Tingidae

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Tingidae
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous–Present
HEMI Tingidae Tanybyrsa cumberi.png
Tanybyrsa cumberi
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Heteroptera
Infraorder: Cimicomorpha
Superfamily: Miroidea
Family: Tingidae
Laporte, 1832
Subfamilies

The Tingidae are a family of very small (2–10 mm (0.08–0.39 in)) insects in the order Hemiptera that are commonly referred to as lace bugs. This group is distributed worldwide with about 2,000 described species.

Contents

They are called lace bugs because the pronotum and fore wings of the adult have a delicate and intricate network of divided areas that resemble lace. Their body appearance is flattened dorsoventrally and they can be broadly oval or slender. Often, the head is concealed under the hood-like pronotum.

Lace bugs are usually host-specific and can be very destructive to plants. Most feed on the undersides of leaves by piercing the epidermis and sucking the sap. The then empty cells give the leaves a bronzed or silvery appearance. Each individual usually completes its entire lifecycle on the same plant, if not the same part of the plant. Most species have one to two generations per year, but some species have multiple generations. Most overwinter as adults, but some species overwinter as eggs or nymphs. This group has incomplete metamorphosis in that the immature stages resemble the adults, except that the immatures are smaller and do not have wings. However, wing pads appear in the second and third instars and increase in size as the nymph matures. Depending on the species, lace bugs have four or five instars. Lace bugs sometimes fall out of trees, land on people, and bite, which, although painful, is a minor nuisance. No medical treatment is necessary. [1] There are reports in Europe, e.g., Italy, [2] France [3] and Romania, [4] of Corythucha ciliata biting humans and some people have painful reactions, e.g., dermatosis.

Phylogeny

The phylogenetic relationships of the Miroidea are not well established, with various authors treating the families, and subfamilies, and tribes differently. [5] The phylogeny here follows that of Drake and Ruhoff 1965. [6] Members have been found in the fossil record from the Early Cretaceous onwards, with the oldest being Sinaldocader from the Early Cretaceous Zaza Formation of Buryatia, Russia. [7] [8]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tinginae</span> Subfamily of true bugs

The Tinginae are a subfamily of lace bugs. Three tribes were included in Froeschner's analysis.

<i>Corythucha ciliata</i> Species of true bug

Corythucha ciliata, the sycamore lace bug, is a species of lace bug in the family Tingidae that is associated with sycamore trees.

<i>Gargaphia solani</i> Species of true bug

Gargaphia solani is a subsocial species of lace bug commonly known as the eggplant lace bug. The species was described by Heidemann in 1914 after it aroused attention a year earlier in the United States as an eggplant pest around Norfolk, Virginia. Fink found that the species became an agricultural pest when eggplant is planted on a large scale.

Leptoypha is a genus of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. There are about 17 described species in Leptoypha.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tingini</span> Tribe of true bugs

Tingini is a tribe of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. There are at least 250 genera and 2,400 described species in Tingini.

Corythucha juglandis, the walnut lace bug, is a species of lace bug in the family Tingidae. It is found in North America. It feeds on Tilia americana and overwinters in leaf litter. Both adults and nymphs are gregarious.

<i>Acalypta</i> Genus of true bugs

Acalypta is a genus of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. This genus is closely related to Dictyonota, Kalama and Derephysia: in the tribe Tingini.

Hesperotingis is a genus of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. There are about eight described species in Hesperotingis.

Aidoneus is a genus of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. There is at least one described species in Aidoneus, A. dissimilis.

Belenus is a genus of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. There are about nine described species in Belenus.

Bunia is a genus of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. There are about six described species in Bunia.

Eteoneus is a genus of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. There are at least 20 described species in Eteoneus.

Ildefonsus is a genus of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. There are about six described species in Ildefonsus.

<i>Tingis</i> (bug) Genus of true bugs

Tingis is a genus of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. There are at least 130 described species in Tingis.

<i>Corythucha marmorata</i> Species of true bug

Corythucha marmorata, the chrysanthemum lace bug, is a species of lace bug in the family Tingidae. It is found in Central America and North America.

<i>Stephanitis</i> Genus of true bugs

Stephanitis is a genus of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. There are at least 90 described species in Stephanitis.

Corythucha melissae is a species of lace bug in the family Tingidae. It is found in North America.

<i>Minitingis</i> Genus of true bugs

Minitingis is a genus of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. There are at least two described species in Minitingis.

Cantacaderinae is a subfamily of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. There are about 16 genera and at least 90 described species in Cantacaderinae.

<i>Derephysia</i> Genus of true bugs

Derephysia is a genus of lace bugs in the family Tingidae. There are more than 20 described species in Derephysia.

References

  1. "Minute Pirate Bug | Nebraska Extension in Lancaster County".
  2. DUTTO, M.; BERTERO, M. (2013). "Dermatosis caused by Corythuca ciliata (Say, 1932) (Heteroptera, Tingidae). Diagnostic and clinical aspects of an unrecognized pseudoparasitosis". Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene. 54 (1): 57–59. ISSN   1121-2233. PMC   4718364 . PMID   24397008.
  3. Izri, Arezki; Andriantsoanirina, Valérie; Chosidow, Olivier; Durand, Rémy (2015-08-01). "Dermatosis Caused by Blood-Sucking Corythucha Ciliata". JAMA Dermatology. 151 (8): 909–910. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.0577. ISSN   2168-6068. PMID   25970727.
  4. Ciceoi, Roxana; Radulovici, Adriana. "Facultative blood-sucking lace bugs, Corythucha sp., in Romania". researchgate.net. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  5. A. Nel, A. Waller & G. de Ploëg (2004). "The oldest fossil Tingidae from the Lowermost Eocene amber of the Paris Basin (Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha: Tongoidea)" (PDF). Geologica Acta . 2 (1): 37–43. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-09-21.
  6. Drake, C.J. & Ruhoff, F.A., 1965. Lace-bugs of the world: a catalogue. (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Bulletin of the United States National Museum: 243, 1–643.
  7. Golub, V. B.; Popov, Yu. A. (January 2008). "A new species of Tingidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from the Lower Cretaceous of Transbaikalia". Paleontological Journal. 42 (1): 86–89. doi:10.1134/S0031030108010140. ISSN   0031-0301. S2CID   85730288.
  8. Guilbert, Eric; Heiss, Ernst (February 2019). "New lacebugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tingidae) from Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber". Cretaceous Research. 94: 72–79. Bibcode:2019CrRes..94...72G. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.10.024. S2CID   133892457.

Further reading