Thoothukudi district

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Thoothukudi
District of Tamil Nadu
Anchored Boat in Tuticorin, India.jpg
Anchored Boat in Thoothukudi beach
India Tamil Nadu districts Thoothukudi.svg
Location in Tamil Nadu, India
Coordinates: 8°48′10.8″N78°8′40.2″E / 8.803000°N 78.144500°E / 8.803000; 78.144500 Coordinates: 8°48′10.8″N78°8′40.2″E / 8.803000°N 78.144500°E / 8.803000; 78.144500
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State Tamil Nadu
Established20 October 1986
(33 years ago)
 (1986-10-20)
HeadquartersThoothukudi
Talukas Thoothukudi, Tiruchendur, Ottapidaram, Vilathikulam, Ettayapuram, Kovilpatti, Sathankulam, Tiruvaikuntam, Kayathar
Government
  CollectorShri. Sandeep Nanduri IAS
  Superintendent of PoliceMurali Rambha IPS
Area
  Total4,745 km2 (1,832 sq mi)
Area rank10
Population
 (2011)
  Total1,750,176
  Rank20
  Density369/km2 (960/sq mi)
Languages
  Official Tamil
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
628xxx
Telephone code0461
ISO 3166 code [[ISO 3166-2:IN|]]
Vehicle registration TN-69, TN-96, TN-92 [1]
Central location: 8°48′N78°8′E / 8.800°N 78.133°E / 8.800; 78.133
Website thoothukudi.nic.in

Thoothukudi District, also known as Tuticorin District (Tūttukkuţi Māvaţţam) is a district in Tamil Nadu state in southern India. The district was formed by dividing Tirunelveli district in 1986 and Thoothukudi is the district headquarters. The district is known for pearl cultivation, with an abundance of pearls being found in the seas offshore. It was formerly ruled by one of the oldest kingdoms in India, the Pandyan Dynasty with the port of Korkai through which trade with Rome happened. [2] The archaeological site at Adichanallur holds the remains of the ancient Tamil civilisation. As of 2011, the district had a population of 1,750,176 with a sex-ratio of 1,023 females for every 1,000 males.

Tamil Nadu State in Southern India

Tamil Nadu, is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka.

India Country in South Asia

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Tirunelveli district District in Tamil Nadu, India

Tirunelveli district is a district of Tamil Nadu state in India. It is the largest district in terms of area with Tirunelveli as its headquarters. The district was formed on 1 September 1790 by the British East India Company, and comprised the present Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi, Tenkasi and parts of Virudhunagar and Ramanathapuram district. As of 2011, the undivided district had a population of 3,077,233

Contents

Thoothukudi district is situated in the south-eastern corner of Tamil Nadu. It is bounded on the north by the districts of Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar, and Ramanathapuram, on the east and southeast by the Gulf of Mannar and on the west and southwest by Tirunelveli district. The total area of the district is 4621 km². The district of Thoothukudi was carved out as a separate district on 20 October 1986 as a result of bifurcation of the Tirunelveli district.

Gulf of Mannar gulf of the Indian Ocean between India and Sri Lanka

The Gulf of Mannar is a large shallow bay forming part of the Laccadive Sea in the Indian Ocean. It lies between the west coast of Sri Lanka and the southeastern tip of India, in the Coromandel Coast region. The chain of low islands and reefs known as Ramsethu, also called Adam's Bridge, which includes Mannar Island, separates the Gulf of Mannar from Palk Bay, which lies to the north between Sri Lanka and India. The Malvathu Oya of Sri Lanka and the estuaries of Thamirabarani River and Vaipar River of South India drain into the Gulf. The dugong is found here.

Water bodies

There are no large reservoirs in this district so the Papanasam and Manimuthar dams located in the Tirunelveli district in the Thamirabarani River's flow are the main sources of irrigation. Other than the Thamirabarani River, the river Vaipar in Vilathikulam taluk, the river Karumeni which traverses through Sathankulam, and Tiruchendur taluks, Palayakayal are all sources.

Papanasam Panchayat Town/Sub urban in Tamil Nadu, India

Papanasam is a panchayat town in Thanjavur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Thanjavur and 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from Kumbakonam. The name literally translates to "Destruction of Sins" in the Tamil language. It is the suburban region of business city of Kumbakonam.

Vilathikulam town in Tamil Nadu, India

Vilathikulam is a selection grade panchayat town in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is a small town near the southern tip of mainland India.

Sathankulam Town in Tamil Nadu, India

Sathankulam is a panchayat town in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Administrative divisions

Thoothukudi District is divided into three revenue divisions and eight talukas. [3] There are forty-one revenue firkas and 480 revenue villages. [4]

Revenue
Divisions
TalukasNumber of
Revenue
Villages
ThoothukudiThoothukudi33
Tiruvaikundam69
KovilpattiKovilpatti33
Ottapidaram63
Ettayapuram56
Vilathikulam89
TiruchendurTiruchendur58
Sathankulam25

The district is divided into twelve revenue blocks for rural and urban development. The twelve revenue blocks are Tuticorin, Thiruchendur, Udangudi, Sathankulam, Srivaikundam, Alwarthirunagari, Karunkulam, Ottapidaram, Kovilpatti, Kayathar, Vilathikulam, and Pudur. The district has one municipal corporation, Thoothukudi, two municipalities, Kayalpattinam and Kovilpatti, nineteen town panchayats, [5] and 403 panchayat villages. [6]

A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. The term can also be used to describe municipally owned corporations.

A town panchayat or panchayat is a small town of approximately 20,000 to 25,000 inhabitants. It is formed under the panchayati raj administrative system. In census data, the abbreviation T.P. is used to indicate a "town panchayat". Tamil Nadu was the first state to introduce the panchayat town as an intermediate step between rural villages and urban local bodies (ULB).

Constituencies

There is one parliamentary constituency for the district, Thoothukudi Constituency, and six assembly constituencies: [4]

Thoothukudi (Lok Sabha constituency) Lok Sabha Constituency in Tamil Nadu

Thoothukudi is a Lok Sabha constituency in Tamil Nadu. Originally Tiruchendur constituency, it was delimited to Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi constituencies during 2009 Lok Sabha election.

Demographics

Religious census
ReligionPercent(%)
Hindu
78.50%
Christian
16.68%
Muslim
4.61%
Sikh
0.01%
Buddhist
0.02%
Other
0.18%
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901705,534    
1911762,625+0.78%
1921787,166+0.32%
1931840,656+0.66%
1941910,729+0.80%
1951957,735+0.50%
19611,052,970+0.95%
19711,228,295+1.55%
19811,370,289+1.10%
19911,475,872+0.75%
20011,592,769+0.77%
20111,750,176+0.95%
source: [7]

According to 2011 census, Thoothukudi district had a population of 1,750,176 with a sex-ratio of 1,023 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. [8] A total of 183,763 were under the age of six, constituting 93,605 males and 90,158 females. It has a large numbers of Nadars (Tiruchendur, Sathankulam), Appanad Maravars(Kovilpatti, Srivaikundam, Ootapidaram, Kayathar), Vellalars(Ettayapuram, Ootapidaram), Nayakars / Naidu (Kovilpatti and Vilathikulam) and Parathars(Tuticorn and Tiruchendur).Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 19.88% and 0.28% of the population respectively Mostly in Ootapidaram and Puthiyamputhur. The average literacy of the district was 77.12%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. [8] The district had a total of 462,010 households. There were a total of 748,095 workers, comprising 44,633 cultivators, 161,418 main agricultural labourers, 17,872 in house hold industries, 433,524 other workers, 90,648 marginal workers, 3,882 marginal cultivators, 39,226 marginal agricultural labourers, 4,991 marginal workers in household industries and 42,549 other marginal workers. [9]

Economy

Tuticorin port contributes majorly to the economy of the district besides providing employment. Tuticorin hosts industries such as SPIC, Sterlite, Tuticorin alkaline chemicals, DCW zirconium plant and numerous salt packing companies. Many coal based power plants are at various stages of commissioning. Kovilpatti consists of many small sized industry especially match stick industries.

Agriculture

Paddy is the most cultivated crop in most of the villages like Uzhakkudi, Vallanadu, Aarumugamangalam, Palayakayal, Srivaikundam, Sattankulam and Tiruchendur taluks. Cumbu, Cholam, Kuthiraivali and other pulses are raised in the dry tracts of Kovilpatti, Vilathikulam, Nagalapuram Ottapidaram, and Thoothukudi taluks. Cotton is cultivated in Kovilpatti, Ottapidaram and Thoothukudi Taluks. Groundnut cultivation is undertaken in Kovilpatti, Tiruchendur, and Sattankulam taluks. Groundnut cake is being used as manure and cattle feed. Nagalapuram makes its economy to be solely dependent agriculture. Sugarcane and Plantain (Banana) are cultivated on a large scale along the stretch of Uzhakkudi. Banana and Beetel cultivation is more prominent in villages like Aarumugamanagalam and Yeral. Also vegetables like tomato, chillies, brinjal, lady’s finger, beans are cultivated in village of Uzhakkudi. Summers are made use to cultivate cotton on a smaller scale. Main business of this area is dry chilly, cholam, cumbu wood charcoal, etc. With 35% share, the district is the top producer of Cumbu in Tamil Nadu. [10] Palmyrah trees are grown mostly in Tiruchendur, Srivaikundam, Sattankulam and Vilathikulam taluks. Jaggery is produced from palmyrah juice; the production of jaggery is the main occupation of the people of Tiruchendur and Sattankulam taluks. Banana and other vegetables are raised in Srivaikundam and Tiruchendur taluks.

Salt production

The district constitutes 70 per cent of the total salt production of Tamil Nadu and 30 per cent of that of India. Tamil Nadu is the second largest producer of Salt in India next to Gujarat.

Transport

National Highway 45B, 7A and State Highways SH-32,33,40,44,75,76,77,93,176 connect to other parts of the State. Government buses connect the district with other parts of state. Vanchimaniyachi and Tuticorin station are major stations of Indian railway. The Port of Tuticorin provides container services. Tuticorin Airport is situated near Vaigaikulam and currently has flights from Chennai,Bengaluru Tuticorin is the one of the cities which is having four ways of transportation (Road ways, Airways, Seaways and Railways).

Education

There are numerous educational institutions, colleges, schools providing education. The Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam was established in 1984 – 85 as the third constituent College of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.

Murugan Temple, Thiruchendur, Thoothukudi Tiruchendure2.jpg
Murugan Temple, Thiruchendur, Thoothukudi

Tourism

Apart from being a commercial Center, this is an exotic tourist attraction for its sunny and pristine sandy beaches. Sea sports like surfing and paragliding facilities are also available. There are a lot religious and historically important places around Tuticorin. The district headquarter is well connected by road, rail, air and sea. People of the district hope to generate significant revenue from developing tourism sector.

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Ettayapuram city in Tamil Nadu, India

Ettayapuram is a panchayat town in Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu, India. It is the birthplace of Tamil poets Mahakavi Bharathiar and Umaru Pulavar. Muthuswami Dikshitar, one of the triad of Carnatic music was patronized in his final years by the ruler of Ettayapuram.

Kovilpatti City in Tamil Nadu, India

Kovilpatti is an industrial city and special grade municipality in Thoothukudi District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the second largest town in the district. As of 2011, the population of town was 95,097 The town was around 49 km2. It has urban area around 95.4 km2 and urban area population 1,70,000 as per 2011 census. The Sithirai festival of the Shenbagavalli Poovananathar temple is celebrated annually in mid-April.

Thiruchendur Town in Tamil Nadu, India

Tiruchendur is a panchayat town southern tip of India, in the Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu. It is home to Thiruchendur Murugan Temple, also known as Arulmigu Subramaniaswamy Temple which is a Second Arupadai veedu and one of the ancient Hindu temples dedicated to Lord Muruga.. Tiruchendur is well-connected by road and rail with the rest of Tamil Nadu and India and the nearest railway station is Tiruchendur railway station. Tiruchendur is just 53 km from Tirunelveli.

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Perungulam village in Tamil Nadu, India

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Ottapidaram taluk in Tamil Nadu, India

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Nellai Tamil, also known as Tirunelveli Tamil, is one of the dialects of Tamil which is spoken in the districts of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi as well as over the vast area of south Tamil Nadu which was once ruled by the Pandiya Kings. Nellai Tamil is also known as Thenpaandi Tamil. Thenpaandi Seemai refers to the part of a Pandya kingdom which includes the present day Tirunelveli and Tuticorin Districts.

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S. Alagarsamy Indian politician

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Naduvakurichi Village in Tamil Nadu, India

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Melaseithalai village in Tamil Nadu, India

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References

  1. Thoothukudi district. Government of Tamil Nadu. State Transport Authority.
  2. Majeed, A. Abdul (1987). "A note on Korkai Excavations". Tamil Civilization. Tamil University, Thanjavur. 5 (1/2): 73–77.
  3. Palanithurai, Ganapathy; Parthiban, T. & Vanishree, Joseph (2007). Empowering Women: Grassroots Experience from Tamil Nadu. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. p.  35. ISBN   978-81-8069-454-7.
  4. 1 2 "Administration". District Collectorate, Thoothukudi. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012.
  5. "Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu". Thoothukudi.nic.in. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  6. "Reports of National Panchayat Directory: Block Panchayats of Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu". Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011.
  7. Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  8. 1 2 "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  9. "Census Info 2011 Final population totals - Thoothukudi district". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  10. Agriculture. Government of Tamil Nadu. State Transport Authority.