2022). "Газ, шумовые гранаты и горящие авто. Протесты в Казахстане переросли в столкновения с полицией". ukranews.com (in Russian). Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  70. "В Казахстане протестующие заставили военных развернуть бронетехнику". www.ukrinform.ru (in Russian). 5 January 2022. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  71. "Президент Казахстана ввел ЧП в Алма-Ате и Мангистауской области" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 4 January 2022. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  72. 1 2 "Internet disrupted in Kazakhstan amid energy price protests". NetBlocks. 4 January 2022. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  73. "NetBlocks: Казакстанда интернет чектелди". Азаттык Υналгысы (in Kyrgyz). 4 January 2022. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022.
  74. 1 2 "Ситуация в городе взята под контроль властей — Сагинтаев". vlast.kz (in Russian). 4 January 2022. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  75. "Звуки взрывов слышны в Алма-Ате, митингующие выставляют баррикады". Interfax.ru (in Russian). 5 January 2022. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  76. "В Алматы протестующие снова движутся в центр города". vlast.kz (in Russian). 5 January 2022. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  77. Auyezov, Olzhas (5 January 2022). "Kazakh protesters torch public buildings; emergency declared, Cabinet resigns". Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  78. "Назарбаев перестал быть председателем Совбеза Казахстана". reform.by. 5 January 2022. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  79. Hart, Robert (5 January 2022). "Kazakhstan Reportedly Hit By Internet Blackout As Oil-Rich Nation Breaks Out In Rare Anti-Government Protests". Forbes. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022.
  80. "Kazakhstan Sees 'Nation-scale Internet Blackout' Amid Protests". www.barrons.com. 5 January 2022. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022.
  81. Heintz, Jim (5 January 2022). "Report: Kazakh president's home ablaze as protests escalate". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  82. "Здание мэрии Алматы захвачено, из здания идет дым. Видео". centralasia.media. 5 January 2022. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  83. 1 2 "Moscow-led bloc to send 'peacekeeping forces' to protest-hit Kazakhstan". France 24 . 5 January 2022. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  84. ""Раздают оружие, слышна стрельба" – кадры из Алматы распространяют в Сети". baigenews.kz (in Russian). 6 January 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  85. "Two servicemen killed in counter-terror operation at Almaty airport". TASS. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  86. 1 2 3 O'Connor, Tom (5 January 2022). "Kazakhstan president asks Russia-led military alliance for help amid protests". Newsweek . Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  87. "Office of ruling Nur Otan party set on fire in Almaty". akipress.com. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  88. "Kazakhstan's government resigns as fuel protests rage". CNN. 5 January 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  89. "Kazakhstan's government resigns as fuel protests rage". CNN. 5 January 2022.
  90. 1 2 3 4 Hopkins, Valerie; Nechepurenko, Ivan (5 January 2022). "Kazakh Protesters Burn Government Offices as Unrest Sweeps Country". The New York Times . ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  91. Satubaldina, Assel; Shayakhmetova, Zhanna (5 January 2022). "Kazakhstan Declares State of Emergency After Fuel Price Protests". The Astana Times. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  92. "Жители Алма-Аты сообщили о перестрелке из автоматического оружия на улицах города". Interfax.ru (in Russian). 6 January 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  93. "Погромы и мародерство: кадры из охваченной беспорядками Алматы". 24 Канал (in Russian). 5 January 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  94. Wallace, Joe (6 January 2022). "Kazakhstan Unrest Pushes Up Uranium and Oil Prices". The Wall Street Journal.
  95. "Oil Jumps As Key Kazakhstan Oil Field Gets Hit By Protests". Yahoo News. 7 January 2022.
  96. Lee, Julian (6 January 2022). "Kazakhstan's Biggest Oil Field Adjusts Output Because of Unrest". Bloomberg.
  97. Kissane, Carolyn (7 January 2022). "Why the political violence and economic grievances engulfing Kazakhstan matter". The Hill.
  98. "Police detain nearly 2,000 protesters in Almaty". TASS. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  99. "Dozens of protesters, 12 police dead in Kazakhstan protests". ABC News. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  100. "Dozens of protesters and police dead amid Kazakhstan unrest". the Guardian. 6 January 2022. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  101. Light, Felix (6 January 2022). "Russia's Involvement in Kazakhstan's Crisis Could Have Wide Implications". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  102. Walker, Shaun; Bisenov, Naubet (6 January 2022). "Russian paratroopers arrive in Kazakhstan as unrest continues". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  103. "Residents Of Kazakhstan Continue To Come Out To Mass Rallies In Centres Of Their Towns". Charter 97 . 6 January 2022. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  104. Nechepurenko, Ivan; Santora, Marc (7 January 2022). "Kazakhstan's President Says Security Forces Can 'Fire Without Warning' to Quell Unrest". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  105. Sobotka, Michal (7 January 2022). "Kazachstán opustil bývalý vládce Nazarbajev i s dcerami a jejich rodinami – Novinky.cz" [Former ruler Nazarbayev and his daughters and their families left Kazakhstan]. www.novinky.cz (in Czech).
  106. Ilyushina, Mary; Cheng, Amy (7 January 2022). "Kazakhstan president gives shoot-to-kill order against protesters, dismissing calls for negotiations". The Washington Post . Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  107. "Aktau residents organize peaceful rally against Kazakhstan authorities". News.am . 7 January 2022. Archived from the original on 8 January 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  108. "The Ministry of the Interior of Kazakhstan: 7 policemen were killed during a security operation in the city of Almaty". Twitter (in Arabic). الجزيرة.
  109. "22-year-old Israeli killed by gunfire in violent Kazakhstan protests". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  110. Lubell, Maayan (8 January 2022). Chopra, Toby (ed.). "Israeli killed in Kazakhstan unrest, foreign ministry says" . Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 January 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  111. Greer, Stuart (8 January 2022). "Small Protests Continue As Kazakh Government Tightens Grip". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty . Archived from the original on 8 January 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  112. Auyezov, Olzhas; Vaal, Tamara (8 January 2022). "Kazakhstan arrests ex-security chief as it presses crackdown on protests". Reuters. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  113. "Gas price protests in Kazakhstan leave at least 40 dead and more than 4,400 arrested". Market Research Telecast. 8 January 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  114. "Kazakhstan police detain over 4,400 people in riots". TASS. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  115. "Kazakhstan launches investigation into 180 sellers of LPG". TASS. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  116. Abbasova, Vusala (6 January 2022). "Kazakhstan's Biggest Fuel Sellers Under Investigation over Alleged Price Collusion". caspiannews.com. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  117. 1 2 "Kazakhstan: More than 160 killed, 5,000 arrested during riots". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  118. Heintz, Jim (9 January 2022). "Kazakhstan says 164 killed in week of protests". AP NEWS. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  119. "Kazakhstan says 5,800 detained in week of protests". Arab News. 9 January 2022. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  120. Gromova, Viktorija (10 January 2022). "Токаев заявил о попытке госпереворота в Казахстане". РБК (in Russian). Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  121. "Kazakhstan blames foreign-trained Islamic radicals for unrest". South China Morning Post. 10 January 2022. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  122. "Kazakhstan unrest: Internet returns to Almaty following a five day outage". BBC News. 10 January 2022. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  123. "Начальник департамента полиции на юге Казахстана покончил с собой". Interfax . Moscow. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  124. 1 2 "Kazakh President Announces CSTO Troop Withdrawal, Criticizes Predecessor". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 11 January 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  125. Vaal, Tamara (10 January 2022). "Putin claims victory in defending Kazakhstan from revolt". Reuters. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  126. "Во время беспорядков в Казахстане погибли 8 полицейских и военных, 317 ранены. Новости. Первый канал". Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  127. "'Dozens' of Kazakhstan protesters killed by police in overnight, authorities confirm". Euronews. 5 January 2022. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  128. "В Алма-Ате началась интенсивная перестрелка между военными и вооруженными людьми". ТАСС. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  129. Gadzo, Mersiha; Safdar, Anealla; Child, David (6 January 2022). "Russian paratroopers arrive in crisis-hit Kazakhstan". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  130. "Kazakhstan unrest: Russian troops fly in as crackdown continues". BBC. 6 January 2022. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  131. Auyezov, Olzhas (6 January 2022). "Russia sends troops to put down Kazakhstan uprising as fresh violence erupts". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  132. "Kazakhstan president issues 'shoot to kill' order to quell protests". news.yahoo.com. 7 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  133. Chausovsky, Eugene (7 January 2022). "Why Russia Sent Troops Into Kazakhstan". Foreign Policy.
  134. Lillis, Joanna (7 January 2022). "Kazakhstan: Shoot to kill protesters, orders tough-talking Tokayev". Eurasianet . Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  135. Lillis, Joanna (8 January 2022). "Kazakhstan: Ex-security services chief and Nazarbayev ally arrested – Masimov faces charges of treason". Eurasianet . Archived from the original on 8 January 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  136. "Kazakhstan detains former security chief for treason". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  137. Goncharenko, Roman (7 January 2022). "Kazakhstan protests: A nightmare or an opportunity for Russia?". Deutsche Welle.
  138. Nechepurenko, Ivan; Higgins, Andrew (7 January 2022). "In Kazakhstan's Street Battles, Signs of Elites Fighting Each Other". New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331. Archived from the original on 8 January 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  139. Perel'chuk, Evgenij (6 January 2022). "Как протесты отразились на экономике Казахстана?". BFM.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  140. Desai, Pratima (7 January 2022). "Transport disruptions the wild card for Kazakh uranium shipments". Reuters.
  141. Tan, Huileng (7 January 2022). "Uranium and oil prices have spiked as Kazakhstan's political upheaval spurs fears about reduced production and supply chain disruption". Business Insider.
  142. "Uranium sector monitors evolving Kazakh situation". World Nuclear News. 7 January 2022.
  143. Madhok, Diksha (7 January 2022). "Kazakhstan is huge for crypto mining. Political upheaval could jeopardize that". CNN. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  144. Sigalos, MacKenzie (6 January 2022). "Kazakhstan's deadly protests hit bitcoin, as the world's second-biggest mining hub shuts down". CNBC. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  145. Pandey, Ashutosh (10 January 2022). "Unstable Kazakhstan could push up uranium, oil prices". DW. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  146. "Oil slips, but set for weekly gain on Kazakh, Libyan concerns". CNBC. 7 January 2022. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  147. Allen, Nathan (10 January 2022). "Chevron increasing production in Kazakhstan following protest-linked interruption". Seeking Alpha. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  148. "Казахстанские богачи потеряли миллиарды долларов из-за протестов". secretmag.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  149. "At Least 164 Dead in Kazakhstan Protests". VOA. 10 January 2022. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  150. Sofiienko, Nataliia (10 January 2022). "Мільярдери з Казахстану втратили $3 млрд за кілька днів протестів". LIGA (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  151. Faulconbridge, Guy (7 January 2022). Richardson, Alex (ed.). "West must stand up to Russia in Kazakhstan, opposition leader says" . Reuters. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  152. "Հայ խաղաղապահները մեկնել են Ղազախստան". mil.am (in Armenian). Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  153. "CSTO Council decides to send collective peacekeeping forces to Kazakhstan". TASS. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  154. "Moscow-led alliance sends first troops to Kazakhstan". DefenceTalk. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  155. "Over 3,800 detained, 26 killed in Kazakhstan during unrest". The Daily Guardian . 8 January 2022.
  156. "Overnight developments in Kazakhstan's uprising CSTO peacekeepers have been deployed, and an 'antiterrorist operation' is underway against protesters and rioters". Meduza . 6 January 2022.
  157. Trevelyan, Mark (7 January 2022). Jones, Gareth (ed.). "Belarus leader Lukashenko spoke to Kazakhstan's Nazarbayev" . Reuters. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  158. Ng, Teddy; Ziwen, Zhao (8 January 2022). "Chinese-led Shanghai Cooperation Organisation 'ready to act in Kazakhstan if needed'". South China Morning Post .
  159. O'Connor, Tom (6 January 2022). "Taliban "closely monitoring" unrest in Kazakhstan after Russia-led intervention". Newsweek.
  160. Harutyunyan, Lilit (12 January 2022). "Ալմաթիում հայ խաղաղապահների հիմնական խնդիրներից էր կանխել ջրատարի թունավորումը". «Ազատ Եվրոպա/Ազատություն» ռադիոկայան (in Armenian). Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  161. Mejlumyan, Ani (7 January 2022). "Armenians take dim view of deployment to Kazakhstan". Eurasianet. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  162. "Հասարակական կազմակերպությունների արձագանքը Ղազախստան ՀԱՊԿ զորք ուղարկելու մասին". «Հանուն հավասար իրավունքների» (in Armenian). Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  163. Öztürk, Alparslan (10 January 2022). "Azərbaycan XİN Qazaxıstana başsağlığı verib". Report İnformasiya Agentliyi (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  164. "Lukashenko urges demonstrators in Kazakhstan to negotiate with Tokayev". TASS. 6 January 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  165. 1 2 "Belarus' security chief calls situation in Kazakhstan external hybrid aggression". TASS. 6 January 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  166. "Statement on protests in Kazakhstan". www.canada.ca. 6 January 2022. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  167. 1 2 "China expresses hopes for early restoration of public order in Kazakhstan". Aninews. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  168. "China opposes external forces triggering unrest in Kazakhstan, says Xi Jinping". ANI News. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  169. "Xi sends verbal message to Kazakh president-Xinhua". english.news.cn. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  170. "France Urges 'Moderation' From All Sides In Kazakhstan: Foreign Minister". www.barrons.com. 6 January 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  171. Irish, John; Van Overstraeten, Benoit (7 January 2022). Kar-Gupta, Sudip (ed.). "French President Macron says he is concerned about Kazakhstan situation". Reuters. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  172. Litvinova, Dasha (7 January 2022). "Kazakh president: Forces can shoot to kill to quell unrest". AP NEWS. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  173. Simon, Zoltan (11 January 2022). "Hungary Rejects Rights Concerns Over Kazakhstan Crackdown". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  174. 1 2 "Official Spokesperson's response to media queries on recent developments in Kazakhstan". Ministry of External Affairs . 10 January 2022. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  175. Laskar, Rezaul Hasan (11 January 2022). "India for early stabilisation of situation in Kazakhstan, says all Indians safe". The Hindustan Times . Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  176. "Kazakhstan Able to Resolve Problems Peacefully via Dialogue: Iranian Spokesman". Tasnim News Agency. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
  177. Podolskaya, Darya (6 January 2022). "Protests in Kazakhstan: Foreign Ministry of Kyrgyzstan issues statement". 24.kg. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  178. "Президент Садыр Жапаров провел ряд телефонных разговоров с лидерами стран ОДКБ". president.kg (in Russian). 6 January 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  179. "Президент Садыр Жапаров выразил соболезнования Президенту Казахстана Касым-Жоомарту Токаеву в связи с трагическими событиями в соседней республике". president.kg (in Russian). 10 January 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  180. "Malaysians in protest-hit Kazakhstan safe, says foreign minister". The Malay Mail. 7 January 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  181. "Казахстан Улсад Байгаа Иргэдийн Анхааралд". consul.mn (in Mongolian). 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  182. "Pakistan Embassy Help Desks for Pakistanis residing in Kazakhstan". mofa.gov.pk. 8 January 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  183. "Ambasada României în Kazahstan a luat legătura cu cei 100 de români din țara marcată de revolte". Digi24 (in Romanian). 6 January 2022.
  184. Vaal, Tamara (10 January 2022). "Putin claims victory in defending Kazakhstan from revolt". Reuters. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  185. "Vladimir Putin vows to stop 'colour revolutions' after sending troops to Kazakhstan". Financial Times. 10 January 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  186. Gizzatullin (Гиззатуллин), Azat (Азат) (19 January 2022). "Радий Хабиров: Мы были абсолютно уверены, что народ Казахстана выберет правильный путь развития". bashinform.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 21 February 2022.
  187. "Кадыров призвал казахский народ не идти на поводу у провокаторов". РИА Новости (in Russian). 5 January 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
  188. "Vučić: Opozicija ne veruje da će pobediti kandidata SNS na izborima". Novinska agencija Beta (in Serbian). Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  189. 강윤승 (8 January 2022). "S. Korea calls for restoration of peace amid unrest in Kazakhstan". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  190. "Заявление МИД Таджикистана в связи с ситуацией в Казахстане". www.mfa.tj (in Russian). 6 January 2021. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  191. "Вниманию граждан Республики Таджикистан, находящихся в Республике Казахстан". www.mfa.tj (in Russian). 6 January 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  192. "Kazakhstan unrest: From Russia to US, the world reacts". AlJazeera. 6 January 2022. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  193. "Turkish Parliament issues solidarity statement for Kazakhstan". Hurriyet Daily News. 13 January 2022.
  194. 1 2 "The President of Turkmenistan has sent a letter of condolences to the President of Kazakhstan". www.mfa.gov.tm. 10 January 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  195. Kitsoft (10 January 2022). "Міністерство закордонних справ України – Заява МЗС України щодо розвитку ситуації в Республіці Казахстан". mfa.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  196. "UAE reiterates support for stability in Kazakhstan". Arab News. 10 January 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  197. James, William; Bruce, Andy (6 January 2022). "UK's Truss condemns Kazakhstan violence, says talking with allies". news.trust.org. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  198. Auyezov, Olzhas (5 January 2022). "Kazakh president fails to quell protests, 8 deaths reported". Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  199. Mathers, Matt (5 January 2022). "Kazakhstan protesters seize airport amid anger over fuel price rise – follow live". The Independent. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  200. "Kazakhstan unrest: Blinken questions Russian troop deployment". BBC News. 8 January 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  201. "Qozog'istondagi voqealar yuzasidan O'zbekiston Respublikasi Tashqi ishlar vazirligining bayonoti". Mfa.uz (in Uzbek). 5 January 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022.[ permanent dead link ]
  202. "O'zbekiston Prezidenti Qozog'iston xalqi va Prezidentiga ta'ziya yo'lladi". Mfa.uz (in Uzbek). 10 January 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022.[ permanent dead link ]
  203. "Узбекистан эвакуирует своих граждан из Казахстана". EADaily (in Russian). 11 January 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  204. "Artsakh President blames "pan-Turkist radicals" and "extremist groups" for Kazakhstan events". /armenpress.am. 10 January 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  205. Ghazanchyan, Siranush (10 January 2022). "Artsakh President says developments in Kazakhstan dangerous for neighboring regions". Public Radio of Armenia . Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  206. Levina, Mariam (10 January 2022). "Karabakh MFA: Events in Kazakhstan are result of actions planned by Turkey". news.am. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  207. "Kazakhstan: Statement by the Spokesperson on the latest developments". 5 January 2022. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  208. Bir, Burak (6 January 2022). "Organization of Turkic States offers support to protest-hit Kazakhstan". Anadolu Agency . Archived from the original on 6 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  209. "UN rights chief urges step back from violence in Kazakhstan". Al Araby. 6 January 2022. Archived from the original on 7 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  210. "Kazakhstan unrest: Bachelet urges peaceful resolution of grievances". OHCHR. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  211. Reinl, James (10 January 2022). "UN criticises Kazakhstan over unauthorised blue peacekeeper helmet use". The National. Retrieved 24 March 2023.
  212. "Javier Colomina". Twitter. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  213. "NATO expressed concern over events in Kazakhstan". news.am. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  214. "Statement on the situation in Kazakhstan by the OSCE Chairman-in-Office". Twitter. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  215. "President Tokayev unveils memorial to victims of January tragedy in Almaty". www.inform.kz. 23 December 2022.