Thoothukudi district

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Thoothukudi
Thoothukudi - Salt Pan at Sunset.jpg
A salt pan
India Tamil Nadu districts Thoothukudi.svg
Area of Thoothukudi District in Tamil Nadu
Coordinates: 8°48′10.8″N78°8′40.2″E / 8.803000°N 78.144500°E / 8.803000; 78.144500 Coordinates: 8°48′10.8″N78°8′40.2″E / 8.803000°N 78.144500°E / 8.803000; 78.144500
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State TamilNadu Logo.svg Tamil Nadu
Established20 October 1986
(34 years ago)
 (1986-10-20)
Founded by M. G. Ramachandran
Headquarters Thoothukudi
Talukas Thoothukudi, Thiruvaikundam, Kovilpatti, Ottapidaram, Ettayapuram, Vilathikulam, Kayathar, Tiruchendur, Sathankulam, Eral
Government
  TypeDistrict Administration
  BodyThoothukudi District Collectorate
   District Collector K. Senthil Raj, I.A.S.
   Superintendent of Police S. Jeyakumar, I.P.S.
Area
  Total4,707 km2 (1,817 sq mi)
Area rank8
Population
 (2011)
  Total1,750,176
  Rank18
  Density372/km2 (960/sq mi)
Languages
  Official Tamil
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
628xxx
Telephone code0461
ISO 3166 code ISO 3166-2:IN-TN
Vehicle registration TN-69, TN-96, TN-92 [1]
Central location: 8°48′N78°8′E / 8.800°N 78.133°E / 8.800; 78.133
Website thoothukudi.nic.in

Thoothukudi District is one of the 38 districts of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. The district was formed by bifurcation of Tirunelveli district on 20 October 1986. Thoothukudi is the capital and the main town of the district. The district is known for pearl cultivation, with an abundance of pearls being found in the seas offshore. It was formerly ruled by one of the oldest kingdoms in India, the Pandyan Dynasty with the port of Korkai through which trade with Rome happened. [2] The archaeological site at Adichanallur holds the remains of the ancient Tamil civilisation.

Contents

Geography

Thoothukudi district is situated in the south-eastern corner of Tamil Nadu. It is bounded by the districts of Virudhunagar on the north, Ramanathapuram on the north-east, Tirunelveli on the west and south-west, Tenkasi on the north-west and Gulf of Mannar on the east and southeast. The total area of the district is 4,621 km2 (1,784 sq mi).

Demographics

Religious census
ReligionPercent(%)
Hindu
78.50%
Christian
16.68%
Muslim
4.61%
Sikh
0.01%
Buddhist
0.02%
Other
0.18%
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901705,534    
1911762,625+0.78%
1921787,166+0.32%
1931840,656+0.66%
1941910,729+0.80%
1951957,735+0.50%
19611,052,970+0.95%
19711,228,295+1.55%
19811,370,289+1.10%
19911,475,872+0.75%
20011,592,769+0.77%
20111,750,176+0.95%
source: [3]

According to 2011 census, Thoothukudi district had a population of 1,750,176 with a sex-ratio of 1,023 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. [4] A total of 183,763 were under the age of six, constituting 93,605 males and 90,158 females. It has a large numbers of Nadars (Tiruchendur, Sathankulam), Appanad Maravars (Kovilpatti, Thiruvaikundam, Ottapidaram, Kayathar), Vellalars (Ettayapuram, Ottapidaram), Nayakars/Naidu (Kovilpatti and Vilathikulam) and Parathars (Thoothukudi and Tiruchendur). Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 19.88% and 0.28% of the population, respectively, mostly in Ottapidaram and Puthiyamputhur. The average literacy of the district was 77.12%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. [4] The district had a total of 462,010 households. There were a total of 748,095 workers, comprising 44,633 cultivators, 161,418 main agricultural labourers, 17,872 in house hold industries, 433,524 other workers, 90,648 marginal workers, 3,882 marginal cultivators, 39,226 marginal agricultural labourers, 4,991 marginal workers in household industries and 42,549 other marginal workers. [5]

Water bodies

There are no large reservoirs in this district so the Papanasam and Manimuthar dams located in the Tirunelveli district in the Thamirabarani River's flow are the main sources of irrigation. Other than the Thamirabarani River, the river Vaipar in Vilathikulam taluk, the river Karumeni which traverses through Sathankulam, and Tiruchendur taluks, Palayakayal are all sources.

Administrative divisions

Thoothukudi District is divided into three revenue divisions and ten taluks. [6] There are forty-one revenue firkas and 480 revenue villages. [7]

Revenue
Divisions
TalukasNumber of
Revenue
Villages
ThoothukudiThoothukudi33
Thiruvaikundam46
KovilpattiKovilpatti33
Ottapidaram63
Ettayapuram56
Vilathikulam89
Kayathar54
TiruchendurTiruchendur36
Sathankulam25
Eral45

The district is divided into twelve revenue blocks for rural and urban development. The twelve revenue blocks are Thoothukudi, Tiruchendur, Udangudi, Sathankulam, Thiruvaikundam, Alwarthirunagari, Karunkulam, Ottapidaram, Kovilpatti, Kayathar, Vilathikulam, and Pudur. The district has one municipal corporation, Thoothukudi, two municipalities, Kayalpattinam and Kovilpatti, nineteen town panchayats, [8] and 403 panchayat villages. [9]

Parliamentary Lok Sabha Constituency

No.Constituency NumberConstituency NameElected RepresentativePolitical PartyReserved for
(SC/ST/None)
136 Thoothukkudi Kanimozhi Karunanidhi DMK None

Tamil Nadu Assembly Constituencies

No.Constituency NumberConstituency NameElected RepresentativePolitical PartyReserved for (SC/ST/None)
1213 Vilathikulam P. Chinnappan AIADMK None
2214 Thoothukkudi P. Geetha Jeevan DMK None
3215 Tiruchendur Anitha R. Radhakrishnan DMK None
4216 Thiruvaikundam S. P. Shanmuganathan AIADMK None
5217 Ottapidaram C. Shunmugaiah DMK SC
6218 Kovilpatti Kadambur C. Raju AIADMK None

Economy

The V. O. Chidambaranar Port Trust contributes majorly to the economy of the district besides providing employment. Thoothukudi hosts industries such as SPIC, Thoothukudi alkaline chemicals, DCW zirconium plant and numerous salt packing companies. Many coal based power plants are at various stages of commissioning. Kovilpatti consists of many small sized industry especially match stick industries.

Agriculture

Paddy is the most cultivated crop in most of the villages like Uzhakkudi, Vallanadu, Aarumugamangalam, Palayakayal, Thiruvaikundam, Sattankulam and Tiruchendur taluks. Cumbu, Cholam, Kuthiraivali and other pulses are raised in the dry tracts of Kovilpatti, Vilathikulam, Nagalapuram Ottapidaram, and Thoothukudi taluks. Cotton is cultivated in Kovilpatti, Ottapidaram and Thoothukudi Taluks. Groundnut cultivation is undertaken in Kovilpatti, Tiruchendur, and Sattankulam taluks. Groundnut cake is being used as manure and cattle feed. Nagalapuram makes its economy to be solely dependent agriculture. Sugarcane and Plantain (Banana) are cultivated on a large scale along the stretch of Uzhakkudi. Banana and Beetel cultivation is more prominent in villages like Aarumugamanagalam and Yeral. Also vegetables like tomato, chillies, brinjal, lady's finger, beans are cultivated in village of Uzhakkudi. Summers are made use to cultivate cotton on a smaller scale. Main business of this area is dry chilly, cholam, cumbu, wood charcoal, etc. With 35% share, the district is the top producer of Cumbu in Tamil Nadu. [10] Palmyrah trees are grown mostly in Tiruchendur, Srivaikundam, Sattankulam and Vilathikulam taluks. Jaggery is produced from palmyrah juice; the production of jaggery is the main occupation of the people of Tiruchendur and Sattankulam taluks. Banana and other vegetables are raised in Srivaikundam and Tiruchendur taluks.

Salt production

The district constitutes 70 percent of the total salt production of Tamil Nadu and 30 per cent of that of India. Tamil Nadu is the second largest producer of Salt in India next to Gujarat.

Transport

National Highway 45B, 7A and State Highways SH-32,33,40,44,75,76,77,93,176 connect to other parts of the State. Government buses connect the district with other parts of state. Thoothukudi and Vanchi Maniyachchi are the major stations of Indian Railways. V. O. Chidambaranar Port Trust in the district was declared as the tenth major seaport in India also provides container services. Thoothukudi Airport is situated at Vaigaikulam and currently has flights to and from Chennai and Bengaluru. Thoothukudi is the one of the cities which is having four ways of transportation (Roadways, Railways, Airways and Seaways).

Spaceport

The Government of India is to set up a new Rocket launch pad near Kulasekaranpattinam in Thoothukudi district. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has begun work on its second Rocket launching pad or Spaceport, which will be Kulasekaranpattinam, Thoothukudi in Tamil Nadu. Like the Sriharikota spaceport in the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Thoothukudi was selected as a spaceport due to its nearness to the equator. "A rocket launch site should be on the east coast and near the equator. And Thoothukudi district satisfies that condition", a former ISRO official stated. [11]

Education

There are numerous educational institutions, colleges, schools providing education. The Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam was established in 1984 – 85 as the third constituent College of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. These include: [12]

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Ettayapuram city in Tamil Nadu, India

Ettayapuram is a panchayat town in Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu, India. It is the birthplace of Tamil poets Mahakavi Bharathiar and Umaru Pulavar. Muthuswami Dikshitar, one of the triad of Carnatic music was patronized in his final years by the ruler of Ettayapuram.

Aruppukkottai Town in Tamil Nadu, India

Aruppukottai is a town and a municipality in Virudhunagar district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Aruppukottai's classical name is "Sengattu Aravakotai". Aruppukottai is about 50 km from Madurai. It is in the middle of Madurai-Tuticorin National Highways NH-45B. The small villages and towns surrounding Aruppukottai are famous for production of jasmine. Aruppukottai is always famous for producing yarn. Sri Ramana Maharishi was born in Tiruchuli near Aruppukottai town. Aruppukottai was part of king Sethupathi of Ramnad. King Sethupathi has Zamin Palace in Palyampatti. Aruppukottai is well known for its high quality educational institutions. As of 2011, the town had a population of 97,722. After Madurai it is the only nearby city to have well built and maintained theaters. The town also hosts two famous temples – Arulmigu Amuthalingeshwarar Temple and Arulmigu Meenakshi Chokkanatha Swamy Temple on Thiruchuzhi Road.

Kanchipuram district District of Tamil Nadu in India

Kancheepuram district is one of the 38 districts of the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The area comprising the present day Kancheepuram district was earlier a part of Chingleput district. The original Chingleput district was split in 1997 into form the present day Kancheepuram and Tiruvallur districts.

Kovilpatti City in Tamil Nadu, India

Kovilpatti is an industrial city and special grade municipality in Thoothukudi District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the second largest town in the district and 12th largest town in Tamil Nadu. The town is spread around an area of 49 square kilometres (19 sq mi) and had a population of 95,097 in 2011 with the urban agglomeration having a population of around 3 lakhs. The Sithirai festival of the Shenbagavalli Poovananathar temple is celebrated annually in mid-April.

Thamirabarani River River in Tamil Nadu, India

The Thamirabarani or Tamraparni or Porunai is a perennial river that originates from the Agastyarkoodam peak of Pothigai hills of the Western Ghats, above Papanasam in the Ambasamudram taluk. It flows through Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi districts of the Tamil Nadu state of southern India into the Gulf of Mannar. It was called the Tamraparni River in the pre-classical period, a name it lent to the island of Sri Lanka. The old Tamil name of the river is Porunai. From the source to sea, the river is about 128 kilometres (80 mi) long and is the only perennial river in Tamil Nadu. This river flows towards north direction initially. However, it changes to east direction later.

Tirunelveli district District of Tamil Nadu in India

Tirunelveli district is one of the 38 districts of Tamil Nadu state in India. It is the largest district in terms of area with Tirunelveli as its headquarters. The district was formed on 1 September 1790 by the British East India Company, and comprised the present Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi, Tenkasi and parts of Virudhunagar and Ramanathapuram district. As of 2011, the undivided district had a population of 3,077,233

Thiruchendur Town in Tamil Nadu, India

Tiruchendur is a panchayat town located in the southern tip of India, in the Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu. It is home to Thiruchendur Murugan Temple, also known as Arulmigu Subramaniaswamy Temple which is a Second of Arupadai veedugal and one of the ancient Hindu temples dedicated to Lord Muruga. Tiruchendur is well-connected by road and rail with the rest of Tamil Nadu and India and the nearest railway station is Tiruchendur railway station. Tiruchendur is just 53 km from Tirunelveli.

Kadambur Town in Tamil Nadu, India

Kadambur is a panchayat town in Kovilpatti taluk of the Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The temples in and around Kadambur portray the authentic Chola art and architecture. There is also another village with the same name Kadambur in the district of Salem under Gangavalli taluk.

Sathankulam Town in Tamil Nadu, India

Sathankulam is a panchayat town in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

V. Pudur Panchayat town in Tamil Nadu, India

V. Pudur is a panchayat town in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Ottapidaram Taluk of Thoothukudi District in Tamil Nadu, India

Ottapidaram is a small town in Thoothukudi district and headquarters of Ottapidaram taluk, the biggest taluk in Tamil Nadu state, India. Ottapidaram is a tourism centre with accessibility to many places in Tamil Nadu. Thoothukudi or Tirunelveli can be easily accessed from anywhere and Ottapidaram is very close to these two places. The great freedom fighter V. O. Chidambaram Pillai called VOC hails from Ottapidaram. VOC is also called as "Kappalottiya Tamizhan" because he launched one of the first shipping companies, Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company which operated ship between Tuticorin and Colombo against the British during the British regime in India.

Panchalankurichi is a small but historic village, 3 km from Ottapidaram and 21 km from Thoothukudi in Thoothukudi district, Tamil Nadu, India. Panchalankurichi was once a Palayam and is best known as the birthplace of Veerapandiya Kattabomman, an 18th-century Palayakarrar ('Polygar'), who opposed the British East India Company governance in the area and its revenue-raising methods.

Pasuvanthanai Village in Tamil Nadu, India

Pasuvanthanai is a panchayat village in Ottapidaram Taluk in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Tirunelveli City being the district headquarters of Tirunelveli District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It has a very extensive transport network. Tirunelveli is a vital tourist destination with lot of religious places, monuments and hill stations. Tirunelveli is also a major junction for transportation around Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi and Kanyakumari Districts.

Thoothukudi is an Industrial City and it has transport connections via road, rail, sea and air. After Chennai, Thoothukudi is only city in Tamil Nadu to have all four means of transport.

Pandavermangalam is a special grade Panchayat in Thoothukudi District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and belongs to Kovilpatti constituency. It is the second largest panchayat in Kovilpatti Taluk and is situated near the south border of Kovilpatti, on the Kovilpatti-Pasuvanthanai Road.

Naduvakurichi Village in Tamil Nadu, India

Naduvakurichi, is a village in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is a small village situated near Sathankulam, Tisaiyanvillai.

Umarikadu town in Tamil Nadu, India

Umarikadu is a village located in the Srivaikundam Taluk Thoothukudi district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Kurumbur railway station is the nearest, while Arumuganeri railway station, Nazareth railway station, Alwar Tirunagri railway station and Tiruchendur railway station are in the vicinity.

South Maranthalai is a Village in Thoothukudi district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Alwarthirunagari block is the nearby panchayat town.

Melaseithalai village in Tamil Nadu, India

Melaseithalai is a village in Ottapidaram taluk of Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, India. The village comes under Vilathikulam and Thoothukudi.

References

  1. Thoothukudi district Archived 12 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Government of Tamil Nadu. State Transport Authority.
  2. Majeed, A. Abdul (1987). "A note on Korkai Excavations". Tamil Civilization. Tamil University, Thanjavur. 5 (1/2): 73–77.
  3. "Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901". Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  4. 1 2 "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  5. "Census Info 2011 Final population totals - Thoothukudi district". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  6. Palanithurai, Ganapathy; Parthiban, T. & Vanishree, Joseph (2007). Empowering Women: Grassroots Experience from Tamil Nadu. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. p.  35. ISBN   978-81-8069-454-7.
  7. "Administration". District Collectorate, Thoothukudi. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012.
  8. "Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu". Thoothukudi.nic.in. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  9. "Reports of National Panchayat Directory: Block Panchayats of Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu". Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011.
  10. Agriculture Archived 9 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine . Government of Tamil Nadu. State Transport Authority.
  11. "Why Thoothukudi was chosen as ISRO's second spaceport". www.thenewsminute.com. Archived from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  12. "Agricultural College & Research Institute, Killikulam". sites.google.com.