Cerium(IV) hydroxide

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Cerium(IV) hydroxide
Names
IUPAC name
cerium(4+);tetrahydroxide
Other names
ceric hydroxide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.031.441 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 234-599-7
PubChem CID
UNII
Properties
Ce(OH)4
Appearancebright yellow solid
Related compounds
Other cations
lanthanum hydroxide
praseodymium hydroxide
Related compounds
cerium(III) hydroxide
cerium dioxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Cerium(IV) hydroxide, also known as ceric hydroxide, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ce(OH)4. It is a yellowish powder that is insoluble in water but soluble in concentrated acids. [1]

Production

Cerium(IV) hydroxide can be produced by reacting cerium(III) carbonate and acetic acid, then oxidizing it with hydrogen peroxide in base. The reactions are: [2]

Ce2(CO3)3 + 6 CH3COOH → 2 Ce(CH3COO)3 + 3 CO2↑ + 3 H2O
2 Ce(CH3COO)3 + 3 H2O2 + 4 H2O → 2 Ce(OH)3(OOH) + 6 CH3COOH
CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COONa + H2O
2 Ce(OH)3(OOH) → 2 Ce(OH)4↓ + O2

The net equation is:

Ce2(CO3)3 + 6 CH3COOH + 3 H2O2 + 6 NaOH —343 K→ 2 Ce(OH)4 + 6 CH3COONa + O2↑ + 3 CO2↑ + 5 H2O

If using cerium(III) nitrate as ingredient, a similar reaction occurs: [3]

2 Ce(NO3)3 + 3 H2O2 + 6 NH3·H2O → 2 Ce(OH)3(OOH)↓ + 6 NH4NO3 + 2 H2O
Ce(OH)3(OOH) —Δ→ 2 Ce(OH)4↓ + O2

It might also prepared by addition of sodium hydroxide or ammonium hydroxide to a Ce4+ solution, being obtained as a gelatinous precipitate described as CeO2·xH2O, (x = 0.5–2). Boiling an insoluble Ce4+ salt in NaOH gives granular Ce(OH)4. [1]

Related Research Articles

In chemistry, a salt is a chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of cations and anions. Salts are composed of related numbers of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral. These component ions can be inorganic, such as chloride (Cl), or organic, such as acetate ; and can be monatomic, such as fluoride (F) or polyatomic, such as sulfate.

The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923. The fundamental concept of this theory is that when an acid and a base react with each other, the acid forms its conjugate base, and the base forms its conjugate acid by exchange of a proton (the hydrogen cation, or H+). This theory is a generalization of the Arrhenius theory.

Classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find the elemental composition of inorganic compounds. It is mainly focused on detecting ions in an aqueous solution, therefore materials in other forms may need to be brought to this state before using standard methods. The solution is then treated with various reagents to test for reactions characteristic of certain ions, which may cause color change, precipitation and other visible changes.

Sodium acetate Chemical compound

Sodium acetate, NaCH3COO, also abbreviated NaOAc, is the sodium salt of acetic acid. This colorless deliquescent salt has a wide range of uses.

A salt metathesis reaction, sometimes called a double replacement reaction, double displacement reaction, is a chemical process involving the exchange of bonds between two non-reacting chemical species which results in the creation of products with similar or identical bonding affiliations. This reaction is represented by the general scheme:

Cerium nitrate

Cerium nitrate refers to a family of nitrates of cerium in the three or four oxidation state. Often these compounds contain water, hydroxide, or hydronium ions in addition to cerium and nitrate. Double nitrates of cerium also exist.

Aluminium triacetate, formally named aluminium acetate, is a chemical compound with composition Al(CH
3
CO
2
)
3
. Under standard conditions it appears as a white, water-soluble solid that decomposes on heating at around 200 °C. The triacetate hydrolyses to a mixture of basic hydroxide / acetate salts, and multiple species co-exist in chemical equilibrium, particularly in aqueous solutions of the acetate ion; the name aluminium acetate is commonly used for this mixed system.

Thorium(IV) hydroxide is an inorganic compound with a chemical formula Th(OH)4.

Gadolinium(III) fluoride is an inorganic compound with a chemical formula GdF3.

Praseodymium(III) hydroxide is an inorganic compound with a chemical formula Pr(OH)3.

Neodymium(III) hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Nd(OH)3.

Samarium(III) hydroxide is an inorganic compound with chemical formula Sm(OH)3.

Europium(III) hydroxide is an inorganic compound with a chemical formula Eu(OH)3.

Erbium(III) hydroxide is an inorganic compound with chemical formula Er(OH)3.

Dysprosium(III) hydroxide

Dysprosium(III) hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Dy(OH)3.

Yttrium(III) hydroxide is an inorganic compound and an alkali with the chemical formula Y(OH)3.

Lutetium(III) hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Lu(OH)3.

Thulium(III) hydroxide

Thulium(III) hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Tm(OH)3.

Terbium(III) hydroxide is an inorganic compound with chemical formula Tb(OH)3.

References

  1. 1 2 Perry, Dale L. (2011). Handbook of Inorganic Compounds. CRC Press. p. 104. ISBN   978-1-43-981461-1.
  2. 钟学明,邓安民,舒红英 等. 氢氧化铈合成的新方法. 过程工程学报. 2005.2. 5(1):74-77
  3. 李月红,李树胜,方中心. 高纯氢氧化铈生产工艺研究. 无机盐工业. 2011.9. 43(9): 40-42