Banksia marginata

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Silver banksia
Banksia marginata immature and mature.jpg
Inflorescence with unopened buds (left), opened flowers (right)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Proteales
Family: Proteaceae
Subfamily: Grevilleoideae
Tribe: Banksieae
Genus: Banksia
Species:
B. marginata
Binomial name
Banksia marginata
Synonyms [1]

Banksia microstachya Cav.
Banksia depressa R.Br.
Banksia insularis R.Br.
Banksia patula R.Br.
Banksia gunnii Meisn.

Contents

Banksia marginata, [1] commonly known as the silver banksia, is a species of tree or woody shrub in the plant genus Banksia found throughout much of southeastern Australia. It ranges from the Eyre Peninsula in South Australia to north of Armidale, New South Wales, and across Tasmania and the islands of Bass Strait. It grows in various habitats, including Eucalyptus forest, scrub, heathland and moorland. Banksia marginata varies widely in habit, ranging from a 20-centimetre (7.9 in) shrub to a 12-metre (40 ft) tree. The narrow leaves are linear and the yellow inflorescences (flower spikes) occur from late summer to early winter. The flower spikes fade to brown and then grey and develop woody follicles bearing the winged seeds. Originally described by Antonio José Cavanilles in 1800, further collections of B. marginata were designated as several separate species by Robert Brown in 1810. However, all were reclassified as a single species by George Bentham in 1870. No distinct subspecies have been recognised by Banksia expert Alex George, who nonetheless concedes that further work is needed.

Many species of bird, in particular honeyeaters, forage at the flower spikes, as do native and European honeybees. The response to bushfire varies. Some populations are serotinous: they are killed by fire and regenerate from large stores of seed which have been held in cones in the plant canopy and are released after a fire. Others regenerate from underground lignotubers or suckers from lateral roots. Although it has been used for timber, Banksia marginata is most commonly seen as a garden plant, with dwarf forms being commercially propagated and sold.

Description

Tree habit, Illabarook Rail Line Nature Conservation Reserve Banksia marginata tree upright 1 IRL.JPG
Tree habit, Illabarook Rail Line Nature Conservation Reserve

Banksia marginata is a highly variable species, usually ranging from a small shrub around a metre (3 ft) tall to a 12-metre-high (39 ft) tree. [2] Unusually large trees of 15 to possibly 30 m (50–100 ft) have been reported near Beeac in Victoria's Western District as well as several locations in Tasmania, [3] while compact shrubs limited to 20 cm (7.9 in) high have been recorded on coastal heathland in Tasmania (such as at Rocky Cape National Park). [4] Shrubs reach only 2 m (6.6 ft) high in Gibraltar Range National Park. [5] The bark is pale grey and initially smooth before becoming finely tessellated with age. The new branchlets are hairy at first but lose their hairs as they mature, [2] with new growth a pale or pinkish brown. [6] The leaves are alternately arranged on the stems on 2–5 mm long petioles, and characteristically toothed in juvenile or younger leaves (3–7 cm [1.2–2.8 in] long). The narrow adult leaves are dull green in colour and generally linear, oblong or wedge-shaped (cuneate) and measure 1.5–6 cm (0.6–2.4 in) long and 0.3–1.3 cm (0.1–0.5 in) wide. The margins become entire with age, and the tip is most commonly truncate or emarginate, but can be acute or mucronate. [7] The cellular makeup of the leaves shows evidence of lignification, and the leaves themselves are somewhat stiff. [8] Leaves also have sunken stomates. The leaf undersurface is white with a prominent midrib covered in brownish hairs. [7]

The complex flower spikes, known as inflorescences, appear generally from late summer to early winter (February to June) in New South Wales and Victoria, although flowering occurs in late autumn and winter in the Gibraltar Range. [5] Cylindrical in shape, they are composed of a central woody spike or axis, perpendicularly from which a large number of compact floral units arise, which measure 5–10 cm (2–4 in) tall and 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 in) wide. [7] Pale yellow in colour, they are composed of up to 1,000 individual flowers (784 recorded in the Gibraltar Range [5] ) and arise from nodes on branchlets that are at least three years old. Sometimes two may grow from successive nodes in the same flowering season. They can have a grey or golden tinge in late bud. As with most banksias, anthesis is acropetal; the opening of the individual buds proceeds up the flower spike from the base to the top. [7] Over time the flower spikes fade to brown and then grey, and the old flowers generally persist on the cone. [9] The woody follicles grow in the six months after flowering, with up to 150 developing on a single flower spike. In many populations, only a few follicles develop. Small and elliptic, they measure 0.7–1.7 cm (0.3–0.7 in) long, 0.2–0.5 cm (0.1–0.2 in) high, and 0.2–0.4 cm (0.1–0.2 in) wide. [7] In coastal and floodplain populations, these usually open spontaneously and release seed, while they generally remain sealed until burnt by fire in plants from heathland and montane habitats. [10] Each follicle contains one or two fertile seeds, between which lies a woody dark brown separator of similar shape to the seeds. Measuring 0.9–1.5 cm (0.4–0.6 in) in length, the seed is egg- to wedge-shaped (obovate to cuneate) and composed of a dark brown 0.8–1.1 cm (0.3–0.4 in) wide membranous "wing" and wedge- or sickle-shaped (cuneate–falcate) seed proper which measures 0.5–0.8 cm (0.2–0.3 in) long by 0.3–0.4 cm (0.1–0.2 in) wide. The seed surface can be smooth or covered in tiny ridges, and often glistens. The resulting seedling first grows two obovate cotyledon leaves, which may remain for several months as several more leaves appear. [7] The cotyledons of Banksia marginata, B. paludosa and B. integrifolia are very similar in appearance. [11]

Taxonomy and naming

The leaf undersides are white with a prominent midrib. The downcurved margin gives the leaves a bordered appearance which is the inspiration for the species name. Banksia marginata leaves under.jpg
The leaf undersides are white with a prominent midrib. The downcurved margin gives the leaves a bordered appearance which is the inspiration for the species name.


Banksia marginata is commonly called the silver banksia, because the white undersides of its leaves contrast with the otherwise green foliage and give the plant a "silvery" look. [9] Alternate common names include honeysuckle and dwarf honeysuckle. [12] The aboriginal name in the Jardwadjali language of western Victoria was warock, [13] while the Kaurna name from the Adelaide Plains was pitpauwe [14] and the local name in the Macquarie Harbour region in Tasmania was tangan. [15]

A widely distributed and diverse plant, B. marginata was described independently and given many different names by early explorers. On his third voyage, Captain James Cook reported a "most common tree [...] about ten feet high, branching pretty much, with narrow leaves, and a large, yellow, cylindrical flower, consisting only of a vast number of filaments; which, being shed, leave a fruit like a pine top." in January 1777. [16] The genus Banksia was named in honor of Sir Joseph Banks, a botanist who was with Captain Cook during his first voyage (1768-1771) in which he circumnavigated the world, including stops in New Zealand and Australia (Botany Bay). [17] The species marginata was first collected by Luis Née in 1793, from somewhere between Sydney and Parramatta. In 1800, the Spanish botanist Antonio José Cavanilles gave the species the binomial name it still bears today. [1] [18] The species name is the Latin adjective marginatus ("bordered") and refers to appearance of the lower surface of the recurved margins of the leaves when viewed from underneath. [6] [19] Cavanilles also described another specimen collected by Née in the same locality as a different species, Banksia microstachya Cav. A smaller shrub with dentate leaves, this turned out to be an immature plant of the same species with juvenile leaves. [20] Robert Brown described 31 species of Banksia in his 1810 work Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen , including six taxa (B. marginata α and β plus four further species) now attributable to B. marginata. He split the genus into two subgenera, placing these species in subgenus Banksia verae, the "True Banksias". [21] He described Banksia australis R.Br., giving the location of the collection as Port Phillip Bay in Victoria in 1802 (having crossed out Van Diemen's Land 1804). [22] Brown's other collections which were reduced to synonymy with B. marginata were Banksia depressa R.Br., a prostrate shrub from Margate Rivulet in southeastern Tasmania, Banksia insularis R.Br., from Flinders and King Island, and Banksia patula R.Br., a shrub from the vicinity of Port Lincoln, South Australia. [23] The French naturalist Aimé Bonpland in 1816 called it Banksia marcescens Bonpl., deemed an illegitimate name , as by that time the name Banksia marginata already had been published. [24] Still more synonyms are Banksia ferrea Vent. ex Spreng. and Banksia gunnii Meisn. [1]

Plate titled Banksia marcescens in Description des plantes rares cultivees a Malmaison et a Navarre by Aime Bonpland Banksia marcescens-(marginata) crop.jpg
Plate titled Banksia marcescens in Description des plantes rares cultivées à Malmaison et à Navarre by Aimé Bonpland

By the time Carl Meissner published his 1856 arrangement of the genus, there were 58 described Banksia species. Meissner divided Brown's Banksia verae, which had been renamed Eubanksia by Stephan Endlicher in 1847, [7] into four series based on leaf properties. He listed six species and a further four varieties all now sunk into B. marginata in series Salicinae. [25]

In 1870, George Bentham published a thorough revision of Banksia in his landmark publication Flora Australiensis . In Bentham's arrangement, the number of recognised Banksia species was reduced from 60 to 46. Bentham observed that the characteristics Brown used to define B. australis, B. depressa, B. patula, and B. insularis were unable to distinguish separate forms as more specimens came to light, and hence declared them synonyms of B. marginata. Meissner's four series were replaced by four sections based on leaf, style and pollen-presenter characters. B. marginata was placed in section Eubanksia along with B. integrifolia and B. dentata . [26]

Placement within Banksia

The current taxonomic arrangement of the genus Banksia is based on botanist Alex George's 1999 monograph for the Flora of Australia book series. [2] In this arrangement, B. marginata is placed in Banksia subgenus Banksia , because its inflorescences take the form of Banksia's characteristic flower spikes, section Banksia because of its straight styles, and series Salicinae because its inflorescences are cylindrical. In a morphological cladistic analysis published in 1994, Kevin Thiele placed it as the most basal member of a newly described subseries Integrifoliae, within the series Salicinae. [27] However, this subgrouping of the Salicinae was not supported by George. [2] George did concede that major work is needed on Banksia marginata, which shows such a high degree of variability over its range. [28]

Seed separator of Banksia marginata with winged seeds still nestled against it Banksia Marginata Seed.jpg
Seed separator of Banksia marginata with winged seeds still nestled against it

B. marginata's placement within Banksia may be summarised as follows:

Genus Banksia
Subgenus Isostylis
Subgenus Banksia
Section Oncostylis
Section Coccinea
Section Banksia
Series Grandes
Series Banksia
Series Crocinae
Series Prostratae
Series Cyrtostylis
Series Tetragonae
Series Bauerinae
Series Quercinae
Series Salicinae
B. dentata B. aquilonia B. integrifolia B. plagiocarpa B. oblongifolia B. robur B. conferta B. paludosa B. marginata B. canei B. saxicola

Since 1998, American botanist Austin Mast and co-authors have been publishing results of ongoing cladistic analyses of DNA sequence data for the subtribe Banksiinae, which then comprised genera Banksia and Dryandra . Their analyses suggest a phylogeny that differs greatly from George's taxonomic arrangement. Banksia marginata resolves as the closest relative, or "sister", to B. saxicola, the two taxa part of a larger group containing B. paludosa and the three subspecies of B. integrifolia. [29] [30] [31] Early in 2007, Mast and Thiele rearranged the genus Banksia by merging Dryandra into it, and published B. subg. Spathulatae for the taxa having spoon-shaped cotyledons; thus B. subg. Banksia was redefined as encompassing taxa lacking spoon-shaped cotyledons. They foreshadowed publishing a full arrangement once DNA sampling of Dryandra was complete; in the meantime, if Mast and Thiele's nomenclatural changes are taken as an interim arrangement, then B. marginata is placed in B. subg. Spathulatae. [32]

Hybrids with other species

Hybridisation with Banksia conferta subsp. penicillata at the site of an old abandoned railway between Newnes and Clarence in the Blue Mountains has been recorded; a single B. marginata plant was surrounded by plants with intermediate features but more strongly resembling B. conferta subsp. penicillata. [7] B. marginata can also interbreed with B. paludosa where they are found together. [33] A hybrid with B. saxicola was recorded from Mount William during the Banksia Atlas project. [34]

A purported hybrid with B. integrifolia, thought to be from Cape Paterson on Victoria's south coast, was first described by Alf Salkin and is commercially available in small quantities. It forms an attractive hardy low-growing plant to 1 m (3.3 ft). [35] Salkin observed an intermediate form which occurred in coastal areas where Banksia marginata and B. integrifolia are found together. Calling it the Wilsons Promontory topodeme, he noted that it colonised sand dunes, had leaves similar to but narrower than integrifolia, and had persisting flowers on old spikes but not as persistent as marginata. He had collected this form from Revesby in New South Wales as well as Cape Paterson, and had received reports of similar plants at Marlo and Bemm Rivers. [36] Stands of plants intermediate between B. integrifolia and B. marginata have been recorded near Mallacoota in East Gippsland. [37]

Distribution and habitat

Distribution of B. marginata across southeastern Australia Banksia marginata map.png
Distribution of B. marginata across southeastern Australia

Banksia marginata is found from Baradine and Gibraltar Range National Park in northern New South Wales, [33] southwards into Victoria and South Australia, as well as across Tasmania. It is found on the major islands of Bass Strait, including King, Flinders and Cape Barren Islands. [34] There is one report of a collection from the Springbrook Mountains southwest of Southport in southeastern Queensland. [34] It is extremely rare in southwestern New South Wales. [12] In Victoria, it is predominantly coastal or near-coastal east of Traralgon, but in New South Wales it is absent from coastal areas in the Sydney region. [34] Banksia marginata often grew as a large tree on the basalt plains west of Melbourne, but has almost disappeared. [38] [39] In the vicinity of Adelaide, it was common in the western suburbs on old sand dunes behind the beach foredunes. It remains common in the Adelaide foothills. [14] The annual rainfall over its distribution ranges from 400 to 1,000 mm (16 to 39 in). [6]

In the Gibraltar Range National Park, it is a dominant shrub of open heathland and a non-dominant shrub of closed heath, [40] mostly found in swampy heath associated with sedges. [41] Plants here have some degree of self-compatibility. [5] In the Sydney region, it grows in association with heath banksia ( Banksia ericifolia ), old man banksia ( B. serrata ), mountain devil ( Lambertia formosa ), lance-leaved geebung ( Persoonia lanceolata ) and dwarf apple ( Angophora hispida ) in heathland, and with silvertop ash ( Eucalyptus sieberi ), Blue Mountains ash ( E. oreades ), Sydney peppermint ( E. piperita ), scribbly gum ( E. haemastoma ), Blue Mountains mallee ash ( E. stricta ), brittle gum ( E. mannifera ), snow gum ( E. pauciflora ) and red bloodwood ( Corymbia gummifera ) in forested areas. [42]

It is widespread as an understory species in medium rainfall eucalypt forests across Victoria, occurring in association with manna gum ( Eucalyptus viminalis ), narrow-leaf peppermint ( E. radiata ), messmate ( E. obliqua ), swamp gum ( E. ovata ) and brown stringybark ( E. baxteri ). [43] It is a common shrub, sometimes small tree, in heathy and shrubby forests as well as coastal scrub and heath in part of its range. [44] In South Gippsland, it is generally a shrub which regenerates from a lignotuber or suckers after bushfire and sets few seed. [45] It has been recorded as a low spreading shrub in Croajingolong National Park in East Gippsland. [37] In the Wombat State Forest west of Melbourne, it grows as a 1 to 2 m (3.3 to 6.6 ft) high shrub on less fertile soils, and as a large tree to 8 m (26 ft) on more fertile soils. Few trees remain, having been cleared for agriculture or for fuel. [46] Similarly, further west in the Corangamite region, it is either a tree or suckering shrub. [47]

In Tasmania, Banksia marginata occupies a wide range of habitats, in mixed forest (where it grows as a small tree), button grass moorlands, flood plains of the Loddon, Franklin and Huon Rivers, as well as coastal regions. [48] In parts of the west and southwest of Tasmania, the species is dominant within the threatened native vegetation community known as Banksia marginata wet scrub. [49] There is no macrofossil record for the species, so it is unclear whether it is a recent introduction from the mainland or has only recently evolved, although its presence on both the mainland and Tasmania suggests it has been present since the Pleistocene. [50] It grows in coastal habitats that would be occupied by Banksia integrifolia on the mainland. [48]

Banksia marginata grows on a variety of soil types, from clay loams, shale and peaty loams to sandy or rocky soils composed of quartzite, sandstone, limestone or granite, although sandier soils predominate. [2] It is restricted to sandy soils in the Adelaide region. [14] The soil types are of a wide range of pH, from highly acidic soils in the Grampians to alkaline soils in South Australia. [9] Plants have been recorded at altitudes ranging from sea level to as high as 1,200 m (3,900 ft) AHD at Mount Field National Park. [51]

Ecology

Inflorescence part-way through anthesis, with the individual flowers at the base opened and those further up the spike still closed Banksia marginata.jpg
Inflorescence part-way through anthesis, with the individual flowers at the base opened and those further up the spike still closed

Numerous species of birds have been observed foraging and feeding at the flowers; these include rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus), musk lorikeet (Glossopsitta concinna), purple-crowned lorikeet (G. porphyrocephala), double-eyed fig-parrot ( Cyclopsitta diophthalma ), red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata), little wattlebird (A. chrysoptera), yellow wattlebird (A. paradoxa), spiny-cheeked honeyeater (Acanthagenys rufogularis), yellow-faced honeyeater (Lichenostomus chrysops), singing honeyeater (Lichenostomus virescens), white-plumed honeyeater (L. penicillatus), black-chinned honeyeater (Melithreptus gularis), brown-headed honeyeater (M. brevirostris), white-naped honeyeater (M. lunatus), crescent honeyeater (Phylidonyris pyrrhoptera), New Holland honeyeater (P. novaehollandiae), tawny-crowned honeyeater (Gliciphila melanops), eastern spinebill (Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris), noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala), silvereye (Zosterops lateralis) and thornbills (Acanthiza species). In addition, the yellow-tailed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus funereus) feeds on the seed. [34] [52]

The agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis), bush rat (Rattus fuscipes), feathertail glider (Acrobates pygmaeus), [47] and sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) have been recorded visiting flower spikes. [34] Both pollen and nectar are consumed by the southwestern pygmy possum (Cercarteus concinnus). [53] Ants, bees (both native and European honeybees), blowflies and brown butterflies have been recorded as visitors to flower spikes. [34] The wasp Mesostoa kerri of the subfamily Mesostoinae within the family Braconidae causes stem galls on B. marginata in southeastern South Australia. The galls are either round to a diameter of 3.3 cm (1.3 in), or cigar-shaped to 15 cm (5.9 in). Their effect on the plant is unclear. [54] B. marginata is a host plant for the larval and adult stages of the buprestid beetle Cyrioides imperialis . [55] Much more pathological is the banksia longicorn beetle ( Paroplites australis ) which bores holes in the base of banksia plants which then weaken and fall or blow over with wind and die. [56] [57] Several species of fungus have been recorded growing on the foliage, including Acrospermum gaubae , Argopericonia elegans , Asterina systema-solare , Botryosphaeria banksiae , a species of Cladosporium , Cooksonomyces banksiae , Dimerium banksiae , Episphaerella banksiae , a Periconiella species, Satchmopsis australiensis , Tryssglobulus aspergilloides , and a species of Veronaea . [42]

All banksias have developed proteoid or cluster roots in response to the nutrient-poor conditions of Australian soils (particularly lacking in phosphorus). [58] The root system of the suckering forms of Banksia marginata in Victoria and South Australia have a characteristic pattern with a deep tap root, and an extensive system of thick lateral roots 7.5–15 cm (3.0–5.9 in) below the surface. During the winter months, segments around 30 cm (0.98 ft) in length develop vegetative buds capable of forming suckers. [59] Clusters of fine proteoid roots up to 15 cm (5.9 in) long arise from these lateral roots. [60]

A seedling growing in Wombat State Forest displays the serrated juvenile leaves which are larger and broader than adult ones. Banksia marginata seedling WSF.jpg
A seedling growing in Wombat State Forest displays the serrated juvenile leaves which are larger and broader than adult ones.

The response of Banksia marginata to fire is variable. In the Gibraltar Range and Sydney regions, plants are killed by fire and regenerate from seed. [40] [42] They are serotinous, storing their seed in old cones, forming a seedbank in their canopy which is released after bushfire. A field study found that seeds were dispersed short distances (generally 8 m [26 ft] or less), with those closest to the parent plant faring the best. [61] In Little Desert National Park in northwestern Victoria and also eastern South Australia, it grows as a low shrub which suckers (grows shoots from lateral roots) after fire. Plants do not appear to live longer than 25 years; [62] [63] after this time the ageing plants begin to die and are succeeded by younger plants arising from suckers around the parent. [62] A field study in Gippsland found counting the nodes of Banksia marginata plants to be accurate in indicating age within a year up to 21 years since the last fire. There is anecodotal evidence of plants reaching 150 years old in this region. [64] Plant species from communities dependent on fire are thought to self-select to be more flammable; Banksia marginata tested from a dry sclerophyll community in southeastern Tasmania was shown to burn readily, and fire would spread easily through it. [65]

Tasmanian forms are frost tolerant at any time of year, which might explain some of their success in spreading and growing in different habitats around the island. This attribute might have allowed them to survive cold periods in Tasmania during the Pleistocene. [50]

A trial in Western Australia showed Banksia marginata to be mildly sensitive to Phytophthora cinnamomi dieback. [66] At Brisbane Ranges National Park west of Melbourne, which was invaded by Phytophthora cinnamomi in the 1970s, Banksia marginata (along with such species as Grevillea steiglitziana ) was part of a secondary regrowth of understory species after more resistant shrubs such as grasses and sedges had grown back. [67]

Uses

Aboriginal Australian uses

The plant was often used by many indigenous clans and tribes throughout the east coast of Australia.

The sweet nectar from the flowers was sucked or drained by soaking in water and in some cases mixed with some wattle gum to make a sweet lolly.

The wood was also used to make needles and the dried flowers were used to strain the water for drinking. [68]

Timber

The red-hued heartwood is coarse-grained and soft. [69] It is sometimes used for turning, but requires careful drying before use to avoid warping. [70] A sample was prepared in Victoria in 1885 as part of a collection of local timber species under the direction of Government botanist Ferdinand von Mueller. The collection was displayed in various exhibitions, including the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889, and is housed at the Melbourne Museum. [71]

Cultivation

Banksia minimarge Oldes.JPG
Banksia marginata 'Mallacoota Dwarf' 2.jpg
Cultivars 'Mini Marg' (left) and 'Mallacoota Dwarf' (right)

Banksia marginata was first cultivated in England in 1802 (and was also listed as B. australis, B. insularis and B. marcescens). It was grown at Kew, Cambridge Botanic Gardens, Woburn Abbey and private gardens in Chelsea, Hackney and Haringay House. One specimen grown in a glasshouse at Kew was described as a tree 24 feet (7.3 m) high with a trunk girth of two feet (60 cm) at 40 years of age. [72]

B. marginata is generally fairly easy to grow in a well-drained sunny or partly-shaded position in the garden. It can be leggy in shadier positions, or a more compact bushy shrub in full sun . Some varieties from drier areas seem to do poorly in areas of summer humidity. The flowers are not prominent unless they are numerous. [6] Established plants can withstand drought, coastal exposure and temperatures as low as −10 °C (14 °F). [73] Propagation of plants can be by seed or cuttings; the latter is essential if trying to replicate plants of particular habit (such as dwarf specimens). [74] Some Banksia marginata seed of subalpine provenance require stratification, namely keeping at 5 °C (41 °F) for 60 days before germination takes place over 6 to 25 days. Salkin proposed this was necessary so that seed released in a summer or autumn bushfire would lie dormant over the winter months before germinating in the spring. Banksia saxicola and Banksia canei seed also share this trait. [23]

Some dwarf forms have been commercially available in Australian nurseries, although some selections do not maintain their dwarf status in cultivation. [75] Banksia 'Mini Marg' is a small form selected from the northeastern coast of Tasmania which reaches 30 cm (12 in) high and 1 m (3.3 ft) wide. [76] 'Mallacoota Dwarf' was selected from a natural population at Mallacoota, Victoria. [74] Alf Salkin reported a form from Kanangra Walls with a peach-tinged limb as having horticultural potential, as well as a prostrate form from Cape Liptrap in Victoria. [35] Banksia marginata, and the dwarf cultivar 'Mini Marg', have also been used in bonsai. [77] [78]

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Banksia marginata". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. Archived from the original on 2 June 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 George, Alex S. (1999). "Banksia". In Wilson, Annette (ed.). Flora of Australia . Volume 17B: Proteaceae 3: Hakea to Dryandra. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study. pp. 175–251. ISBN   978-0-643-06454-6.
  3. Liber, Cas (2004). "Really big banksias" (PDF). Banksia Study Group Newsletter. 6: 4–5. ISSN   1444-285X. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  4. Salkin, p. 145.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Vaughton, Glenda; Ramsey, Mike. (2006). "Selfed seed set and inbreeding depression in obligate seeding populations of Banksia marginata". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 127: 19–25. ISSN   0370-047X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2012.
  6. 1 2 3 4 George, Alex S. (1996). The Banksia Book (3rd ed.). Kenthurst, New South Wales: Kangaroo Press. p. 58. ISBN   978-0-86417-818-3.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 George, Alex S. (1981). "The Genus Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae)". Nuytsia . 3 (3): 239–473.
  8. Read, Jennifer; Edwards, Cheryl; Sanson, Gordon D.; Aranwela, Nuvan (2000). "Relationships between sclerophylly, leaf biomechanical properties and leaf anatomy in some Australian heath and forest species". Plant Biosystems. 134 (3): 261–77. doi:10.1080/11263500012331350445.
  9. 1 2 3 Holliday, Ivan; Watton, Geoffrey (2008) [1977]. Banksias: A Field and Garden Guide (3rd ed.). Adelaide, South Australia: Australian Plants Society (SA Region). pp. 100–01. ISBN   978-0-9803013-1-1.
  10. Salkin, p. 146.
  11. Salkin, Alf (1977). "The study of seedlings as an indication of species in Banksia". Banksia Study Report (4): 5–8. ISSN   0728-2893.
  12. 1 2 Cunningham, Geoff M.; Mulham, William E.; Milthorpe, Peter L.; Leigh, John H. (1981). Plants of Western New South Wales. Sydney, New South Wales: NSW Government Printing Service. p. 211. ISBN   978-0-7240-2003-4.
  13. Wesson, Sue C. (2001). Aboriginal flora and fauna names of Victoria: As extracted from early surveyors' reports (PDF). Melbourne, Victoria: Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 August 2006. Retrieved 11 November 2006.
  14. 1 2 3 Bagust, Phil; Tout-Smith, Lynda (2005). The Native Plants of Adelaide. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Environment and Heritage, South Australian Government. p. 101. ISBN   978-0-646-44313-3.
  15. King, Phillip Parker (1827). Narrative of a survey of the intertropical and western Coasts of Australia : performed between the years 1818 and 1822. Volume 1. London: John Murray.
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Related Research Articles

<i>Banksia</i> A diverse genus of exquisitely flowered Australian [[Proteaceae]].

Banksia is a genus of around 170 species in the plant family Proteaceae. These Australian wildflowers and popular garden plants are easily recognised by their characteristic flower spikes and fruiting "cones" and heads. Banksias range in size from prostrate woody shrubs to trees up to 30 metres tall. They are found in a wide variety of landscapes; sclerophyll forest, (occasionally) rainforest, shrubland, and some more arid landscapes, though not in Australia's deserts.

<i>Banksia coccinea</i> An erect shrub or small tree in the family Proteaceae native to the south west coast of Western Australia

Banksia coccinea, commonly known as the scarlet banksia, waratah banksia or Albany banksia, is an erect shrub or small tree in the family Proteaceae. The Noongar peoples know the tree as Waddib. Its distribution in the wild is along the south west coast of Western Australia, from Denmark to the Stokes National Park, and north to the Stirling Range, growing on white or grey sand in shrubland, heath or open woodland. Reaching up to 8 m (26 ft) in height, it is a single-stemmed plant that has oblong leaves, which are 3–9 cm (1.2–3.5 in) long and 2–7 cm (0.8–2.8 in) wide. The prominent red and white flower spikes appear mainly in the spring. As they age they develop small follicles that store seeds until opened by fire. Though widely occurring, it is highly sensitive to dieback and large populations of plants have succumbed to the disease.

<i>Banksia integrifolia</i> A tree in the family Proteaceae that grows along the east coast of Australia

Banksia integrifolia, commonly known as coast banksia, is a species of tree that grows along the east coast of Australia. One of the most widely distributed Banksia species, it occurs between Victoria and Central Queensland in a broad range of habitats, from coastal dunes to mountains. It is highly variable in form, but is most often encountered as a tree up to 25 metres (82 ft) in height. Its leaves have dark green upper surfaces and white undersides, a contrast that can be striking on windy days.

<i>Banksia serrata</i> A species of woody shrub or tree of the family Proteaceae native to the east coast of Australia

Banksia serrata, commonly known as old man banksia, saw banksia, saw-tooth banksia and red honeysuckle, is a species of woody shrub or tree of the genus Banksia in the family Proteaceae. Native to the east coast of Australia, it is found from Queensland to Victoria with outlying populations on Tasmania and Flinders Island. Commonly growing as a gnarled tree up to 16 m (50 ft) in height, it can be much smaller in more exposed areas. This Banksia species has wrinkled grey bark, shiny dark green serrated leaves and large yellow or greyish-yellow flower spikes appearing over summer. The flower spikes, or inflorescences, turn grey as they age and pollinated flowers develop into large, grey, woody seed pods called follicles.

<i>Banksia ericifolia</i> A woody shrub of the family Proteaceae native to Australia and found in Central and Northern New South Wales

Banksia ericifolia, the heath-leaved banksia, is a species of woody shrub of the family Proteaceae native to Australia. It grows in two separate regions of Central and Northern New South Wales east of the Great Dividing Range. Well known for its orange or red autumn inflorescences, which contrast with its green fine-leaved heath-like foliage, it is a medium to large shrub that can reach 6 m (20 ft) high and wide, though is usually half that size. In exposed heathlands and coastal areas it is more often 1–2 m (3.3–6.6 ft).

<i>Banksia spinulosa</i> A woody shrub in the family Proteaceae, native to eastern Australia

The hairpin banksia is a species of woody shrub, of the genus Banksia in the family Proteaceae, native to eastern Australia. Widely distributed, it is found as an understorey plant in open dry forest or heathland from Victoria to northern Queensland, generally on sandstone though sometimes also clay soils. It generally grows as a small shrub to 2 metres (7 ft) in height, though can be a straggly tree to 6 metres (20 ft). It has long narrow leaves with inflorescences which can vary considerably in coloration; while the spikes are gold or less commonly yellowish, the emergent styles may be a wide range of colours – from black, purple, red, orange or yellow.

<i>Banksia attenuata</i> A species of plant in the family Proteaceae found across much of the southwest of Western Australia

Banksia attenuata, commonly known as the candlestick banksia, slender banksia or biara as known by the Noongar aboriginal people, is a species of plant in the family Proteaceae. Commonly a tree, it reaches 10 m (33 ft) high, but is often a shrub in drier areas 0.4 to 2 m high. It has long narrow serrated leaves and bright yellow inflorescences, or flower spikes, held above the foliage, which appear in spring and summer. The flower spikes age to grey and swell with the development of the woody follicles. It is found across much of the southwest of Western Australia, from north of Kalbarri National Park down to Cape Leeuwin and across to Fitzgerald River National Park.

<i>Banksia menziesii</i> A flowering plant in the family Proteaceae found in Western Australia

Banksia menziesii, commonly known as firewood banksia, is a species of flowering plant in the genus Banksia. It is a gnarled tree up to 10 m (33 ft) tall, or a lower spreading 1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft) shrub in the more northern parts of its range. The serrated leaves are dull green with new growth a paler grey green. The prominent autumn and winter inflorescences are often two-coloured red or pink and yellow, and their colour has given rise to more unusual common names such as port wine banksia and strawberry banksia. Yellow blooms are rarely seen.

<i>Banksia aculeata</i> A shrub of the family Proteaceae native to the southwest of Western Australia.

Banksia aculeata, commonly known as prickly banksia, is a species of plant of the family Proteaceae native to the Stirling Range in the southwest of Western Australia. A shrub up to 2 m (7 ft) tall, it has dense foliage and leaves with very prickly serrated margins. Its unusual pinkish, pendent (hanging) flower spikes, known as inflorescences, are generally hidden in the foliage and appear during the early summer. Although it was collected by the naturalist James Drummond in the 1840s, Banksia aculeata was not formally described until 1981, by Alex George in his monograph of the genus.

<i>Banksia burdettii</i> Species of shrub in the genus Banksia native to Western Australia

Banksia burdettii, commonly known as Burdett's banksia, is a species of shrub or tree of the genus Banksia in the family Proteaceae. It occurs on sandplain country north of Gingin, Western Australia. Growing to 4 m (13 ft) in height, it has long serrated leaves and large, bright flower spikes, initially white before opening to a bright orange, that appear mainly in late summer. Edmund Gilbert Baker described B. burdettii in 1934, naming it after its collector, W. Burdett. Once established the plant is resistant to both frost and drought, it prefers sun or light shade and well drained soils.

<i>Banksia canei</i> shrub in the family Proteaceae found in subalpine areas of the Great Dividing Range in southeastern Australia.

The mountain banksia is a species of shrub in the plant genus Banksia. It occurs in subalpine areas of the Great Dividing Range between Melbourne and Canberra in southeastern Australia. Although no subspecies are recognised, four topodemes have been described, as there is significant variation in the shape of both adult and juvenile leaves between populations. Although superficially resembling B. marginata, it is more closely related to another subalpine species, B. saxicola.

<i>Banksia media</i> Species of shrub in the genus Banksia native to Western Australia

The southern plains banksia, also known as golden stalk banksia, is a species of shrub in the plant genus Banksia. It occurs on the south coast of Western Australia between Albany and Israelite Bay, where it is a common plant. A many-branched bush with wedge-shaped serrated leaves and large golden-yellow flower spikes, known as inflorescences, it grows up to 10 metres (30 ft) high.

<i>Banksia oblongifolia</i> A flowering plant in the family Proteaceae found along the eastern coast of Australia in New South Wales and Queensland

Banksia oblongifolia, commonly known as the fern-leaved, dwarf or rusty banksia, is a species in the plant genus Banksia. Found along the eastern coast of Australia from Wollongong, New South Wales in the south to Rockhampton, Queensland in the north, it generally grows in sandy soils in heath, open forest or swamp margins and wet areas. A many-stemmed shrub up to 3 m (9.8 ft) high, it has leathery serrated leaves and rusty-coloured new growth. The yellow flower spikes, known as inflorescences, most commonly appear in autumn and early winter. Up to 80 follicles, or seed pods, develop on the spikes after flowering. Banksia oblongifolia resprouts from its woody lignotuber after bushfires, and the seed pods open and release seed when burnt, the seed germinating and growing on burnt ground. Some plants grow between fires from seed shed spontaneously.

<i>Banksia paludosa</i> A shrub in the family Proteaceae native to New South Wales, Australia

Banksia paludosa, commonly known as the marsh or swamp banksia, is a species of shrub in the plant genus Banksia. It is native to New South Wales, Australia, where it is found between Sydney and Batemans Bay, with an isolated population further south around Eden. There are two recognised subspecies, the nominate of which is a spreading shrub to 1.5 m (5 ft) in height, and subsp. astrolux is a taller shrub to 5 m (16 ft) high found only in Nattai National Park.

<i>Banksia plagiocarpa</i> Species of shrub in the genus Banksia native to Queensland

Banksia plagiocarpa, commonly known as the Dallachy's banksia or blue banksia, is a species of shrub or tree in the plant genus Banksia. It occurs only on Hinchinbrook Island, Queensland and the immediately adjacent mainland. First collected in 1867, Banksia plagiocarpa was not described until 1981, when Alex George named it in his monograph of the genus Banksia. Genetic studies show it to be related to Banksia aquilonia, Banksia oblongifolia and Banksia robur.

<i>Banksia saxicola</i> Species of shrub in the genus Banksia native to Victoria (Australia)

Banksia saxicola, commonly known as the rock banksia or Grampians banksia, is a species of tree or shrub in the plant genus Banksia. It occurs in Victoria in two distinct populations, one in The Grampians and the other on Wilsons Promontory. Formerly considered to be a form of B. integrifolia, it was described as a distinct species by Alex George in 1981. It is most closely related to Banksia marginata.

<i>Banksia speciosa</i> A large shrub or small tree in the family Proteaceae found on the south coast of Western Australia

Banksia speciosa, commonly known as the showy banksia, is a species of large shrub or small tree in the family Proteaceae. It occurs on the south coast of Western Australia between Hopetoun (33°57′ S) and the Great Australian Bight, growing on white or grey sand in shrubland. Reaching up to 8 m (26 ft) in height, it is a single-stemmed plant that has thin leaves with prominent triangular "teeth" along each margin, which are 20–45 cm (7.9–17.7 in) long and 2–4 cm (0.8–1.6 in) wide. The prominent cream-yellow flower spikes known as inflorescences appear throughout the year. As they age they develop up to 20 follicles each that store seeds until opened by fire. Banksia speciosa. Though widely occurring, it is highly sensitive to dieback and large populations of plants have succumbed to the disease.

<i>Banksia sessilis</i> A shrub or tree in the family Proteaceae wdespread throughout southwest Western Australia

Banksia sessilis, commonly known as parrot bush, is a species of shrub or tree in the plant genus Banksia in the family Proteaceae. It had been known as Dryandra sessilis until 2007, when the genus Dryandra was sunk into Banksia. The Noongar peoples know the plant as Budjan or Butyak. Widespread throughout southwest Western Australia, it is found on sandy soils over laterite or limestone, often as an understorey plant in open forest, woodland or shrubland. Encountered as a shrub or small tree up to 6 m (20 ft) in height, it has prickly dark green leaves and dome-shaped cream-yellow flowerheads. Flowering from winter through to late spring, it provides a key source of food—both the nectar and the insects it attracts—for honeyeaters in the cooler months, and species diversity is reduced in areas where there is little or no parrot bush occurring. Several species of honeyeater, some species of native bee, and the European honey bee seek out and consume the nectar, while the long-billed black cockatoo and Australian ringneck eat the seed. The life cycle of Banksia sessilis is adapted to regular bushfires. Killed by fire and regenerating by seed afterwards, each shrub generally produces many flowerheads and a massive amount of seed. It can recolonise disturbed areas, and may grow in thickets.

<i>Banksia aquilonia</i> A tree in the family Proteaceae native to north Queensland

Banksia aquilonia, commonly known as the northern banksia, is a tree in the family Proteaceae native to north Queensland on Australia's northeastern coastline. With an average height of 8 m (26 ft), it has narrow glossy green leaves up to 20 cm (7.9 in) long and 6 to 10 cm high pale yellow flower spikes, known as inflorescences, appearing in autumn. As the spikes age, their flowers fall off and they develop up to 50 follicles, each of which contains two seeds.

Robert Brown's taxonomic arrangement of Banksia was published in his book of 1810, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen, and expanded in the supplement to that publication, Supplementum Primum Prodromi Florae Novae Hollandiae, in 1830. It was the first survey of Banksia species to be published, and included descriptions of a number of previously undescribed species.

References