List of parks and gardens in Rome

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This article gives an incomplete list of parks and gardens in Rome. Public parks and nature reserves cover a large area in Rome, and the city has one of the largest areas of green space amongst European capitals. [1] The most notable part of this green space is represented by the large number of villas and landscaped gardens created by the Italian aristocracy. While many villas were destroyed during the building boom of the late 19th century, a great many remain. The most notable of these are Villa Borghese, Villa Ada, and Villa Doria Pamphili.

Rome Capital of Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Villa Borghese gardens landscape garden in Rome

Villa Borghese is a landscape garden in the naturalistic English manner in Rome, containing a number of buildings, museums and attractions. It is the third largest public park in Rome after the ones of the Villa Doria Pamphili and Villa Ada. The gardens were developed for the Villa Borghese Pinciana, built by the architect Flaminio Ponzio, developing sketches by Scipione Borghese, who used it as a villa suburbana, a party villa, at the edge of Rome, and to house his art collection. The gardens as they are now were remade in the early nineteenth century.

Villa Ada building in Rome, Italy

Villa Ada is a park in Rome, Italy, with a surface of 450 acres (1.8 km2) it is the second largest in the city after Villa Doria Pamphili. It is located in the northeastern part of the city.

Contents

Gardens

Ancient (Roman)

The Auditorium of Maecenas, Esquiline. Esquilino - Auditorium Mecenate 01407.JPG
The Auditorium of Maecenas, Esquiline.

The Lamian Gardens (Latin - Horti Lamiani) were a set of gardens located on the top of the Esquiline Hill in Rome, in the area around the present Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. They were based on the gardens of the consul Aelius Lamia, a friend of Tiberius, and soon (by the time of Caligula) became subsumed into the imperial property.

Esquiline Hill hill

The Esquiline Hill is one of the Seven Hills of Rome. Its southern-most cusp is the Oppius.

Lucius Aelius Lamia was the son of Lucius Aelius Lamia, a loyal partisan of Cicero who was made praetor in 43 BCE and died before completing his term. He was consul in the year 3 CE and afterwards served as governor of Germania, Pannonia and Africa. In 22 CE he was appointed imperial legate to Syria by Tiberius but was detained in Rome and never traveled to Syria in person. In the last year of his life, 33 CE, he served as praefectus urbi.

Tiberius Second Emperor of Ancient Rome

Tiberius was the second Roman emperor, reigning from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding Augustus.

The Horti Liciniani [2] were a set of gardens in ancient Rome, which originally belonged to the gens Licinia . In the third century A.D. they were the property of the Emperor Gallienus, [3] himself a member of that gens . The gardens were probably on the Esquiline Hill, at the top of which Gallienus erected a colossal statue of himself [4] The 4th-century domed nymphaeum that survives, long miscalled a "Temple of Minerva Medica", seems to have been part of the gardens.

Horti Liciniani set of gardens in ancient Rome

The Horti Liciniani were a set of gardens in ancient Rome originally belonging to the gens Licinia. In the third century, these were owned by the Emperor Gallienus, himself a member of the gens. The gardens were probably on the Esquiline Hill, at the top of which Gallienus erected a colossal statue of himself. The 4th-century domed nymphaeum that survives, long miscalled a "Temple of Minerva Medica", is believed to have been part of the gardens.

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

Licinia (gens) families from Ancient Rome who shared the Licinius nomen

The gens Licinia was a celebrated plebeian family at Rome, which appears from the earliest days of the Republic until imperial times, and which eventually obtained the imperial dignity. The first of the gens to obtain the consulship was Gaius Licinius Calvus Stolo, who, as tribune of the plebs from 376 to 367 BC, prevented the election of any of the annual magistrates, until the patricians acquiesced to the passage of the lex Licinia Sextia, or Licinian Rogations. This law, named for Licinius and his colleague, Lucius Sextius, opened the consulship for the first time to the plebeians. Licinius himself was subsequently elected consul in 364 and 361 BC, and from this time, the Licinii became one of the most illustrious gentes in the Republic.

The nymphaeum once mistakenly identified as the Temple of Minerva Medica Esquilino - tempio di Minerva medica - Horti liciniani 2059.JPG
The nymphaeum once mistakenly identified as the Temple of Minerva Medica

The Gardens of Lucullus (Horti Lucullani) were an ancient patrician villa on the Pincian Hill on the edge of Rome; they were laid out by Lucius Licinius Lucullus about 60 BCE. The Villa Borghese gardens still cover 17 acres (69,000 m²) of green on the site, now in the heart of Rome, above the Spanish Steps.

The Gardens of Lucullus were the setting for an ancient villa on the Pincian Hill on the edge of Rome; they were laid out by Lucius Licinius Lucullus about 60 BCE. The Villa Borghese gardens still cover 17 acres (6.9 ha) of green on the site, now in the heart of Rome, above the Spanish Steps.

Pincian Hill hill in Rome, Italy

The Pincian Hill is a hill in the northeast quadrant of the historical center of Rome. The hill lies to the north of the Quirinal, overlooking the Campus Martius. It was outside the original boundaries of the ancient city of Rome, and was not one of the Seven hills of Rome, but it lies within the wall built by Roman Emperor Aurelian between 270 and 273.

Lucullus ancient roman statesman

Lucius Licinius Lucullus was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla. In the culmination of over twenty years of almost continuous military and government service, he became the conqueror of the eastern kingdoms in the course of the Third Mithridatic War, exhibiting extraordinary generalship in diverse situations, most famously during the Siege of Cyzicus, 73–72 BC, and at the Battle of Tigranocerta in Armenian Arzanene, 69 BC. His command style received unusually favourable attention from ancient military experts, and his campaigns appear to have been studied as examples of skillful generalship.

Gardens of Maecenas , gardens built by the Augustan era patron of the arts Maecenas. He sited them on the Esquiline Hill, atop the Servian agger and its adjoining necropolis, near the gardens of Lamia.

Gardens of Maecenas

The Gardens of Maecenas, built by Gaius Maecenas, an Augustan-era patron of the arts, were the first gardens in the Hellenistic-Persian garden style in Rome. He sited them on the Esquiline Hill, atop the agger of the Servian Wall and its adjoining necropolis, near the gardens of Lamia.

Augustus First emperor of the Roman Empire

Augustus was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first emperor of the Roman Empire, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.

Servian Wall defensive wall

The Servian Wall was an ancient Roman defensive barrier constructed around the city of Rome in the early 4th century BC. The wall was up to 10 m (33 ft) in height in places, 3.6 m (12 ft) wide at its base, 11 km (6.8 mi) long, and is believed to have had 16 main gates. In the 3rd century AD it was superseded by the construction of the larger Aurelian Walls.

The Gardens of Sallust (Latin : Horti Sallustiani) were Roman gardens developed by the Roman historian Sallust in the 1st century BC using his wealth extorted as governor of the province of Africa Nova (newly conquered Numidia). The landscaped pleasure gardens occupied a large area in the northwestern sector of Rome, in what would become Region VI, between the Pincian and Quirinal hills, near the Via Salaria and later Porta Salaria. This rione is now known as Sallustiano.

Gardens of Sallust

The Gardens of Sallust were Roman gardens developed by the Roman historian Sallust in the 1st century BC. The landscaped pleasure gardens occupied a large area in the northeastern sector of Rome, in what would become Region VI, between the Pincian and Quirinal hills, near the Via Salaria and later Porta Salaria. The modern rione is now known as Sallustiano.

Roman gardens

Roman gardens and ornamental horticulture became highly developed under Roman civilization. The Gardens of Lucullus, on the Pincian Hill in Rome, introduced the Persian garden to Europe around 60 BC. It was seen as a place of peace and tranquillity, a refuge from urban life, and a place filled with religious and symbolic meaning. As Roman culture developed and became increasingly influenced by foreign civilizations, the use of gardens expanded.

Sallust Roman historian, politician

Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised as Sallust, was a Roman historian, politician, and novus homo from an Italian plebeian family. Sallust was born at Amiternum in the country of the Sabines and was a popularis, an opponent of the old Roman aristocracy, throughout his career, and later a partisan of Julius Caesar. Sallust is the earliest known Roman historian with surviving works to his name, of which Catiline's War, The Jugurthine War, and the Histories are still extant. Sallust was primarily influenced by the Greek historian Thucydides and amassed great wealth from his governorship of Africa.

The gardens, which were enriched with many additional structures in the four centuries during which they evolved, contained many pavilions, a temple to Venus, a porticus of a thousand paces, and monumental sculptures. Items later found in the gardens include:

The gardens were acquired by Tiberius and maintained for several centuries by the Roman Emperors as a public amenity. The Emperor Nerva died of a fever in a villa in the gardens in AD 98, and they remained an imperial resort until they were sacked in 410 by the Goths under Alaric, who entered the city at the gates of the horti Sallustiani. [5] The gardens were not finally deserted until the sixth century. [6] In the early 17th century Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi, nephew of Pope Gregory XV, purchased the site and constructed the Villa Ludovisi, in the course of which several important Roman sculptures were rediscovered. Much of the area occupied by the gardens was divided into building lots and filled following the break-up of Villa Ludovisi after 1894, as Rome expanded as the capital city of Italy after the unification of Italy. The ancient topography itself has been irrevocably altered with the filling of the valley between the Pincio and Quirinal hills where these horti existed. [7]

The Horti Tauriani (Latin - Taurian gardens) was a large set of gardens in ancient Rome around the residence of Statilius Taurus, eminent character of the 1st century. They were perhaps the cause of his conviction for magic, which allowed Agrippina to confiscate them and add them to the imperial estates. They were then divided into different properties, were partly reunited under Gallienus in the mid 3rd century, but began to split again, in late antiquity being centred round the residence of Vettio Agorio Protested as the Horti Vettiani. From this area come numerous attributable sculptures from the Gardens's different phases : statues of deities, decorative reliefs, two large marble craters and three splendid portraits of Hadrian, Vibia Sabina and Salonina Matidia.

The "Temple of Aesculapius" in the Villa Borghese gardens. 083LaghettoEsculapio.jpg
The "Temple of Aesculapius " in the Villa Borghese gardens.

The nymphaeum called the Temple of Minerva Medica ("Minerva the Doctor") is a 4th-century ruin between the via Labicana and Aurelian Walls and just inside the line of the Anio Vetus. Once part of the Horti Liciniani on the Esquiline Hill, now it faces the modern via Giolitti. It is dodecagonal nymphaeum of opus latericium, whose full dome only collapsed in 1828. Both the interior and exterior walls were once covered with marble. [8] Since the 17th century the nymphaeum has frequently been wrongly identified with the Temple of Minerva Medica mentioned in literary sources, on account of the erroneous impression that the Athena Giustiniani had been found in its ruins. [9]

Other

The Piazza di Siena in the Villa Borghese gardens. Piazza di Siena.jpg
The Piazza di Siena in the Villa Borghese gardens.
An isle in Villa Ada's lake. Villa Ada - isola (1).JPG
An isle in Villa Ada's lake.

Villa Ada is the largest park in Rome, Italy (450 acres/182 hectares). [10] It is located in the northeastern part of the city. Its highest prominence is Monte Antenne, [11] 67 m (220 ft), an ancient archeological site.

Villa Borghese gardens are a large [12] landscape garden designed in the naturalistic English manner in Rome, containing a number of buildings, museums (see Galleria Borghese) and attractions. It is the second largest public park in Rome (80 hectares or 148 acres) after that of the Villa Doria Pamphili. The gardens were developed for the Villa Borghese Pinciana ("Borghese villa on the Pincian Hill"), built by the architect Flaminio Ponzio, developing sketches by Scipione Borghese, who used it as a villa suburbana, a party villa, at the edge of Rome, and to house his art collection. The gardens as they are now were remade in the early nineteenth century.

The Villa Doria Pamphili is a seventeenth century villa with what is today the largest landscaped public park in Rome and enjoyed as a place of leisure by the inhabitants of Rome. It is located on the Gianicolo or the Roman Janiculum, just outside the Porta San Pancrazio in the ancient walls of Rome where the ancient road of the Via Aurelia commences. It began as a villa for the Pamphili [13] family and when the line died out in the eighteenth century, it passed to Prince Giovanni Andrea IV Doria from which time it has been known as the Villa Doria Pamphili

Villa Torlonia is a villa in Rome, Italy, belonging to the Torlonia family. It is entered from via Nomentana. It was designed by the neo-Classic architect Giuseppe Valadier. Construction began in 1806 for the banker Giovanni Torlonia and finished by his son Alessandro. Disused for a time, Mussolini rented it from the Torlonia for one lira a year to use as his state residence from the 1920s onwards. It was abandoned after 1945, and allowed to decay in the following decades, but recent restoration work has allowed it to be opened to the public. Part of the Torlonia family collection of classical sculpture is now housed at the villa.

Parks

The Parco degli Acquedotti. Via Appia - acquedotti 1010310.JPG
The Parco degli Acquedotti.

The Parco degli Acquedotti is a public park in Rome, Italy. It is part of the Appian Way Regional Park and is of approximately 240 ha. The park is named after the aqueducts, crossed on one side by the Aqua Felix and containing part of the Aqua Claudia and the remains of Villa delle Vignacce to the South East. The park is served by the subway stations Lucio Sestio and Giulio Agricola (line A).

The Tor Fiscale park in Rome is located between the 3rd and 4th miles of the Roman Via Latina. It takes its name from a 13th Century watchtower that at one time belonged to the Papal Treasurer. The area of the park was crossed by six Roman aqueducts and one from the Middle Ages.

The Park of the Caffarella is a large park in Rome, Italy, protected from development. The Caffarella Valley (now the park) is bordered on its northern side by the Via Latina and on its southern by the Appian Way, and extending lengthways from Aurelian's Wall up to via dell'Almone. It is protected for its archaeological (for instance the Nymphaeum of Egeria) and ecological value. Some of the park is farmland.

The Pineto Regional Park is a protected natural area of Lazio, Italy, instituted in 1987. It has an area of approximately 240 hectares, which includes Pineta Sacchetti. The park is in the northwest area of the city of Rome, in Municipio XIX, shared between the districts of Aurelio  [ it ], Primavalle, and Trionfale.

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References

  1. "Green Areas". RomaPerKyoto.org. Archived from the original on 4 February 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
  2. M. Cima, "Gli Horti Liciniani: una residenza imperiale nella tarda antichità", in Horti Romani, Atti del Convegno Internazionale Roma, 4-6 maggio 1995, E. LaRocca, ed. (Rome), 1998.
  3. Historia Augusta, "Gallienus", 17.
  4. in summo Esquiliarum monteibid, 18. The Palatium Licinianum stood near the site of the church of Santa Balbina; an arcus Gallieni stood at the Esquiline gate (porta Esquilina) LacusCurtius.com: Horti, with bibliography
  5. Procopius.
  6. Miranda Marvin, "The Ludovisi Barbarians: The Grand Manner" Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. Supplementary Volumes, 1, The Ancient Art of Emulation"(2002:205-223) p. 205 and note 9.
  7. Hartswick 2003.
  8. Durm, figs. 306‑308, 313, 339; Choisy, pl. X. i. pp82‑84; Sangallo, Barb. 12; Giovannoni in Ann. d. Società d. Ingegneri, 1904, 165‑201; LS III.158‑161; JRS 1919, 176, 182; RA 182‑188; cf. HJ 360, n44, for references to other illustrations and plans)
  9. HJ 360; LS III.158‑161
  10. "Villa Ada". Romecentral.com. Archived from the original on 15 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
  11. Antenne means before the river in Latin (Rome Central)
  12. The gardens cover eighty hectares.
  13. some times spelt Pamphilj; the family favor the orthography of the long ‘i’