Senior lieutenant (Finnish : yliluutnantti, German : Oberleutnant , Russian : старший лейтенант, starshy leytenant Swedish : premiärlöjtnant ) is a military grade between a lieutenant and a captain. Sometimes a senior lieutenant is called a first lieutenant. The rank is equivalent to the NATO grade of OF-1a.
| Kapteeni |
Yliluutnantti (premiärlöjtnant in Swedish) is a Finnish military rank above luutnantti ( löjtnant ) and below kapteeni ( kapten ), equivalent to a senior lieutenant. It is used in the Finnish Defence Forces (army, navy and air force) and the Finnish Border Guard.
The prescribed duty is a company vice-commander. Officers who have graduated as Bachelors of Military Science from the National Defence College with the rank of luutnantti usually re-enter the college after four years' tour of duty. After a study of two additional years, they are promoted yliluutnantti and return to more challenging duties. Yliluutnantti is also the highest rank available to those educated in the now-decommissioned school Maanpuolustusopisto (comparable to a military junior college). The rank of yliluutnantti may be placed in the NATO rank class OF-1, although it is not a part of the NATO system.
The Army of the Finnish Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire had a rank of alikapteeni, similar in use as Prussian and Russian Stabskapitän . The rank of yliluutnantti came to Finland from Germany with Finnish Jäger troops in 1918, but General Mannerheim considered it too German and encouraged holders of the rank to use more the general rank of lieutenant instead. In some regiments officers with rank of yliluutnantti were considered to have been promoted to captain, and the rank fell in disuse until 1952 when it was taken into regular use, and ever since it has been in use in all three branches; air force, navy and the army.
Prior to the Second World War, graduates of the Defence College served with the rank of luutnantti. The rank of yliluutnantti was established in 1952, when it was felt that cadets graduating from the Defence College would be denied promotion avenues due to the large number of field-promoted company-grade officers in active service. As most of such officers held the rank of vänrikki or luutnantti, and were unlikely to advance to field grade (due to their background as NCOs and lack of academic studies), the rank of yliluutnantti circumvented the seniority issue. Due to this revision, reservists who held the wartime rank of luutnantti did not receive a promotion to captain, as would have been expected, but rather to yliluutnantti; promotions were not grandfathered.
A senior lieutenant is known as an Oberleutnant in Austria, Germany and Switzerland.
In the Hellenic Army, the rank of prothypolochagos (Greek : πρωθυπολοχαγός, lit. ' first lieutenant ') was briefly in use between 1829–1833.
| Senior lieutenant|
in the Russian Army
|Rank insignia||Armed Forces of the Russian Federation|
|Introduction||1939 to the Soviet Army|
|Army / air force||Senior lieutenant|
Senior lieutenant (Russian : старший лейтенант, starshy leytenant) is used in the army, air force or navy of Russia and the former USSR.
In the Russian Empire senior lieutenant first appeared in the Table of Ranks (1909–1911) exclusively as naval rank IX class, and from 1912 as VIII class. Corresponding ranks were captain in the infantry, Rotmister (derived from the German Rittmeister ) in the cavalry, and yesaul in the cossacks corps. In the civil administration it was almost equivalent to the "council assessor" (Russian коллежский асессор; kolleshsky assessor).
As result of the October Revolution this rank was abolished along with all other Russian ranks and rank insignia. It was reintroduced to the armed forces of the Soviet Union by disposal of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union and the Council of People's Commissars in 1935.A senior lieutenant was junior to a captain or captain-lieutenant and senior to a lieutenant.
The Russian Federation inherited the rank structure of the armed forces of the Soviet Union.
If military personnel serve in a guards formation, or on a guards warship, the word "guards" is placed before the rank (e.g. "guards senior lieutenant"). For civilian or military personnel with a specific level of expertise or knowledge in the medical or judicial professions, the words "medical" or "legal" are placed before the rank (e.g. "legal senior lieutenant"). The word "retired" is added after the rank for retired officers. Police, internal troops and tax office personnel have their branch added after the rank (e.g. "senior lieutenant of police")
Some examples of rank insignia (shoulder, collar, and sleeve), used by Russia and the USSR, are shown below:
|Austria||Oberleutnant||Fregattenleutnant (Austro-Hungarian Navy)|
|Belarus||Старший лейтенант (Russian); старшы лейтэнант (Belarusian)|
|Bulgaria||Старши лейтенант (starshy leytenant)|
|Germany||Oberleutnant||Oberleutnant zur See|
|Russia||Старший лейтенант (starshy leytenant)|
|Ukraine||Старший лейтенант (starshy leytenant)|
|USA||First lieutenant||Lieutenant, j.g.|
A lieutenant is the second junior-most or in some cases the junior-most commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police, and other organizations of many nations.
Lieutenant general or lieutenant-general is a three-star military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a captain general.
Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1a rank.
Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank. Commander is also used as a rank or title in other formal organisations, including several police forces. In several countries this naval rank is termed Frigate Captain.
An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, or to a member of a royal family or a head of state.
First lieutenant is a commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces; in some forces, it is an appointment.
Modern Russian military ranks trace their roots to Table of Ranks established by Peter the Great. Most of the rank names were borrowed from existing German/Prussian, French, English, Dutch, and Polish ranks upon the formation of Russian regular army in the late 17th century.
Leading seaman is a junior non-commissioned rank or rate in navies, particularly those of the Commonwealth. When it is used by NATO nations, leading seaman has the rank code of OR-4. It is often equivalent to the army and air force rank of corporal and some navies use corporal rather than leading seaman.
Captain lieutenant or captain-lieutenant is a military rank, used in a number of navies worldwide and formerly in the British Army. It is generally equivalent to the Commonwealth or US naval rank of lieutenant, and has the NATO rank code of OF-2, though this can vary.
Finnish military ranks form a system that incorporates features from Swedish, German, and Russian armed forces. In addition, the system has some typically Finnish characteristics that are mostly due to the personnel structure of the Finnish Defence Forces. The ranks have official names in Finnish and Swedish languages and official English translations. The Swedish forms are used in all Swedish-languages communications in Finland, e.g. in Swedish-speaking units of Finnish Defence Force. The system of ranks in the Swedish Armed Forces is slightly different.
Podpolkovnik is a military rank in Slavic countries which corresponds to the lieutenant colonel in the English-speaking states and military.
The military ranks of the Soviet Union were those introduced after the October Revolution of 1917. At that time the Imperial Russian Table of Ranks was abolished, as were the privileges of the pre-Soviet Russian nobility.
Löjtnant is a Swedish and Finnish military rank (in Finnish, Luutnantti.
Gorget patches are an insignia, paired patches of cloth or metal on the collar (gorget) of the uniform, that is used in the military and civil service in some countries. Collar tabs sign the military rank, the rank of civil service, the military unit, the office (department) or the branch of the armed forces and the arm of service.
Kapitan is used manifold as rank, grade, or rank designation in the Army, Air Force or Navy of numerous countries and armed forces. In member countries of NATO-alliance Kapitan is a commissioned officer rank, rated OF-2 in line to the NATO officers rank system. The almost equivalent OF-2 officer, e.g. in the US Army, is the Captain rank.
The army rank of captain is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is also used by some air forces and marine forces. Today, a captain is typically either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery. In the Chinese People's Liberation Army, a captain may also command a company, or be the second-in-command of a battalion.
Staff captain is the English translation of a number of military ranks:
The ranks and rank insignia of the Red Army and Red Navy between 1940 and 1943 were characterised by continuing reforms to the Soviet armed forces in the period immediately before Operation Barbarossa and the war of national survival following it. The Soviet suspicion of rank and rank badges as a bourgeois institution remained, but the increasing experience of Soviet forces, and the massive increase in manpower all played their part, including the creation of a number of new general officer ranks and the reintroduction of permanent enlisted ranks and ratings.
Starshy michman is in the Navy of the Russian Federation, as well as in number of other countries, the designation to first or highest rank in the Michman career group. The rank is equivalent to Starshy praposhik in Army and Air Force. According to NATO-ranksystem the rank might be comparable to OR-9a in Anglophone armed forces.
Starshy praporshchik (Russian: старший прапорщик; en: senior – or chief praporshchik is the highest rank of the praporshchik career group in modern days Russian Federations’ armed forces. It may still be used in other uniformed services of the Russian government such as the Police. It was introduced to the Soviet Army, January 12, 1981, parallel to Starshy michman of the Soviet Navy.