Dhar

Last updated

Dhar
City
District HQ/Municipal Council
Madhya Pradesh districts location map big.svg
Red pog.svg
Dhar
India location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Dhar
Asia laea location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Dhar
Coordinates: 22°35′53″N75°18′14″E / 22.598°N 75.304°E / 22.598; 75.304 Coordinates: 22°35′53″N75°18′14″E / 22.598°N 75.304°E / 22.598; 75.304
Country India
State Madhya Pradesh
District Dhar
Government
  Type Municipal Council
  BodyDhar Municipal Council
Elevation
559 m (1,834 ft)
Population
 (2011)
  Total93,917
Demonym(s) Dharwasi
Languages
  Official Hindi
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registration MP-11
Website www.dhar.nic.in

Dhar is a city located in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh state in India. It is the administrative headquarters of Dhar District, and was the capital of the Rajput Dhar State as Dharanagar from 1732 (previously the Raja had his seat at Multhan from 1728).

Malwa Place in India

Malwa is a historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin. Geologically, the Malwa Plateau generally refers to the volcanic upland north of the Vindhya Range. Politically and administratively, the historical Malwa region includes districts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan. The definition of Malwa is sometimes extended to include the Nimar region south of the Vindhyas.

Madhya Pradesh State in India

Madhya Pradesh is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore, with Gwalior, Jabalpur, Ujjain and Sagar being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India" due to its geographical location, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest Indian state by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 75 million residents. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2. Before 2000, when Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state, Singoli and Konta, was 1500 km. Konta is presently in Sukma district of Chhattisgarh state.

India Country in South Asia

India is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Contents

Location

Lying between 21°57' and 23°15' north, and 74°37' and 75°37' east. Bordered on the north by Ratlam; east by parts of Indore; on the south by Barwani, and on the west by Jhabua and alirajpur The town is located 33 miles (53 km) west of Mhow, 559 m (1,834 ft) above sea level. It is picturesquely situated among lakes and trees surrounded by barren hills, and possesses, besides its old ramparts, many interesting buildings, some of them containing records of cultural, historical and national importance. [1]

Ratlam City in Madhya Pradesh, India

Ratlampronunciation  known historically as Ratnapuri is a city in the northwestern part of the Malwa region in Madhya Pradesh state of India. The city of Ratlam lies 480 metres above sea level. It is the administrative headquarters of Ratlam district, which was created in 1947 after the independence of India.

Indore Metropolis in Madhya Pradesh, India

Indore is the most populous and the largest city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It serves as the headquarters of both Indore District and Indore Division. It is also considered as an education hub of the state and has campuses of both the Indian Institute of Technology and the Indian Institute of Management. Located on the southern edge of Malwa Plateau, at an average altitude of 550 meters (1,800 ft) above sea level, it has the highest elevation among major cities of Central India. The city is 190 km (120 mi) west of the state capital of Bhopal. Indore had a census-estimated 2011 population of 1,994,397 and 2,170,295. The city is distributed over a land area of just 530 square kilometres (200 sq mi), making Indore the most densely populated major city in the central province. It comes under Tier 2 cities in India.

Barwani Town in Madhya Pradesh, India

Barwani is a town and a municipality in Barwani district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. The town is situated near the left bank of the Narmada River, and is the administrative headquarters of Barwani District. It has served as the capital of the former princely state of Barwani. It can be reached by road only. Bawangaja, a Jain pilgrimage place, is 8 km from Barwani.

Historic Places and Monuments

One of few remaining portions of the Paramara-period ramparts at Dhar Ramparts at Dhar, Madhya Pradesh, India.jpg
One of few remaining portions of the Paramāra-period ramparts at Dhār
Plan of the historic parts of Dhar showing disposition of the ramparts and moat Dhar Plan.jpg
Plan of the historic parts of Dhār showing disposition of the ramparts and moat

The most ancient parts of Dhār visible are the massive earthen ramparts which are best preserved on the western and southern sides of the town. These were probably built beginning in the ninth century and show that the city was circular in plan and surrounded by a series of tanks and moats. The layout is similar to the circular city of Warangal in the Deccan. The circular ramparts of Dhār, unique in north India and an important legacy of the Paramāras, is being destroyed by brick-makers and others using the material for construction purposes. On the north-east side of the town, the rampart and moat have disappeared beneath modern homes and other buildings.

Warangal Metropolitan city in Telangana, India

Warangal is one of the two metropolitan cities in the Indian state of Telangana. It is the district headquarters of Warangal Urban District. Warangal is the second most populous city in the state, with the other being state capital, Hyderabad. As of 2011 census of India, it had a population of 753,538 and an area of 471 km2 (182 sq mi). It is one of the eleven cities in the country to have been chosen for the HRIDAY – Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme by the Government of India. It was also selected as a smart city in the "fast-track competition", which makes it eligible for additional investment to improve urban infrastructure and industrial opportunities under the Smart Cities Mission.

Fort

Dhar Fort Dhar Fort, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh 2.jpg
Dhar Fort

The historic parts of the town are dominated by an impressive sandstone fortress on a small hill. It is thought to have been built by Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Sultan of Delhi, probably on the site of the ancient Dhārāgiri mentioned in early sources. [2] One of the gateways, added at a later time, dates to 1684-85 in the time of 'Ālamgīr. [3] Inside the fort is a deep rock-cut cistern, of great age, and a later palace of the Mahārāja of Dhār incorporating an elegant pillared porch of the Mughal period that probably belongs to the mid-seventeenth century. In the palace area is an outdoor museum with a small collection of temple fragments and images dating to medieval times.

Muhammad bin Tughluq 18th Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate and 2nd from the Tughluq dynasty

Mohammad bin Tughluq was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. He was the eldest son of Ghiyas -ud -Din -Tughlaq, the Turko-Indian founder of the Tughluq dynasty. He was born in New Delhi. His wife was the daughter of the Raja of Dipalpur. Ghiyas-ud-din sent the young Muhammad to the Deccan to campaign against king Prataparudra of the Kakatiya dynasty whose capital was at Warangal in 1321 and 1323. Muhammad ascended to the Delhi throne upon his father's death in 1325. He was interested in medicine and was skilled in several languages — Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Sanskrit. Ibn Battuta, the famous traveler and jurist from Morocco, was a guest at his court and wrote about his suzerainty in his book. From his accession to the throne in 1325 until his death in 1351, Muhammad contended with 22 rebellions, pursuing his policies, consistently and ruthlessly.

Tomb of Shaykh Changāl

On the overgrown ramparts of the medieval city, overlooking the old moat, is the tomb of Shaykh ‘Abdullah Shāh Changāl, a warrior saint. The tomb has been rebuilt, but the inscription, now incorporated into the compound gate, is written in Persian and dated 1455. A record of historical interest, it recounts the Shaykh's arrival in Dhār and his conversion of Bhoja to Islām after the local people had committed an atrocity against the small community of Muslims who had settled in the city in the earliest days of Islam. [4] The story does not so much refer to the celebrated Bhoja but to a rising interest in Bhoja's biography in the fifteenth century and the attempts made at that time to appropriate his legacy in Sanskrit and Persian literary sources. [5]

Bhoja Paramara monarch from India and author

Bhoja was an Indian king from the Paramara dynasty. His kingdom was centered around the Malwa region in central India, where his capital Dhara-nagara was located. Bhoja fought wars with nearly all his neighbours in attempts to extend his kingdom, with varying degrees of success. At its zenith, his kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to upper Konkan in the south, and from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east.

Pillar Mosque

Lat Masjid, interior, built in 1405. Lat masjid 1.JPG
Lāṭ Masjid, interior, built in 1405.

The Lat Masjid or 'Pillar Mosque', to the south of the town like the tomb of Shaykh Changāl, was built as the Jami' Mosque by Dilawar Khan in 1405. [6] It derives its name from the iron pillar of Dhar ("lāṭ" in Hindi), which is believed to have been set up in the 11th century. [7] [8] The pillar, which was nearly 13.2 m high according to the most recent assessment, is fallen and broken; the three surviving parts are displayed on a small platform outside the mosque. It carries a later inscription recording a visit of the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1598 while on campaign towards the Deccan. The pillar's original stone footing is also displayed nearby.

Lat Masjid mosque in India

Lat Masjid is a mosque in Dhar town of Madhya Pradesh, India. Named after the Iron pillar of Dhar, it is also known as Lat ki masjid, Ladh Masjid, Lath Masjid, or Jami Masjid of Dhar.

Dilawar Khan Governor of Malwa

Dilawar Khan Ghori was governor of the Malwa province of central India during the decline of the Delhi Sultanate. After serving at the court in Delhi, he was appointed governor at Dhar in A.H. 793/C.E. 1390-91. Dilawar Khan took the title of 'Amid Shāh Dā'ūd and caused the khutba to be read in his name in A.H. 804/C.E. 1401-02. He passed his kingdom – the Malwa Sultanate – to his son Hoshang Shah upon his death in A.H. 809/C.E. 1406.

Akbar third Mughal emperor

Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar, popularly known as Akbar the Great, and also as Akbar I, , was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river. His power and influence, however, extended over the entire subcontinent because of Mughal military, political, cultural, and economic dominance. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. To preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strove to unite far-flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through an Indo-Persian culture, to himself as an emperor who had near-divine status.

Kamāl Maulā Campus

The Kamāl Maulā is a spacious enclosure containing four tombs, the most notable being that of Shaykh Kamāl Maulavi or Kamāl al-Dīn (circa 1238-1330). He was a follower of Farīd al-Dīn Gaṅj-i Shakar (circa 1173-1266, see Fariduddin Ganjshakar) and the Chishti saint Nizamuddin Auliya (1238–1325). Some details about Kamāl al-Dīn are recorded in Muḥammad Ghauthi's Azkar-i Abrar, a reliable hagiography of Sufi saints composed in 1613. [9] The cloak presented to Kamāl al-Dīn by Nizam al-Dīn is still displayed inside the tomb. The custodians of Kamāl al-Dīn's tomb have served in an unbroken lineage for 700 years and are still resident. [10]

Bhoj Shala

The hypostyle hall immediately next the tomb of Kamāl Maula is made of re-cycled temple columns and other architectural parts except for the Mihrab and Minbar which were purpose-built for the monument. It is similar to the Lāṭ Masjid though earlier in date as an inscription of A.H. 795/C.E. 1392 found nearby records repairs by Dilāwar Khān. [11] A Sanskrit and Prakrit inscription from the time of Arjunavarman (circa 1210-15) was found in the walls of the building in 1903 by K. K. Lele, Superintendent of Education in the Princely State of Dhār. The engraved inscription is displayed inside the entrance. The text includes part of a drama called Vijayaśrīnāṭikā composed by Madana, the king's preceptor who also bore the title 'Bālasarasvatī'. [12] The other inscribed tablets noted by Lele included a large tablet inscribed with the Kūrmaśataka—verses in praise of the Kūrma incarnation of Viṣṇu—and a serpentine inscription giving grammatical rules of the Sanskrit language. The finds, particularly the grammatical inscription, prompted Lele to describe the building as the Bhoj Shala or 'Hall of Bhoja', because King Bhoja (circa 1000-55) was the author of a number of works on poetics and grammar, among them the Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa or 'Necklace of Sarasvatī'. [13] The term 'Bhoj Shala' was first published by Luard in 1908. [14] The subsequent controversy surrounding the building and its identity is discussed under Bhoj Shala.

City Palace, built in 1875 City Palace PP.jpg
City Palace, built in 1875

Cenotaphs and Old City Palace

Goddess Ambika found on the site of the Old City Palace and now in the British Museum Goddess Ambika from Dhar.JPG
Goddess Ambikā found on the site of the Old City Palace and now in the British Museum

The old city palace of the Puar (Pawar) clan, a branch of the Marathas, is now used as a school. It is a modest building put up in the late 19th century around 1875. A marble statue of the Jain goddess Ambikā, found in 1875 on the site of the palace is now in the British Museum. [16] Of the same period as the palace are a collection of domed cenotaphs of the Powar rulers on the edge of the large tank known as Muñj Talab. The name of the tank probably derives from Vākpati Muñja, the 10th century Paramāra king who first entered Mālwa and made Ujjain his main seat. [17]

Agency House in 2010 Agency House 2010.jpg
Agency House in 2010

Museum

A number of sculptures and antiquities from Dhār and its neighborhood are kept in the local museum, a utilitarian stone building in the British style of the late 19th century. The most important pieces from the collection have been moved to Mandu where the Department of Archaeology, Museums and Archives has created a new museum with a wide range of displays.

Agency House

Another colonial building at Dhār, located outside the old town on the road to Indore, is Agency House. It was built by the Public Works Department and was the centre of the administration of Dhar State and the Central India Agency. [18] The building has been abandoned and is now in ruins.

Jheera Bagh

Jheera Bagh Palace, renovated 1940s Jheera Bagh Dhar PP.jpg
Jheera Bagh Palace, renovated 1940s

Outside the town, off the road to Māṇḍū, the Powars, built a palace at Hazīra Bāgh from the 1860s. Known as the Jheera Bāgh Palace and now run as a heritage hotel, the complex was renovated by Mahārāja Anand Rao Pawar IV in the 1940s. Graciously designed in an unpretentious art deco style, it is one of the most elegant and forward-looking examples of early modern architecture in North India.

Political history

The town of Dhār, the name of which is usually derived from Dhārā Nagara ('city of sword blades'), is of considerable antiquity, [1] the first reference to it appearing in an inscription from Jaunpur belonging to the Maukhari dynasty. [19] Despite this sixth century reference, Dhār only rose to historical prominence when it was made the seat of the Paramara chiefs of Malwa by Vairisiṃha (circa 920-45 CE). He appears to have transferred his headquarters hither from Ujjain. During the rule of the Paramāras, Dhār became famous throughout India as a centre of culture and learning, [1] especially under king Bhoja (circa 1000-1055). The wealth and splendor of Dhār drew the attention of competing dynasties during the 11th century. The Cāḷukyas of Kalyāṇa under Someśvara I (circa CE 1042-68) captured and burnt the city, occupying also Māṇḍū (ancient Māṇḍava). [20] Slightly later Dhār was sacked by the Cāḷukyas of Gujarāt under Siddharāja. [21] The devastation and political fragmentation caused by these wars meant that no significant opposition was offered when Sultān of Delhi, Ala ud din Khilji dispatched an army to Mālwa in the early 14th century. The region was annexed to Delhi and Dhār made the capital of the province under 'Ayn al-Mulk Mūltānī. He served as governor until 1313. [22] Events during the following seventy years are unclear, but some time in A.H. 793/C.E. 1390-91 Dilawar Khan was appointed muqṭi' of Dhār (and so governor of Mālwa) by Sulṭān Muḥammad Shāh. [23] Dilāwar Khān took the title 'Amīd Shāh Dā'ūd and caused the khutba to be read in his name in A.H. 804/C.E. 1401-02, thereby establishing himself as an independent sulṭān. [24] On his death in 1406, his son Hoshang Shah became king with his capital at Māṇḍū. Subsequently, in the time of Akbar, Dhār fell under the dominion of the Mughals, in whose hands it remained till 1730, when it was conquered by the Marathas. [1]

In late 1723, Bajirao at the head of a large army and accompanied by his trusted lieutenants, Malharrao Holkar, Ranoji Shinde (Scindia) and Udaji Rao Pawar, swept through Malwa. A few years earlier the Mughal Emperor had been forced to give the Marathas the right to collect chauth taxes in Malwa and Gujarat. This levy added much value to the Marathas, as both the king Shahu and his Peshwa, Bajirao, were ear-deep in debt. The revenues they collected from their own lands were not sufficient to run the administration of the state and finance their large military expenditure. The Marathas lived by the sword and trade was alien to them. Agriculture in the Deccan depended heavily on the timeliness and sufficiency of the monsoons. The most important source of money were therefore the chauth (a 25% tax on produce) and sardeshmukhi (a ten percent surcharge) exacted by the Marathas. The Maratha armies defeated the Mughal governor and attacked the capital Ujjain. Bajirao established military outposts in the country as far north as Bundelkhand.

Towards the close of the 18th and in the early part of the 19th century, the state was subject to a series of spoliations by Scindia of Gwalior and Holkar of Indore, (descendants of Ranoji Scindia and Malharao Holkar). It was only preserved from annihilation by the talents and courage of the adoptive mother of the fifth raja.

Dhar State

After the Third Anglo-Maratha War, of 1818, Dhar passed under British rule. Dhar State became a princely state of British India, in the Bhopawar Agency of the Central India Agency. It included many Rajput and Bhil feudatories, and had an area of 1,775 square miles (4,600 km2). The state was confiscated by the British in the Revolt of 1857, but in 1860 was restored to Raja Anand Rao III Pawar, then a minor, with the exception of the detached district of Bairusia, which was granted to the Begum of Bhopal. Anand Rao, who received the personal title Maharaja and the KCSI in 1877, died in 1898; he was succeeded by Udaji Rao II Pawar. [1]

Dhar Thikanas

A separate department to superintend Thakurs and Bhumias, Entitled "Department of Thakurans, Bhumian and Thikanejat" was established in 1921, at which time there were 22 such estates in Dhar State.

The nobles of Dhar holding jagir lands (feudatory estates), all of whom paid tribute to the Darbar, were divided between Thakurs and Bhumias.

The Thakurs with one exception were Rajput landholders whose estates were located in the north of the state. Locally, the Thakurs were styled Talukdars and their holdings called kothari. By caste there were 8 Rathor Rajputs, one Pawar and one Kayasth.

The Bhumias or "Allodial" Chiefs were all Bhilalas, a clan claiming mixed tribal Bhil people and Rajput (Chauhan) descent. Their grants were originally obtained from the Darbar on the understanding that they kept the peace among the Bhils and other wild hill tribes. They paid yearly tribute to the Darbar, while some received cash allowances (Bhet-Ghugri), an ancient feudal custom which has its origins in blackmail.abc

Political Representation and Royal Legacy

Bhartiya Janata Party politician Neena Vikram Verma serves as a Member of the Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly for Dhar Vidhan Sabha Constituency. [25]

In 2019 Chattar Singh Darbar of Bharatiya Janata Party had been elected as the Member of Parliament from Dhar constituency. [26]

Maharaja Shrimant Hemendra Singh Rao Pawar is present titular head of the Kshatriya Maratha-Rajput Pawar(Puar/Parmar) dynasty of Dhar State. [27] [28] [29] [30] [31]

HH Maharaja Shrimant Hemendra Singh Rao Pawar of Dhar State seated on the 'Gadi' of the Kshatriya Maratha-Rajput Pawar (Puar/Parmar) Clan. The coronation of the 12th Maharaja of Dhar State was solemnised on 15 January 2015 at the 'Rajwada' (Old Palace) of Dhar. HH Maharaja Shrimant Hemendra Singh Rao Pawar of Dhar State.jpg
HH Maharaja Shrimant Hemendra Singh Rao Pawar of Dhar State seated on the 'Gadi' of the Kshatriya Maratha-Rajput Pawar (Puar/Parmar) Clan. The coronation of the 12th Maharaja of Dhar State was solemnised on 15 January 2015 at the 'Rajwada' (Old Palace) of Dhar.

Demographics

As of 2001 India census, [32] Dhar had a population of 75,472. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Dhar has an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 76% and, female literacy is 63%. In Dhar, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Religion in Dhar
ReligionPercent
Hindus
60.00%
Sikhs
25.00%
Muslims
14.50%
Christians
0.50%
Distribution of religions

Postal information

In 1897 primitive stamps with entirely native text. The second definitive issue bore the name "DHAR STATE" in Latin script; a total of 8 stamps. Since 1901 Indian stamps have been in use.

Amusement and festivals

Dhar district has been on the cultural map of India since time immemorial. People used to engage themselves in fine arts such as painting, sculpture, music, and dancing. India's 2nd dinosaur remains park is set up by the Government in Dhar showing the dinosaur eggs and its remains.

Many of the Bagh cave paintings of the Gupta period have now been destroyed but whatever remain tell us about the high attainment during that period. There is a painting regarding music and dance, which is an example of the oriental Hallisak dance. The depiction of nature in its affluent forms, together with male and female figures in various emotional poses is the treasure of these caves. The construction of magnificent buildings, forts, temples, mosques, etc., during the medieval period at Dhar, Mandu and the surroundings indicate the engagements and amusements of the people of those days.

Young people draw inspiration from the famous love story of Baaz-Bahadur and Roopmati. In literature, music, dance, painting and sculpture Dhar has a very rich heritage.

During the middle of the 16th century, the science of music had attained considerable perfection in Malwa and it is said that Baaz Bahadur devoted himself to its cultivation and encouragement.[ citation needed ] His attachment to Rani Roopmati at that time become famous and the "Loves of Baaz Bahadur and Roopmati" have been handed down to posterity in song.[ citation needed ]

In rural areas, community bhajan singing at the village chaupals in the night with the accompaniment of harmonium (peti) mridang, tabala, dholak-manjire, mandal, zanch, kundi, thali, payli and dhak is the most common amusement. Vasant Pnchmi, Maha Shivaratri, Holi, Ramnavmi, Raksha-Bandhan, Nag-Panchmi, Janmashtami, Ganesh Chaturthi, Anant Chaturdashi, Sarva Pitri Amavsya, dusshera, Deepawali, Dol Gyaras, Hanuman Jayanti, etc., are celebrated with great religious zeal and enthusiasm by the Hindus Shradha Paksha (fortnight) is celebrated from poornima of Bhadra to amavasya Kunwar.

Festivals of Muslims include muharram, Id, Miladunabi, etc., which they celebrate with their traditional gaiety.[ citation needed ]

Christians celebrate Christmas and Good Friday and Jains, Mahavir Jayanti and Paryooshan etc. In some castes, Radeoji and Tejaji are worshipped once in a year on their jayantis and their respective kathas are performed. The dates of celebration are different in the various tahsils.

Pilgrim centres and Jatras

There are many religious places scattered throughout the district where people congregate at annual fairs arranged on auspicious occasions.

Dhar district has 8 tahsils inclucing Dhar itself, namely Badnawar, Sardarpur, Dhar, Dharampuri and Manawar, Gandhwani, Kukshi and Dhar.

Koteshwar, Khakrol and Badnawar are located in Badnawar tahsil; Bhopawar, Sagwal and Amjhera are located in Sardarpur tahsil; Mandu, Kesur Dhar and Sagor are located in Dhar tahsil; Lingwa and Kotda in Kukshi tahsil, Dhamnod in Dharampuri tahsil, Manawar, Bakaner and Singhana in Manawar tehsil, are a few out of a total about 40 such pilgrim centres.

Hanuman jayanti and Shivratri respectively attract thousands of pilgrims from the interiors of the District and outside, to the places of worship where special worship is offered to the concerned deities.

Gal and Biyabani Yatra, Shantinathji ka Mela, Tejaji ka Mela, Ambikaji ka Mela, Urs Kamal-ud-din and Gular Shah Urs attract thousands of followers.

Mother goddess in various forms is worshipped with special reverence. Ambika Devi (Dhar and Dhammod) Mangala Devi (Manawar) Shitalamata Devi (Bakaner) Harsiddhi Mata (Singhana) and Jagni Mata (Jhiriya pura), are a few examples.

Mandu is the place where Jehangir came and stayed with Nur Jehan. He was accompanied by Sir Thomas Roe, the English ambassador. Jehangir wrote "I know of no place so pleasant in climate and so pretty in scenery as Mandu in the rainy season. Shah Jahan too spent the rainy season of the year 1622 in Mandu. The Ram Navami fair is organised here by the mahant of the temple on Chaitra Sudi (March/April), in which thousands of people participate."

Notable natives

Baji Rao II, the last of the Peshwas, was born in Dhar. [33]

District Archeological Museum, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh District Archeological Museum, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh.jpg
District Archeological Museum, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh
Kharbuza Mahal at Dhar Fort Kharbuza Mahal, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh.jpg
Kharbuza Mahal at Dhar Fort
Kharbuza Mahal at Dhar Fort Kharbuza Mahal, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh 3.jpg
Kharbuza Mahal at Dhar Fort
Kharbuza Mahal at Dhar Fort Kharbuza Mahal, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh 4.jpg
Kharbuza Mahal at Dhar Fort
Entire view of Bawari (Water Source at the Dhar Fort) Dhar Fort, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh 5.jpg
Entire view of Bawari (Water Source at the Dhar Fort)
Entrance view from inside, Dhar Fort Dhar Fort, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh 4.jpg
Entrance view from inside, Dhar Fort
Outer view of Dhar Fort Dhar Fort, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh 3.jpg
Outer view of Dhar Fort
Dhar Fort Dhar Fort, Dhar, Madhya Pradesh 7.jpg
Dhar Fort

See also

Related Research Articles

Mandu, Madhya Pradesh town in Madhya Pradesh, India

Mandu or Mandavgad is an ancient city in the present-day Mandav area of the Dhar district. It is located in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh, India, at 35 km from Dhar city. In the 11th century, Mandu was the sub division of the Tarangagadh or Taranga kingdom. This fortress town on a rocky outcrop about 100 km (62 mi) from Indore is celebrated for its architecture.

Mandsaur City in Madhya Pradesh, India

Mandsaur or Mandsour is a city in the Malwa region and district of Madhya Pradesh state of central India. It is the administrative headquarters of Mandsaur District. The ancient Pashupatinath Temple is located in Mandsaur.

Pawar is a clan or caste. It is also an Indian surname. Pawar Surname is found among the Maratha clans that claim Rajput origin. It is also found among Punjabis. Panwar is also a clan among Chhetri clan of Nepal. Sardar Bhakti Thapa a war commander at Anglo-Nepalese war, belonged to the Punwar Thapa clan.

Barwaha Town in Madhya Pradesh, India

Barwaha is a municipality in Khargone district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. The Barwaha town is divided into 18 wards for which elections are held every 5 years. The Barwaha Municipality has population of 39,973 of which 20,940 are males while 19,033 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. Literacy rate of Barwaha is 87.27% higher than state average of 69.32%. In Barwaha, Male literacy is around 92.73% while female literacy rate is 81.23%.

Dharampuri Town in Madhya Pradesh, India

Dharampuri is a town and headquarters of a tehsil in Dhar district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is situated on banks of river Narmada. It is a place of some historical and archaeological interest.

Mandav city in Madhya Pradesh, India

Mandav is a town and a nagar panchayat in Dhar district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

Puar may refer to:

Malwa Sultanate sultanate

The Malwa Sultanate was a late medieval kingdom presumably of Turkic origin, in the Malwa region of the present day Madhya Pradesh state in India in 1392–1562.

Daly College Coeducational residential and day boarding school located in Indore, India

The Daly College is a co-educational residential and day boarding school located in Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India. It was founded by Sir Henry Daly of the British Indian Army during India's colonial British Raj. The school started in 1870 as the Residency School. It was then renamed as the East Rajkumar College in 1876, and in 1882, it came to be known as The Daly College. It was established by the Resident Governor of the erstwhile Presidency, to educate the children of the royalty, nobility and aristocracy of Central Indian Princely States of the 'Marathas', 'Rajputs', 'Mohameddans' and 'Bundelas'. It is one of the oldest co-educational boarding schools in the world.

Dhar State

Dhar State was a princely state of British Raj. It was a salute state in the colonial sway of the Central India Agency. Dhar began as one of the states during Maratha dominance in India about 1730. In 1941 it had an area of 1,798 square miles (4,660 km2) and a population of 253,210. Dhar(anagar) was the capital of the state since 1732. In 1948 it became part of Madhya Bharat.

History of Madhya Pradesh History of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh

The history of the Indian state Madhya Pradesh is divided into three periods. During the ancient period, the region was dominated by the Nanda, Maurya, and Gupta Empires.

Paramara dynasty 10th-14th century dynasty of Malwa in central India

The Paramara dynasty was an Indian dynasty that ruled Malwa and surrounding areas in west-central India between 9th and 14th centuries. The medieval bardic literature classifies them among the Agnivanshi Rajput dynasties.

Mandsaur Fort human settlement in India

Mandsaur Fort, also known as Dashpur fort, is situated in Mandsaur city in Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh state of India.

Bhojshala

The Bhojshala is located in Dhar, Madhya Pradesh, India. It is the site of the early 11th century centre for Sanskrit studies and temple of Sarasvatī – the Hindu goddess of learning, music and arts – located in the hall's precincts. Bhojshala is attributed to celebrated King Bhoja of the Paramāra dynasty of central India, a great patron of education and arts, and to whom major Hindu Sanskrit works on poetics, yoga and architecture are attributed. The term Bhojashala became linked to a later era mosque and tombs that exist immediately next to it, an association that started in the early 20th century, though the Islamic structures were built between the 14th and 15th century.

Kampel, Indore village in Madhya Pradesh, India

Kampel is a panchayat village in the Indore block of the Indore district, Madhya Pradesh, India. It was the headquarters of a pargana in Mughal Empire before the administrative center of the region was shifted to Indore city under the Holkars of the Maratha Empire. In this region mostly Khati people live.

Hemendra Singh Rao Pawar

Hemendra Singh Rao Pawar, is the present titular Maharaja of Dhar State. He is a descendant of the Pawar (Puar/Parmar) dynasty that ruled Dhar State. He was crowned as the Maharaja of Dhar State on 15 January 2015 at the Dhar Rajwada . Such a ceremony was last held on 1 August 1926 when the late Col. HH Maharaja Anand Rao IV Pawar ascended the Gadi of the Maratha Puars-Pawars (Parmars) of Dhar State.

Dhar iron pillar

The Dhar iron pillar is a now-fragmented iron column located in the Dhar town of Madhya Pradesh, India. The exact origins of the pillar are unknown, but according to the local tradition, it was a victory column erected by the 11th century Paramara king Bhoja.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Dhar". Encyclopædia Britannica . 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 142.
  2. K. K. Lele, in Dikshit, Pārijātamañjarī, p. xxi, n. 1,
  3. Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy (1971-72): 81, no. D. 72.
  4. G. H. Yazdani, ‘The Inscription on the Tomb of ‘Abdullah Shāh Changāl at Dhār’ Epigraphica Indo-Moslemica (1909-10): 1-5; now translated and reinterpreted in Golzadeh, Razieh B. (2012). "On Becoming Muslim in the City of Swords: Bhoja and Shaykh Changāl at Dhār". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 22 (1): 115–27. doi:10.1017/S1356186311000885.
  5. The point made in Golzadeh, Razieh B. (2012). "On Becoming Muslim in the City of Swords: Bhoja and Shaykh Changāl at Dhār". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 22 (1): 115–27. doi:10.1017/s1356186311000885.
  6. Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy (1971-72): 81, no. D. 73
  7. Smith, V. A. "The Iron Pillar of Dhār". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1898: 143–46.
  8. Ray, Amitava; Dhua, S. K.; Prasad, R. R.; Jha, S.; Banerjee, S. (1997). "The ancient 11th century iron pillar at Dhar, India: a microstructural insight into material characteristics". Journal of Materials Science Letters. 16 (5): 371–375. doi:10.1023/A:1018550529070.
  9. Muḥammad Ghauthi Mandawi, Azkar-i abrar, Urdu Tarjuma-i Gulzar-i Abrar, trans. Fazl Ahmad Jewari [Urdu lithograph] (Agra: Matba`-i Mufid-i `Amm, 1326/1908, reprint ed., Lahore: Islamic Book Foundation, 1395/1975): 581.
  10. The key modern works in Rām Sevak Garg, Hazrat maulānā kamāluddīn ciśtī rah. aur unkā yug (Bhopāl, 2005).
  11. Luard, Dhar and Mandu (Bombay, 1916): 9; U. N. Day, Medieval Malwa (Delhi, 1969): 15, n. 2.
  12. S. K. Dikshit, ed., Pārijātamañjarī alias Vijayaśrī by Rāja-Guru Madana alias Bāla-Sarasvatī (Bhopal, 1968).
  13. R. Birwé, ‘Nārāyaṇa Daṇḍanātha's Commentary on Rules III.2, 106-121 of Bhoja's Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 1964; 84: 150-62.
  14. C. E. Luard, Western States (Mālwā). Gazetteer, 2 parts. The Central India State Gazetteer Series, vol. 5 (Bombay, 1908): part A, pp. 494-500; also Luard, Dhar and Mandu, p. 9
  15. British Museum Collection
  16. Kirit Mankodi, ‘A Paramāra Sculpture in the British Museum: Vāgdevī or Yakshī Ambikā?’, Sambodhi 9 (1980-81): 96-103.
  17. H. V. Trivedi, Inscriptions of the Paramāras, Chandellas, Kachchhapaghātas and Two Minor Dynasties, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, volume 7 (New Delhi, 1978-91): 9.
  18. The only documentation is here: Agency House
  19. J. F. Fleet, Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings and their Successors, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, vol. 3 (Calcutta, 1888): 228 (line 6). Hans T. Bakker, 'The So-Called Jaunpur Inscription of Īśvaravarman', Indo-Iran Journal 2009; 50: 207-16 shows that inscription belongs not to Īśvaravarman but to Īśānavarman or one of his successors. Online abstract: http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/10.1163/001972409x12525778274224
  20. G. Yazdani, ed., The Early History of the Deccan, 2 vols. (London, 1960) 1: 331 according to the Nander inscription (dated CE 1047) and Nāgai inscription (dated CE 1058).
  21. A. K. Majumdar, Chalukyas of Gujarat (Bombay, 1956): 72-3.
  22. Iqtidar Husain Siddiqui, Authority and Kingship under the Sultans of Delhi (Delhi, 2006): 283-84.
  23. Day, Medieval Malwa, p. 13.
  24. Day, Medieval Malwa, p. 21.
  25. "Madhya Pradesh Pollmeter: Never too late". The Hindu . 5 November 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  26. "Dhar Election Results 2019 Live Updates: ChattarSingh Darbar of BJP Wins". News18. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  27. http://www.hindustantimes.com/madhyapradesh/hemendra-singh-puar-is-head-of-erstwhile-princely-state-of-dhar/article1-1307225.aspx
  28. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/indore/Hemendra-Puar-to-be-new-Dhar-maharaja/articleshow/45893428.cms
  29. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/indore/administration-to-remove-seal-on-dhar-royal-estates-on-hc-orders/articleshow/48211141.cms?from=mdr
  31. Solomon, R. V.; Bond, J. W. (2006). Indian States: A Biographical, Historical, and Administrative Survey. ISBN   9788120619654.
  32. "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  33. Columbia-Lippincott Gazetteer p. 510