Thorium(IV) hydroxide

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Thorium(IV) hydroxide
Names
IUPAC name
Thorium(IV) hydroxide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.034.097 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 237-522-5
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/4H2O.Th/h4*1H2;/q;;;;+4/p-4
    Key: SFKTYEXKZXBQRQ-UHFFFAOYSA-J
  • [OH-].[OH-].[OH-].[OH-].[Th+4]
Properties
Th(OH)4
Molar mass 300.07
Appearancewhite solid [1]
Related compounds
Other anions
thorium dioxide
thorium nitrate
Other cations
cerium(IV) hydroxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Thorium(IV) hydroxide is an inorganic compound with a chemical formula Th(OH)4.

Contents

Production

Thorium(IV) hydroxide can be produced by reacting sodium hydroxide and soluble thorium salts. [1]

Reactions

New thorium(IV) hydroxide is soluble in acid but its solubility will decrease when older. [1]

Thorium(IV) hydroxide will break up at high temperature and produce thorium dioxide:

Th(OH)4 → ThO2 + 2 H2O

At high pressure, thorium(IV) hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide, and produce thorium carbonate hemihydrate. [2]

Related Research Articles

The actinide or actinoid series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium. The actinide series derives its name from the first element in the series, actinium. The informal chemical symbol An is used in general discussions of actinide chemistry to refer to any actinide.

Hydroxide Chemical compound

Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH. It consists of an oxygen and hydrogen atom held together by a single covalent bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually minor constituent of water. It functions as a base, a ligand, a nucleophile, and a catalyst. The hydroxide ion forms salts, some of which dissociate in aqueous solution, liberating solvated hydroxide ions. Sodium hydroxide is a multi-million-ton per annum commodity chemical. The corresponding electrically neutral compound HO is the hydroxyl radical. The corresponding covalently bound group –OH of atoms is the hydroxy group. Hydroxide ion and hydroxy group are nucleophiles and can act as catalysts in organic chemistry.

Sodium hydroxide Chemical compound with formula NaOH

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations Na+
and hydroxide anions OH
.

Base (chemistry) Type of chemical substance

In chemistry, there are three definitions in common use of the word base, known as Arrhenius bases, Brønsted bases, and Lewis bases. All definitions agree that bases are substances which react with acids as originally proposed by G.-F. Rouelle in the mid-18th century.

Limewater Calcium hydroxide solution

Limewater is the common name for a dilute aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, is sparsely soluble at room temperature in water (1.5 g/L at 25 °C). "Pure" (i.e. less than or fully saturated) limewater is clear and colorless, with a slight earthy smell and an astringent/bitter taste. It is basic in nature with a pH of 12.4.

Potassium hydroxide Inorganic compound with the formula KOH

Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.

Magnesium carbonate Chemical compound

Magnesium carbonate, Mg CO3 (archaic name magnesia alba), is an inorganic salt that is a white solid. Several hydrated and basic forms of magnesium carbonate also exist as minerals.

Calcium hydroxide Inorganic compound of formula Ca(OH)2

Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is produced when quicklime (calcium oxide) is mixed or slaked with water. It has many names including hydrated lime, caustic lime, builders' lime, slaked lime, cal, and pickling lime. Calcium hydroxide is used in many applications, including food preparation, where it has been identified as E number E526. Limewater, also called milk of lime, is the common name for a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide.

Lithium hydroxide Chemical compound

Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH.(H2O)n. Both the anhydrous and hydrated forms are white hygroscopic solids. They are soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol. Both are available commercially. While classified as a strong base, lithium hydroxide is the weakest known alkali metal hydroxide.

Barium hydroxide Chemical compound

Barium hydroxide is a chemical compound with the chemical formula Ba(OH)2. The monohydrate (x = 1), known as baryta or baryta-water, is one of the principal compounds of barium. This white granular monohydrate is the usual commercial form.

Classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find the elemental composition of inorganic compounds. It is mainly focused on detecting ions in an aqueous solution, therefore materials in other forms may need to be brought to this state before using standard methods. The solution is then treated with various reagents to test for reactions characteristic of certain ions, which may cause color change, precipitation and other visible changes.

A salt metathesis reaction, sometimes called a double replacement reaction, is a chemical process involving the exchange of bonds between two reacting chemical species which results in the creation of products with similar or identical bonding affiliations. This reaction is represented by the general scheme:

Copper(II) hydroxide Hydroxide of copper

Copper(II) hydroxide is the hydroxide of copper with the chemical formula of Cu(OH)2. It is a pale greenish blue or bluish green solid. Some forms of copper(II) hydroxide are sold as "stabilized" copper(II) hydroxide, although they likely consist of a mixture of copper(II) carbonate and hydroxide. Cupric hydroxide is a strong base, although its low solubility in water makes this hard to observe directly.

Compounds of lead exist with lead in two main oxidation states: +2 and +4. The former is more common. Inorganic lead(IV) compounds are typically strong oxidants or exist only in highly acidic solutions.

Copper(II) carbonate Chemical compound

Copper(II) carbonate or cupric carbonate is a chemical compound with formula CuCO
3
. At ambient temperatures, it is an ionic solid consisting of copper(II) cations Cu2+
and carbonate anions CO2−
3
.

Thorium compounds

Many compounds of thorium are known: this is because thorium and uranium are the most stable and accessible actinides and are the only actinides that can be studied safely and legally in bulk in a normal laboratory. As such, they have the best-known chemistry of the actinides, along with that of plutonium, as the self-heating and radiation from them is not enough to cause radiolysis of chemical bonds as it is for the other actinides. While the later actinides from americium onwards are predominantly trivalent and behave more similarly to the corresponding lanthanides, as one would expect from periodic trends, the early actinides up to plutonium have relativistically destabilised and hence delocalised 5f and 6d electrons that participate in chemistry in a similar way to the early transition metals of group 3 through 8: thus, all their valence electrons can participate in chemical reactions, although this is not common for neptunium and plutonium.

Thorium(IV) nitrate Chemical compound

Thorium(IV) nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula Th(NO3)4. A white solid in its anhydrous form, it can form tetra- and pentahydrates. As a salt of thorium it is weakly radioactive.

Americium(III) hydroxide is a radioactive inorganic compound with the chemical formula Am(OH)3. It consists of one americium atom and three hydroxide groups. It was first discovered in 1944, closely related to the Manhattan Project. However, these results were confidential and were only released to the public in 1945. It was the first isolated sample of americium, and the first americium compound discovered.

Cerium(IV) hydroxide, also known as ceric hydroxide, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ce(OH)4. It is a yellowish powder that is insoluble in water but soluble in concentrated acids.

Yttrium(III) hydroxide is an inorganic compound and an alkali with the chemical formula Y(OH)3.

References

  1. 1 2 3 《无机化合物制备手册》.朱文祥 主编.化学工业出版社. P143. 【III-251】氢氧化钍(thorium hydroxide)
  2. H. Ehrhardt, H. Seidel, H. Schweer (March 1980). "Hochdrucksynthesen einiger Carbonate mit überkritischem CO2". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie (in German). 462 (1): 185–198. doi:10.1002/zaac.19804620121. ISSN   0044-2313 . Retrieved 2019-11-23.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)