City of Longview
Location of Longview, Washington
|Incorporated||February 14, 1924|
|• City Manager||Kurt Sacha|
|• Mayor||MaryAlice Wallis|
|• City||15.33 sq mi (39.71 km2)|
|• Land||14.79 sq mi (38.30 km2)|
|• Water||0.54 sq mi (1.41 km2)|
|Elevation||20 ft (6 m)|
|• Density||2,577.40/sq mi (995.16/km2)|
|• Metro||108,987 (US: 341st)|
|Time zone||UTC-8 (PST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-7 (PDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||1506304|
Longview is a city in Cowlitz County, Washington, United States. It is the principal city of the Longview, Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Cowlitz County. Longview's population was 36,648 at the time of the 2010 census, making it the largest city in Cowlitz County. The city is located in southwestern Washington, at the junction of the Cowlitz and Columbia rivers. Longview shares a border with Kelso to the east, which is the county seat.
The Cowlitz Indian Tribe, a federally recognized tribe of Cowlitz people, is headquartered in Longview.
The Long-Bell Lumber Company, led by Robert A. Long, decided in 1918 to buy a great expanse of timberland in Cowlitz County. A total of 14,000 workers were needed to run the two large mills as well as lumber camps that were planned. The number of workers needed was more than a lumber town, or the nearest town, could provide. Long planned and built a complete city in 1921 that could support a population of up to 50,000 and provide labor for the mills as well as attracting other industries. Several buildings in the city were built from Long's private funds.
Longview was the location of Mount Coffin, an ancestral burial ground for the local indigenous people.
The Longview area was first settled by European-Americans, led by pioneers Harry and Rebecca Jane Huntington, in 1849. The area was named Monticello in honor of Thomas Jefferson's home in Virginia. In 1852 a group assembled in what would be called the "Monticello Convention" to petition Congress for statehood to be called "Columbia". Congress agreed to statehood but as Washington, after President Washington, to avoid confusion with the District of Columbia. A monument to the convention is located near the Longview Civic Center.
The area remained sparsely populated for nearly 60 years, consisting mostly of farmland and wilderness. In 1918, Missouri timber baron Robert A. Long (1850–1934) decided to move his operation out to the west coast, owing to the Long-Bell Lumber Company's dwindling supplies in the south. By 1921, Wesley Vandercook had decided to build a mill near the small town of Kelso, Washington. It was apparent that Kelso, with a population of barely 2,000, would not be able to support the approximately 14,000 men that would be required to run the mill.
The Long-Bell company contracted with George Kessler, a city planner based in St. Louis, to build the city that would support the two mills that were now planned.
Kessler designed a masterpiece based on the nation's capital, with elements of Roman City planning. Its theme is rooted in the City Beautiful movement, which influenced urban design in the early 20th century. Longview was officially incorporated on February 14, 1924. At the time of its conception, Longview was the only planned city of its magnitude to have ever been conceived of and built entirely with private funds. A number of prominent buildings in Longview were purchased with R. A. Long's personal funds, including R. A. Long High School, the Longview Public Library, the YMCA building and the Monticello Hotel.
The initial growth period, lasting from 1923 to 1934, was very rapid. The city grew from a few thousand people to being the fourth largest city in the state by the 1930s. However, the effects of the Great Depression hampered further development of the planned city until the booming World War II economy, when the Port of Longview became a strategic location for loading cargo going into the Pacific Theater.
Suburban developments created neighborhoods in the western valley in the 1960s. The local economy has been in decline since environmental policies took effect in the 1970s and 1980s, causing the decline of the community. No major development occurred until a brief boom in the early 2000s, ended by the recession of the late 2000s.
Recently, an initiative from local activists has pushed to implement a new strategic plan to increase development in the city, in an effort to expand affordable housing.
Longview has many historic and beautiful buildings, most of which were built in the initial growth period from 1923–1934, prior to the worst effects of the Great Depression. Ranging from Georgian-revival style with the major public buildings, Tudor and craftsman style homes, commercial vernacular, and Art Deco, there are many contributing properties. A park, a bridge, and many buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, along with the Civic Center, that is a National Register Historic District.
The city has seven council members with one serving as the mayor as well as a city manager.The city council elects a mayor out of themselves every two years. The mayor runs the council meetings, and serves as the ceremonial figure head of the city. Day-to-day operations are conducted by the City Manager, who is hired by the city council.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.79 square miles (38.31 km2), of which 14.49 square miles (37.53 km2) is land and 0.30 square miles (0.78 km2) is water.
The Lewis and Clark Bridge spans the Columbia River, linking Longview to Rainier, Oregon. It is the only bridge spanning the river between Portland and Astoria, Oregon.
Longview is located in a small gorge, so its climate varies from that of its close neighbor, Portland. Longview is generally about 7 °F (4 °C) cooler than Portland. Located about 80 miles (130 km) inland across a stretch of relatively flat ground, the Longview skies can be overcast due to moisture from the Pacific Coast marine layer. The Columbia River gorge permits an exchange of air between eastern and western Washington. The direction and speed of air movement through the gorge is determined primarily by the pressure gradient between the eastern and western slopes of the mountains. Due to the gorge-like effect, marine pushes on summer evenings can frequently reach gusts up to 30 to 40 miles per hour (48 to 64 km/h) There have been gusts of up to 90 to 100 miles per hour (140 to 160 km/h), and over 100 miles per hour (160 km/h) at higher elevations.
Fall is usually cooler but foggy; on some days the fog never clears. By early-to-mid November, rainfall begins in typical Northwest fashion. Winter tends to be chilly and rainy, with occasional violent windstorms or spates of unusually warm—65 to 70 °F (18 to 21 °C)—temperatures. This is due to extremely warm air coming from the Pineapple Express which can drop 3 to 6 inches (76 to 152 mm) of rain in a matter of days. Each year there are one or two snowfalls, typically less than 6 inches (15 cm) but up to 1 metre (3 ft) in the surrounding foothills. Spring is warmer, but still a little wet; this is the most common time for the occasional thunderstorms.
|Climate data for Longview|
|Record high °F (°C)||65|
|Average high °F (°C)||45.3|
|Average low °F (°C)||33.1|
|Record low °F (°C)||−6|
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||6.28|
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||3.2|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 inch)||21||18||20||17||13||11||5||6||9||15||20||22||177|
|U.S. Decennial Census |
As of the census 2,529.2 inhabitants per square mile (976.5/km2). There were 16,380 housing units at an average density of 1,130.4 per square mile (436.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 86.0% White, 0.9% African American, 1.7% Native American, 2.2% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 4.7% from other races, and 4.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.7% of the population.of 2010, there were 36,648 people, 15,281 households, and 9,086 families residing in the city. The population density was
There were 15,281 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, and 40.5% were non-families. 33.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.94.
The median age in the city was 39.6 years. 23.2% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.2% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 23.6% were from 25 to 44; 26.2% were from 45 to 64; and 17.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.1% male and 51.9% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 34,660 people, 14,066 households, and 8,931 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,530.0 people per square mile (976.8/km²). There were 15,225 housing units at an average density of 1,111.4 per square mile (429.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 89.35% White, 0.72% African American, 1.76% Native American, 2.17% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 2.96% from other races, and 2.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.82% of the population. 17.3% were of German, 11.2% English, 10.3% United States or American, 8.5% Irish and 7.3% Norwegian ancestry. 92.4% spoke English and 4.9% Spanish as their first language.
There were 14,066 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.5% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.96.
In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 26.0% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $35,171, and the median income for a family was $43,869. Males had a median income of $38,972 versus $26,625 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,559. About 12.3% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.0% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over.
Manufacturing in Longview accounts for 19% of the employment and easy access to the Columbia River, Interstate 5, and the west coast railways has attracted a rapidly diversifying manufacturing base. The abundance of timber around Longview provides the city's former two largest employers, Weyerhaeuser and Kapstone with timber products. Other major manufacturers in Longview include NORPAC (newsprint), Solvay Chemicals (hydrogen peroxide), and Westlake Chemical (formerly Axiall).Smaller operations include Epson Toyocom, Northwest Hardwoods, Interfor (originally Caffall Brothers, then Stimpson lumber, now Interfor US Inc), Peterson Manufacturing, JM Huber, Specialty Minerals, HASA and the Simpson Timber Company.
The Port of Longview, established in 1921, has eight marine terminals handling a wide range of cargo from windmills, pencil pitch, calcined coke, pulp bales, lumber, grain, logs and steel. The Port is 66 miles (106 km) from the Pacific Ocean.
The Cowlitz Black Bears baseball team call Longview and Kelso home. The Black Bears play in the West Coast League, an independent summer baseball league with teams from Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia. The team plays at David Story Field on the Lower Columbia College campus.
Longview has a variety of parks and recreation facilities. Longview Parks and Recreationmaintains the local parks, including the popular Lake Sacajawea. Dozens of other parks exist within city limits with walking trails, sport fields, dog-friendly areas, children's play areas, and other features. Both Longview and its neighbor city, Kelso, are home to skateparks. Two athletic clubs exist, including the YMCA and Mint Valley Racquet and Fitness. Golf is also a popular sport in the local area, with the Longview Country Club, Mint Valley, among others. The Longview parks and Recreation also works with youths of all ages with programs such as the elementary and middle schools after-school programs, The Boulevard for youths of grades 6–12, Youth and Family link, etc.
Longview is served by Longview Public Schools, which operates eight public elementary schools (Columbia Heights, Columbia Valley Gardens, Kessler, Mint Valley, Northlake, Olympic, Robert Gray, and Saint Helens), three public middle schools (Cascade, Monticello, and Mount Solo), and two public high schools (R. A. Long and Mark Morris).
Longview is also served by two religious based schools. The St. Rose Catholic school serves kindergarten through eighth grade. Three Rivers Christian School currently operates under two campuses: one at Northlake Baptist serving preschool through sixth grade, and one at New Life Fellowship which serves seventh through twelfth grades.
Lower Columbia College (LCC), based in Longview, was established in 1934.
Longview is on the I-5 Corridor and is served by State Route 4 and State Route 432, which connect it to nearby Kelso and Wahkiakum County. State Route 433 connects Longview to Rainier, OR over the Lewis and Clark Bridge.
The city is also served by RiverCities Transit, a local bus system that travels between Kelso and Longview.
Longview is right down the highway from Castle Rock, which is a gateway to the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument, and tourism is playing an increasingly important role in the area's economy.
Every Independence Day, Longview hosts the Go Fourth Fest at Lake Sacajawea. Over 30,000 people flock to the lake for vendor booths, live concerts, exhibits, the annual parade starting downtown and ending at the park, and the fireworks display on the night of the fourth.
Longview is home to the famous Nutty Narrows Bridge built in 1963 by Amos Peters. For many years, it was the only bridge in the world designed and built strictly for squirrels. The bridge was built in 1963 and its purpose was to avoid squirrel casualties on the busy streets beneath.
Longview began a new annual festival, known as Squirrel Fest, in 2011.As part of the festival, a new squirrel bridge has been unveiled each year, and as of 2014, there are now four squirrel bridges in the city.
In 2012, Forbes listed Longview as one of the United States' prettiest cities.
The Green Day song "Longview" from their album Dookie is named after the town.
Longview has one sister city:
Cowlitz County is a county located in the U.S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, its population was 102,410. The county seat is Kelso, and its largest city is Longview. The county was formed in April 1854. Its name derives from the anglicized version of the Cowlitz Indian term, Cow-e-liske, meaning either "river of shifting sands" or "capturing the medicine spirit."
Rainier is a city in Columbia County, Oregon, United States. The city's population was 1,895 at the 2010 census. Rainier is on the south bank of the Columbia River across from Kelso and Longview, Washington.
Grand Saline is a city in Van Zandt County, Texas, United States, located in East Texas. The population is 3,266. Grand Saline is the third largest city in Van Zandt County and is located roughly 75 miles (120 km) east of Dallas and 35 miles (56 km) northwest of Tyler, the two nearest metropolitan areas, and is part of the greater Tyler/Longview area.
Castle Rock is a city in Cowlitz County, Washington, United States. Located between the Willapa Hills and the western base of Mount St. Helens, Castle Rock is at the heart of Washington timber country in the Pacific temperate rain forest. Castle Rock is part of the Longview, Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 1,982 as of the 2010 census.
Kalama is a city in Cowlitz County, Washington, United States. It is part of the Longview, Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 2,344, according to the 2010 census.
Kelso is a city in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Washington and is the county seat of Cowlitz County. At the 2010 census, the population was 11,925. Kelso is part of the Longview, Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 102,410. Kelso shares its long western border with Longview. It is near Mount St. Helens.
Longview Heights is a census-designated place (CDP) in Cowlitz County, Washington, United States. The population was 3,851 at the 2010 Census. The CDP is known locally as Columbia Heights.
West Longview is an unincorporated community, which was formerly categorized as a census-designated place (CDP), in Cowlitz County, Washington. West Longview is located on western border of the city of Longview, Washington. When it was a categorized as a CDP, the population was 2,882 according to the 2000 United States Census.
West Side Highway is a census-designated place (CDP) in Cowlitz County, Washington, named after a state highway running north–south between Longview and Kelso. The CDP includes the communities of Beacon Hill and Lexington. As of the 2010 census, the CDP population was 5,517.
Centralia is a city in Lewis County, Washington, United States. It is located along Interstate 5 near the midpoint between Seattle and Portland, Oregon. The city had a population of 16,336 at the 2010 census. Centralia is twinned with Chehalis, located to the south near the confluence of the Chehalis and Newaukum rivers.
Woodland is a city in Clark and Cowlitz counties in the State of Washington. Most residents live within Cowlitz County, in which the majority of the city lies. It is part of the 'Longview, Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area'. The population was 5,509 at the 2010 census.
The Cowlitz River is a river in the state of Washington in the United States, a tributary of the Columbia River. Its tributaries drain a large region including the slopes of Mount Rainier, Mount Adams, and Mount St. Helens.
The Columbia and Cowlitz Railway, is a short-line railroad owned by Patriot Rail Corporation, and is headquartered in Longview, Washington. The railroad serves an 8.5 miles (13.7 km) route from the Weyerhaeuser Company mill in Longview to the junction just outside the city limits of Kelso. From there, traffic is either switched to the Patriot Woods Railroad, formally known as the Weyerhaeuser Woods Railroad, where it is transported to Weyerhaeuser's Green Mountain Sawmill at Toutle or it is switched to the BNSF/Union Pacific joint main line for movement to either Portland, Oregon, or Seattle, Washington.
Ryderwood is a census-designated place (CDP) in Cowlitz County, Washington, west of the city of Vader. The population was 395 as of the 2010 census.
State Route 432 (SR 432) is a 10.32-mile-long (16.61 km) state highway in the U.S. state of Washington, serving the cities of Longview and Kelso in Cowlitz County. The highway travels east along the Columbia River from an intersection with SR 4 in West Longview through the Port of Longview and the termini of SR 433 and SR 411 in Longview. SR 432 crosses the Cowlitz River on a divided highway and ends at an interchange with Interstate 5 (I-5) in Kelso. SR 432 was established during the 1964 highway renumbering as SR 832, replacing a branch of Primary State Highway 12 (PSH 12) that had been routed through Longview and Kelso since 1937. SR 432 was established in 1968 and originally routed on Nichols Boulevard within Longview and was re-aligned onto its current route in 1991 after the opening of Industrial Way.
The Port of Longview is a deep-water port authority located in Longview, on the Columbia River in southwest Washington, United States. It was established in 1921 by Washington state law, and operates as a unit of local government. The port is overseen by a locally elected, three-member board of commissioners. Each commissioner is elected for a six-year term and is directly responsible to the voters for port operations.
State Route 411 (SR 411) is a 13.48-mile (21.69 km) state highway located in Cowlitz County in the U.S. state of Washington, serving Longview, Kelso, West Side Highway and Castle Rock. The roadway, which parallels the Cowlitz River and Interstate 5 (I-5), begins at an interchange with SR 432 in Longview and travels north past a spur route, under SR 4 and across the Cowlitz River to become concurrent with I-5 Business and end at an interchange with I-5, I-5 Business and SR 504 in Castle Rock. The road first appeared on a map in 1951 and originally signed as Secondary State Highway 12H (SSH 12H) in 1957, SR 411 was established in 1964 and ran from Kelso to Vader. In 1991, the highway was extended south to SR 432 in Longview, the former route becoming SR 411 Spur, and was shortened to I-5 / I-5 Business / SR 504 in Castle Rock.
The Nutty Narrows Bridge is a squirrel bridge in Longview, Washington. It has the title of the "World's Narrowest Bridge" and also the "World's Narrowest Animal Crossing." The Nutty Narrows was named by a local councilwoman after the Tacoma Narrows Bridge.
The Allen Street Bridge was a bridge over the Cowlitz River between Kelso, Washington and Longview, Washington that collapsed on January 3, 1923, killing an estimated 17–35 people.
Chester was a shallow draft steamboat built in 1897 that ran until 1917, mostly on the Cowlitz River in southwestern Washington.