Border crossing at Naco
|• Total||651.8 km2 (251.7 sq mi)|
|Elevation(of seat)||1,408 m (4,619 ft)|
|Population (2010) Municipality|
|Time zone||UTC-7 (Pacific (US Mountain))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-7 (No DST)|
|Website||(in Spanish) /Official site|
Naco is a Mexican town in Naco Municipality located in the northeast part of Sonora state on the border with the United States. It is directly across from the unincorporated town of Naco, Arizona.The name Naco comes from the Opata language and means pricky pear cactus. The town saw fighting during the Mexican Revolution and during a rebellion led by General José Gonzalo Escobar in 1929. During the second conflict, an American pilot by the name of Patrick Murphy volunteered to bomb federal forces for the rebels, but mistakenly bombed Naco, Arizona, instead. Today, the town has been strongly affected by the smuggling of drugs, people and weapons across the international border.
Naco Municipality is a municipality in Sonora in north-western Mexico.
Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.
Naco, a Census-Designated Place (CDP) located in Cochise County, Arizona, United States had a recorded population of 1,046 during the 2010 census. It's located directly across the United States–Mexico border from its sister city Naco, Sonora. Naco is best known for an accidental 1929 air raid and is the first and only municipality in the Continental United States to have been aerially bombed by foreigners.
Before the arrival of Europeans, the area was dominated by the Opata peoples.Naco, Sonora, along with Naco, Arizona, came into being in 1897 as a border crossing to connect copper mines on both sides. Naco, Sonora, was officially founded in 1900 with the construction of the Naco-Cananea rail line. Until 1901, the area was part of the municipality of Fronteras, then part of the municipality of Cananea. It became an independent municipality in 1937.
Cananea is a city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora, Northwestern Mexico. It is the seat of the Municipality of Cananea, on the U.S−Mexico border.
Fronteras is the seat of Fronteras Municipality in the northeastern part of the Mexican state of Sonora. Frontera translates as Border. The elevation is 1,120 meters and neighboring municipalities are Agua Prieta, Nacozari and Bacoachi. The area is 2839.62 km², which represents 1.53% of the state total.
There was a major miners’ strike in Naco in 1906, which is seen as a precursor to the Mexican Revolution in 1910. The instability from this strike resulted in troops on both sides of the border facing each other.During the Mexican Revolution, the town would change hands various times. At stake was the revenue from the custom’s house and when Arizona voted itself dry in 1915, revenue from the saloons that cropped up. One of the major battles occurred in 1913. General Ojeda, who was in command of Mexican federal troops in Sonora, moved this force of Yaquis and regular army soldiers from Agua Prieta to Naco as rebel forces closed in on 12 March. Ojeda fought against the rebels from his Naco base for a number of days before the Yaquis decided to cross the border into the U.S. and surrender. Ojeda continued to fight with the men he had left but eventually the rebels overran Naco on 13 April, with Ojeda and the rest of his men also crossing the border to escape.
The Battle of Naco, or the First Battle of Naco due to a later siege was a battle of the Mexican Revolution between Constitutionalist forces and Mexican government forces. Rebel forces under General Alvaro Obregon defeated the Mexican Army garrison and captured Naco, Sonora.
Agua Prieta is a town in Agua Prieta Municipality in the northeastern corner of the Mexican state of Sonora. It stands on the Mexico–U.S. border, adjacent to the town of Douglas, Arizona. The municipality covers an area of 3,631.65 km². In the 2010 census the town had a population of 79,138 people, making it the seventh-largest community in the state, and a literacy rate of 96.3%. 89% of the homes in the city have electricity, 94% have running water, and 86% are connected to the sewer system. The city's most important economic activities, in descending order, are industry, commerce and farming. The city is the location of the CFE Agua Prieta power plant.
A more important confrontation took place here called the Siege of Naco. The siege was the longest sustained battle of the Mexican Revolution lasting 119 days from 1914 to 1915. The conflict directly or indirectly involved or affected all of the major players of the Revolution and affected the final outcome of the conflict. The battle was fought between forces loyal to Francisco Villa (called Villistas) and forces loyal to the Constitutionalist faction of Venustiano Carranza and Alvaro Obregón. The battle was prompted by Governor José María Maytorena’s decision to challenge Constitutionalist forces under command of Plutarco Elías Calles in Sonora for control of this state in the fall of 1914. Maytorena’s forces attacked Calles’ forces in Nogales and forced them to retreat to Naco. Here the Constitutionalists dug in and Maytorena began a siege, trying to overrun Naco’s defenses for nearly four months. The protracted conflict claimed heavy losses on both side and property damage to Naco, Arizona, prompting fears of US citizens violating federal neutrality laws. Extra troops were sent to nearby Fort Huachuca to protect U.S. interests,with cavalry regiments placed along the border to make sure the fighting did not spill across it. This resulted in several cavalry soldiers being wounded by stray bullets. U.S. Army Chief of Staff Hugh L. Scott was sent to broker a truce, and succeeded with the signing of the Treaty of Naco on 15 January 1915.
The Siege of Naco was a major battle fought in the border town of Naco, Sonora, Mexico, between March 31 and April 6, 1929, during the Escobar Rebellion. Following their capture of Cananea in 1928 and the drafting of the "Plan of Hermosillo", rebel forces under the command of General José Gonzalo Escobar occupied Agua Prieta and from there moved to take control of Naco, which at the time was a small, dusty village opposite of Naco, Arizona, occupied by government forces loyal to President Emilio Portes Gil. The rebels hoped to fund the revolution using the revenue generated by Naco and Agua Prieta, where there was a significant amount of public support for their cause.
Venustiano Carranza Garza was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutionalist Army defeated the counter-revolutionary regime of Victoriano Huerta and then defeated fellow revolutionaries after Huerta's ouster. He secured power in Mexico, serving as head of state from 1915–1917. With the promulgation of a new revolutionary Mexican Constitution of 1917, he was elected president, serving from 1917 to 1920.
Plutarco Elías Calles was a Mexican general and politician. He was the powerful interior minister under President Álvaro Obregón, who chose Calles as his successor. The 1924 Calles presidential campaign was the first populist presidential campaign in the nation's history, as he called for land redistribution and promised equal justice, more education, additional labor rights, and democratic governance. Calles indeed tried to fulfill his promises during his populist phase (1924–26) but later entered a State atheism phase (1926–28). After leaving office he continued to be the dominant leader from 1928 to 1935, a period known as the Maximato, named after the title Calles gave himself as "Jefe Máximo" of the Revolution.
During the 1920s, with the Arizona side remaining dry due to Prohibition, Naco made money off of saloons and gambling, giving it a seedy reputation.
Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.
In early 1929, José Gonzalo Escobar led a rebellion against the government of Emilio Portes Gil. Mexican federal troops dug in around Naco and were almost under constant attack by the rebels. The battles became something of a spectator sport on the Arizona side of the border with people coming from as far as Bisbee to watch. While the occasional stray bullet would send these spectators towards cover, both sides in the conflict were careful as they did not want U.S. Armed Forces coming across the border to retaliate.
Emilio Cándido Portes Gil was President of Mexico from 1928 to 1930, one of three to serve out the six-year term of president-elect General Álvaro Obregón, who was assassinated in 1928. Since the Mexican Constitution of 1917 forbade re-election of a serving president, the out-going president Plutarco Elías Calles could not formally become president. Portes Gil became president, but Calles, the "Jefe Máximo", retained effective political power during what is known as the Maximato.
Bisbee is a town in Cochise County, Arizona, USA, 92 miles (148 km) southeast of Tucson. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town was 5,575. The town is the county seat of Cochise County.
Patrick Murphy was an aviator who owned his own bi-winged airplane and performed tricks with it. Murphy decided to help the rebels by offering to build homemade bombs and drop them on federal positions. His offer was accepted by the rebels, who promised a reward. The bombs were made by filling pipes with dynamite, scrap iron, nails and bolts then putting the pipes in old leather suitcases. Murphy made two attempts on 31 March and 1 April but the bombs failed to explode. A third bomb hit the customs house, spraying spectators on the Arizona side of the border. Murphy made four more bombs which were dropped between 4 and 6 April. The first hit a trench, killing two federal soldiers, but the other three landed on the Arizona side of the border, hitting various buildings in Naco, Arizona. The next day, U.S. government troops arrived and disabled Murphy’s plane. Murphy escaped to Mexican rebel lines and crossed back to the U.S. when the rebellion ended, and was briefly jailed for his violation of neutrality laws. Murphy was the first person working for a foreign entity to bomb U.S. soil.At 2:30 A.M., October 21, 1974, President Luis Echeverría took a moonlight walking tour of Naco, which concluded with his promise of industry, money, construction, and welfare for the impoverished town.
Naco has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk) moderated by its altitude. 16 °C (60.8 °F) and cold temperatures during the night, averaging 1 °C (33.8 °F). Frosts are common in winter and the municipality receives 2 days with snow per year. Summers are hot with a July high of 33.5 °C (92.3 °F) and a low of 18.9 °C (66.0 °F) but temperatures can exceed 40 °C (104.0 °F) on some days. Precipitation is low, averaging 350.7 millimetres (14 in) but it is more common during the summer months during the monsoon when humid air from the Gulf of California comes in. The record high was 45.0 °C (113.0 °F) on June 15, 1990 and the record low was −18.0 °C (−0.4 °F) on December 8, 1978.Winters are cool and sunny with mild temperatures during the day, averaging
|Climate data for Naco, Sonora|
|Record high °C (°F)||36.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||16.1|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||8.6|
|Average low °C (°F)||1.2|
|Record low °C (°F)||−11.0|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||21.5|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.9||2.4||1.9||1.0||1.2||1.7||9.4||8.5||4.0||2.8||2.1||3.1||41.0|
|Average snowy days||0.36||0.18||0.40||0.10||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.11||0.80||1.95|
|Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico National|
|Source #2: Colegio de Postgraduados (snowy days)|
Today, the town layout is based on two principal north-south avenues and 12 smaller east-west streets. Only the two avenues are fully paved.In the capital of Hermosillo, Naco is called “un pueblo chico, olvidado de Dios” (A small village forgotten by God). Due to the fighting in the first half of the 20th century, almost every old house in Naco has holes from gun battles. The Naco Hotel, with its meter-thick mud walls, used to advertise its bulletproof rooms.
The border crossing at Naco is open 24 hours a day, permits for foreign cars are available Friday thru Sunday.Naco’s downtown is small but it is popular with southern Arizona residents who come here to buy prescription medications, food, alcoholic beverages and crafts such as pottery, sombreros, piñatas, glassware, leather, clothing and other items. Many products are sold in open-air markets, which have a reputation for counterfeit products. There are also about eighty established business that cater to both locals and Arizona residents. Due to the difference in drinking age (18 in Mexico, 21 in the United States) the Galaxy disco is popular on weekends.
Part of the economy here is catering to the migrants heading north with guesthouses, hotels, restaurants and stores selling jackets and blankets.
Rodolfo Santos is the publisher and editor of the Naco newspaper El Mirador. This newspaper has exposed corruption and abuse at the local orphanage, leading to charges against the director. Prior to that, the newspaper uncovered corruption of the former municipal president, Vicente Torres, forcing state officials to investigate and remove the president from office. However, Santos will not take on organized crime, because doing so would put the newspaper’s families in danger. The newspaper is located at the Santos family home, which also has a shop selling school uniforms. It has been around only since 2006 and is Naco’s first permanent newspaper. While its investigative reporting has earned it a reputation, it remains a community newspaper, publishing local items of interest such as quinceañeras, school news, cultural events and more. However, life for journalists can be hazardous, especially those who report on organized crime. The newspaper is printed in Bisbee, Arizona and distributed free there, Naco, Cananea, Agua Prieta and Rio Sonora.
The Naco area has major problems with the smuggling of drugs and people north and weapons south. It is one of the main routes into the United States, ranking in the top 25 of Mexico’s 100 border municipalities as a haven for drug traffickers.Shootings related to drug trafficking have occurred here such as the street murders of two near the Hotel Cowboy in 2009. Federal troops have been stationed here due to the violence, which has the population divided. While the security they can provide is welcome, there is concern about the violation of human rights.
More visible are the migrants looking to cross the border illegally into the United States. Because the California border is all but sealed since the Border Patrol’s Operation Guardian, many migrants have come to the Arizona border between Agua Prieta and Nogales, with Naco in between. This changed Naco starting from the 1990s as it became one of the preferred routes for “coyotes” (also called polleros or enganchadores) or smugglers who offer to take migrants across.Providing lodging for migrants is a growing business in Naco, where the rate is between 200 and 300 pesos per night per person. Many of these lodgings are filled with people who cannot cross the border. One example is the Hospedaje Santa María, which is a run-down, two-story building.
Until 2008 About 400 people a day were deported back to Mexico between Naco and Agua Prieta and 45% of the deaths of migrants occurred on the Arizona border.Especially on weekends, one can see Mexicans who have been deported here from Arizona on the main road, Francisco I. Madero, heading to the bus station. Some of those who fail to cross or are deported to here stay, working to earn money for another attempt or to go home or live permanently. These workers put a strain on the municipality’s insufficient medical services. An organization from Naco, Arizona, called Naco Wellness, has been working to help deported immigrants with health issues, both on the U.S. side of the border and on the Mexican side, working with Mexican authorities. As for weapons, a recent arrest was of an American woman who was caught in November 2009 smuggling forty one AK-47s in her vehicle.
Since the 1990s, walls have been built along sections of the U.S.-Mexico border, including the area between the two Nacos to slow illegal immigration. The wall here is four meters high and made of steel. It currently extends 7.4 km, but there are plans to extend it another 40 km. Security here was further tightened after 11 September 2001, which led to the closing of many businesses on the Arizona side of the wall. Illegal border crossing surged here after the passage of NAFTA and the successful sealing of the California-Mexico border. The Border Patrol credits the wall and better surveillance technology with cutting the number of captured border crossers near Naco by half in 2006. People on both sides of the wall have mixed feelings about it. Newspaper editor Rodolfo Santos says that if people get close to the wall, the Border Patrol calls the Mexican police. However, the wall is not stopping people from coming here to try to cross. Santos figures about half the town makes a living either by housing migrants or as “coyote” guides.
Heroica Nogales, more commonly known as Nogales, is a city and the county seat of the Municipality of Nogales. It is located on the northern border of the Mexican state of Sonora. The city is abutted on its north by the city of Nogales, Arizona, across the U.S.-Mexico border.
The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Gulf of Mexico in the east. The border traverses a variety of terrains, ranging from urban areas to deserts. The Mexico–US border is the most frequently crossed border in the world, with approximately 350 million documented crossings annually.
Cananea is a municipality in the northern portion of the Mexican state of Sonora, on the U.S. border. Its municipal seat is the city of Cananea, located at.
The Cananea strike, also known as the Cananea riot, or the Cananea massacre, took place in the Mexican mining town of Cananea, Sonora, in June 1906. Although the workers were forced to return to their positions with no demand being met, the action was a key event in the general unrest that emerged during the final years of the regime of President Porfirio Díaz and that prefigured the Mexican Revolution of 1910. In the incident twenty-three people died, on both sides, twenty-two were injured, and more than fifty were arrested.
Federal Highway 17 is a free part of the federal highways corridors of Mexico. The route runs from the Mexico – United States border at Agua Prieta, Sonora south to Moctezuma. The northern terminus of Fed. 17 transitions north into the United States at Douglas, Arizona as U.S. Route 191. The total length of the highway is about 169 km.
The Second Battle of Agua Prieta, 1 November 1915, was fought between the forces of Pancho Villa and those of the future President of Mexico, Plutarco Elías Calles, a supporter of Venustiano Carranza, at Agua Prieta, Sonora, as part of the Mexican Revolution. Villa's attack on the town was repulsed by Calles. The battle helped to establish Carranza's control over Mexico and directly led to his becoming, with United States recognition, president. Villa believed that Calles had received tactical and strategic support from the United States since the town is located across the border from Douglas, Arizona and launched his raid on Columbus, New Mexico partly as a reprisal.
The Border War, or the Border Campaign, refers to the military engagements which took place in the Mexico–United States border region of North America during the Mexican Revolution. The Bandit War in Texas was part of the Border War. From the beginning of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, the United States Army was stationed in force along the border and on several occasions fought with Mexican rebels or federals. The height of the conflict came in 1916 when revolutionary Pancho Villa attacked the American border town of Columbus, New Mexico. In response, the United States Army, under the direction of General John J. Pershing, launched an expedition into northern Mexico, to find and capture Villa. Though the operation was successful in finding and engaging the Villista rebels, and in killing Villa's two top lieutenants, the revolutionary himself escaped and the American army returned to the United States in January 1917. Conflict at the border continued, however, and the United States launched several additional, though smaller operations into Mexican territory until after the American victory in the Battle of Ambos Nogales. Conflict was not only subject to Villistas and Americans; Maderistas, Carrancistas, Constitutionalistas and Germans also engaged in battle with American forces during this period.
This article details the history of Sonora. The Free and Sovereign State of Sonora is one of 31 states that, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is located in Northwest Mexico, bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.
Patrick Murphy was an Irish pilot who mistakenly bombed the border town of Naco, Arizona in April, 1929 during the Escobar Rebellion. Little is known of his personal life, though he may have come from Ardmore, Oklahoma.
Inés Coronel Barreras is a Mexican convicted drug lord and former high-ranking leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, a criminal group based in Sinaloa. He is the father-in-law of Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán, the former leader of the cartel and once considered Mexico's most-wanted man. Coronel Barreras was arrested by Mexican security forces in Agua Prieta, Sonora on 30 April 2013. He was sentenced to 10 years in prison on April 28, 2017 for drug trafficking and illegal possession of firearms.
The Bombing of Naco was an international incident which occurred in the border town of Naco, Arizona, during the 1929 Escobar Rebellion. While rebel forces were battling Mexican 'Federales' for control of the neighboring town of Naco, Sonora, the Irish mercenary and pilot Patrick Murphy was hired to bombard the government forces with improvised explosives dropped from his biplane. During the ensuing fighting, Murphy mistakenly dropped bombs on the American side of the international border on three occasions, causing significant damage to both private and government-owned property, as well slight injuries to several American spectators watching the battle from across the border. The bombing, although unintentional, is noted for being the first aerial bombardment of the continental United States by a foreign power in history.
"The Bombing of Naco" is a folk song written by Dolan Ellis, the official State Balladeer of Arizona, about the 1929 bombing of Naco by the Irish mercenary Patrick Murphy. It can be found on Ellis' album Tall Tales, Lost Trails & Heroes.
The Escobar Rebellion was a conflict in northern Mexico in 1929 during the Maximato, between the government forces of President Emilio Portes Gil and rebel forces under the command of General José Gonzalo Escobar. After some initial success in taking over several key cities in the northern half of the country, the Escobar rebels were decisively defeated in a major battle at Jiménez, Chihuahua, and were eventually swept aside by the advancing government forces under the command of General Calles.